Kikuchi Diffraction

  • David B. Williams
  • C. Barry Carter


In this chapter and the following two, we will discuss two special cases of electron diffraction. We’ll see that incoherently scattered, divergent beams of electrons give rise to paired arrays of lines in SADPs, known as Kikuchi patterns. In the next two chapters, we will form DPs with a convergent rather than a divergent (or, as in the previous chapter, parallel) beam. These two techniques have a lot in common. In the first, the electrons are initially being scattered by the atoms in the crystal so that they ‘lose all memory of direction’ and may also lose energy.


Scattered Electron Reciprocal Space Stereographic Projection Kikuchi Pattern Kikuchi Line 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

In General

  1. Edington, JW (1976) Practical Electron Microscopy in Materials Science, Van Nostrand-Reinhold New York. Part 2 of the book is still an excellent source of guidance if you are doing hands-on DP acquisition and analysis and the Appendix has great Kikuchi maps.Google Scholar
  2. Schwartz, AJ, Kumar, M and Adams, BL (Eds.) (2000) Electron Backscatter Diffraction in Materials Science, Springer NY. Kikuchi patterns in the SEM: an insight into what could really be done in terms of orientation determination in TEM, if we put our minds to it.Google Scholar
  3. Thomas, G (1978) in Modern Diffraction and Imaging Technique in Materials Science p 399 Eds. S Amelinckx, R Gevers and J Van Landuyt North-Holland Amsterdam. Still the best reference because no one has really done anything of significance with Kikuchi patterns in TEM since Gareth Thomas, 40 years ago (check out the other references below).Google Scholar

Some History and Application

  1. Christenson, KK and Eades, JA 1988 Skew Thoughts on Parallelism Ultramicroscopy 26 113–132. Google Scholar
  2. Dingley, DJ 1984 On-Line Determination of Crystal Orientation and Texture Determination in an SEM. Proc. Royal Microsc. Soc.19 74–75. The idea of texture mapping developed for the SEM can be applied to the TEM. Google Scholar
  3. Dingley, DJ 2004 Progressive Steps in the Development of Electron Backscatter Diffraction and Orientation Imaging Microscopy J. Microsc. 213 214–224. Google Scholar
  4. Johari, O and Thomas, G 1969 The Stereographic Projection and its Applications in Techniques of Metals Research Ed. RF Bunshah Interscience New York. Google Scholar
  5. Kikuchi, S 1928 Diffraction of Cathode Rays by Mica Japan J. Phys. 5 83–96. Google Scholar
  6. Levine, E, Bell, WL and Thomas, G 1966 Further Applications of Kikuchi Diffraction Patterns; Kikuchi Maps Appl. Phys. 37 2141–2148. Google Scholar
  7. Okamoto, PR, Levine, E and Thomas, G 1967 Kikuchi Maps for H.C.P. and B.C.C. crystals J. Appl. Phys. 38 289–296. Google Scholar
  8. Ryder, PL and Pitsch, W 1968 On the Accuracy of Orientation Determination by Selected Area Electron Diffraction Phil. Mag. 18 807–816. Google Scholar
  9. Tan, TY, Bell, WL and Thomas, G 1971 Crystal Thickness Dependence of Kikuchi Line Spacing Phil Mag. 24 417–424. Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The University of Alabama in HuntsvilleHuntsvilleUSA
  2. 2.University of ConnecticutStorrsUSA

Personalised recommendations