Attention and Working Memory: Animal Models for Cognitive Symptoms of Schizophrenia – Studies on D2-Like Receptor Knockout Mice
The ability of humans and other higher vertebrates to implement and orchestrate behavioral strategies that are geared towards defined goals is governed by fundamental cognitive functions of attentional control and working memory that control lower-level sensory, memory, and motor operations for the purpose of achieving these goals. Studies on patients with distinct brain lesions have provided the foundation to delineate a structure–function relationship of such cognitive functions. Moreover, recent advances in brain imaging using positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have added a new dimension to the study of this structure–function relationship, namely the potential of investigating functional interactions among various brain regions in subjects performing defined cognitive tasks. Hence, the last decade of research on higher cognitive functions yielded a wealth of new knowledge about the multiplicity of brain regions that are activated at different stages of information processing.
KeywordsAttentional Control Sustained Attention High Cognitive Function Behavioural Brain Research Compound Discrimination
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Carli, M., Robbins, T. W., Evenden, J. L.,&Everitt, B. J. (1983). Effects of lesions to ascending noradrenergic neurons on performance of a 5-choice serial reaction task in rats; implications for theories of dorsal noradrenergic bundle function based on selective attention and arousal. Behavioural Brain Research, 9, 361–380.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Egan, M. F., Goldberg, T. E., Kolachana, B. S., Callicott, J. H., Mazzanti, C. M., Straub, R. E., et al. (2001). Effect of COMT Val108/158 Met genotype on frontal lobe function and risk for schizophrenia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 98, 6917–6922.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Etchepareborda, M. C.,&Abas-Mas, L. (2005). Working memory in basic learning processes. Reviews of Neurology, 15(Suppl. 1), S79–S83.Google Scholar
- Miyakawa, T., Leiter, L. M., Gerber, D. J., Gainetdinov, R. R., Sotnikova, T. D., Zeng, H., et al. (2003). Conditional calcineurin knockout mice exhibit multiple abnormal behaviors related to schizophrenia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 100, 8987–8992.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Moran, P. M. (1993). Differential effects of scopolamine and mecamylamine on working and reference memory in the rat. Neuroscience Letters, 138, 157–160.Google Scholar
- Raz, A. (2004). Anatomy of attentional networks. The American Record (Part B: New Anat), 281B, 21–26.Google Scholar
- Van Haaren, F., De Bruin, J. P., Heinsbroek, R. P.,&Van de Poll, N. E. (1985). Delayed spatial response alternation: Effects of delayed-interval duration and lesions of the medial prefrontal cortex on response accuracy of male and female Wistar rats. Behavioural Brain Research, 18, 41–49.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar