Influenza: Biology, Infection, and Control

  • Bryan Roberts

The growth of the human population has profoundly affected the global ecosystem, influencing the animal population balance, the availability of fresh water, arable land, biotic production, and atmospheric gases. The human ecological impact has significantly accelerated the evolutionary change of numerous organisms. For example, the production of human medicine and food has resulted in the rapid evolution of drug-resistant pathogenic organisms as well as plants and insects resistant to pesticides (Palumbi, 2001). Recently, the nutritional support of the human population has relied on the vast monoculture of domestic mammals and birds, which has facilitated the emergence of pathogenic enzootic organisms that infect both animals and humans. This chapter will focus on the global threat to human health represented by the highly contagious enzootic virus influenza. It will also discuss current efforts and future improvements to protect humans from global influenza epidemics and pandemics.


Influenza Virus Avian Influenza Influenza Vaccine H5N1 Virus Avian Influenza Virus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Almond, J. W. (1977). A single gene determines the host range of influenza. Nature, 270, 617–618PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alexander, D.J. (2000). A Review of avian influenza in different bird species. Veterinary Microbiology 74, 3–13PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baigent, S. J., & McCauley, J. W. (2003). Influenza type A in humans, mammals and birds: Determinants of virus host-range and interspecies transmission. BioEssays, 25, 657–671PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Banks, J., Speidel, E. C., McCauley, J. W., & Alexander, D. J. (2000). Phylogenetic analysis of H7 hemagglutinin subtype influenza A viruses. Archives of Virology, 145, 1047–1058PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Banks, J., Speidel, E. C., Moore, E., Plowright, L., Piccirillo, A., Capua, I., Cordioli, P., Fioretti, A., & Alexander, D. J. (2001). Changes in the hemagglutinin and the neuraminidase genes prior to the emergence of highly pathogenic H7N1 avian influenza viruses in Italy. Archives of Virology, 146, 963–973PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barry, J. M. (2004). The Great Influenza. Penguin, HarmondsworthGoogle Scholar
  7. Barry, D. W., Mayner, R. E., Meisler, J. M., & Seligmann Jr., E. B. (1977). Evaluation and control of vaccines for the National Influenza Immunization Program. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 136, S407–S414PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bean, W. J., & Webster, R. G. (1978). Phenotypic properties associated with influenza genome segments. In Negative Strand Viruses and the Host Cell (Mahy, B. W. J., & Barry, R. D., Eds), pp. 685–692. Academic, LondonGoogle Scholar
  9. Black, R. A., Rota, P. A., Gorodkova, N., Klenk, H. D., & Kendal, A. P. (1993). Antibody response of the M2 protein of influenza A virus expressed in insect cells. Journal of General Virology, 74, 143–146PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bright, R. A., Shay, D. K., Shu, B., Cox, N. J., & Klimov, A. I. (2006). Adamatane resistance among Influenza A viruses isolated early during the 2005–2006 influenza season in the United States. JAMA, 295(8), 891–894PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brown, F., Robertson, J. S., Schild, G. C., & Wood, J. M. (1999). Inactivated influenza vaccines prepared in cell culture. Developments in Biological Standardization, 98Google Scholar
  12. Brugha, R., Sterling, M., & Walt, G. (2002). GAVI, the first steps: Lessons for the Global Fund. Lancet, 359, 435–438PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Capua, I., & Alexander, D. J. (2004). Avian influenza: Recent developments. Avian Pathology, 33, 393–404PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Capua, I., & Marangon, S. (2000). The avian influenza epidemic in Italy, 1999–2000: a review. Avian Pathology, 29, 289–294PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chen, H., Smith, G. J. D., Zhang, S. Y., Qin, K., Wang, J., Li, K. S., Webster, R. G., Peiris, J. S. M., & Guan, Y. (2005). H5N1 virus outbreak in migratory waterfowl. Nature, 436, 191–192PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cleaveland, S., Laurenson, M. K., & Taylor, L. H. (2001). Diseases of humans and their domestic mammals: Pathogen characteristics, host range and the risk of emergence. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, 356, 991–999PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Connor, R. J., Kawaoka, Y., Webster, R. G., & Paulson, J. C. (1994). Receptor specificity in human, avian and equine H2 and H3 influenza isolates. Virology, 205, 17–23PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cox, N. J., & Subbarao, K. (2000). Global epidemiology of influenza: Past and present. Annual Reviews of Medicine, 51, 407–421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Daly, J. M., Newton, J. R., & Mumford, J. A. (2004). Current perspectives on control of equine influenza. Veterinary Research, 35, 411–423PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Epstein, S. L., Tumpey, T. M., Misplon, J. A., Lo, C-Y., Cooper, L. A., Subbarao, K., Renshaw, M., Sambhara, S., & Katz, J. M. (2002). DNA vaccine expressing conserved influenza virus proteins protective against H5N1 challenge infection in mice. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 8, 796–801PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Fan, J., Liang, X., Horton, M. S., Perry, H. C., Citron, M. P., Heidecker, G. J., Fu, T-M., Joyce, J., Przysiecki, C. T., Keller, P. M., Garsky, V. M., Ionescu, R., Rippeon, Y., Shi, L., Chastain, M. A., Condra, J. H., Davies, M-E., Liao, J., Emini, E. A., & Shiver, J. W. (2004). Preclinical study of influenza virus A M2 peptide conjugate vaccines in mice, ferrets and rhesus monkeys. Vaccine, 22, 2993–3003PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ferguson, N. M., Cummings, D. A. T., Cauchemez, S., Fraser, C., Riley, S., Meeyai, A., Iamsirithaworn, S., & Burke, D. S. (2005). Strategies for containing an emerging influenza pandemic in Southeast Asia. Nature, 437, 209–214PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Fiers, W., De Filette, M., Birkett, A., Nierynck, S., & Min Jou, W. (2004). A universal influenza A vaccine. Virus Research, 103, 173–176PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Fouchier, R. A. M., Osterhaus, A. D. M. E., & Brown, I. H. (2003). Animal influenza virus surveillance. Vaccine, 21, 1754–1757PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Francis Jr., T., Salk, J. E., & Quilligan, J. J. J. (1947). Experience with vaccination against influenza in the spring of 1947. American Journal of Public Health, 37, 1013–1016PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gambaryan, A. S., Piskarev, V. E., Yamskov, I. A., Sakharov, A. M., Tuzikov, A. B., Bovin, N. V., Nifant’ev, N. E., & Matrosovich, M. N. (1995). Human influenza virus recognition of oligosaccharides. FEBS Letters, 366, 57–60PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Garcia, M., Crawford, J. M., Latimer, J. W., RiveraCruz, E., & Perdue, M. L. (1996). Heterogeneity in the hemagglutinin gene and emergence of the highly pathogenic phenotype among recent H5N2 avian influenza strains in Mexico. Journal of General Virology, 77, 1493–1504PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Garrett, L. (1994). The Coming Plague: Newly Emerging Diseases in a World Out of Balance. Farrar, Strauss and Giroux, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  29. Ghedin, E., Sengamalay, N. A., Shumway, M., Zaborsky, J., Feldblyum, T., Subbu, V., Spiro, D. J., Sitz, J., Koo, H., Bolotov, P., Dernovoy, D., Tatusova, T., Bao, Y., St George, K., Taylor, J. U., Lipman, D. J., Fraser, C. M., Taubenberger, J. K., & Salzberg, S. L. (2005). Large-scale sequencing of human influenza reveals the dynamic nature of viral genome evolution. Nature, 437, 1162–1166PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Glezen, W.P. (1996) Emerging Infections: Pandemic Influenza. Epidemiologic Reviews 18(1), 64–76PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Harvey, R., Martin, A. C. R., Zambon, M., & Barclay, W. S. (2004). Restrictions to the adaptation of influenza A virus H5 hemagglutinin to the human host. Journal of Virology, 78, 502–507PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hayden, F., & Croisier, A. (2005). Transmission of avian influenza viruses to and between humans. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 192, 1311–1314PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Helenius, A. (1992). Unpacking the incoming influenza virus. Cell, 69, 577–578PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hilleman, M. R. (1999). Personal historical chronicle of six decades of basic and applied research in virology, immunology and vaccinology. Immunological Reviews, 170, 7–27PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hinshaw, V. S., Webster, R. G., & Turner, B. (1980). The perpetuation of orthomyxoviruses and paramyxoviruses in Canadian waterfowl, Journal of Microbiology, 26, 622–629Google Scholar
  36. Horimoto, T., & Kawaoka, Y. (2001). Pandemic threat posed by avian influenza A viruses. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 14, 129–149PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Ionescu, R. M., Przysiecki, C. T., Liang, X., Garsky, V. M., Fan, J., Wang, B., Troutman, R., Pippeon, Y, Flanagan, E., Shiver, J., & Shi, L. (2006). Pharmaceutical and immunological evaluation of human papillomavirus viruslike particle as an antigen carrier. Journal of Pharmaceutical Science, 95, 70–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Ito, T., Gorman, O. T., Kawaoka, Y., Bean, W. J., & Webster, R. G. (1991). Evolutionary analysis of the influenza A virus M gene with comparison of the M1 and M2 proteins. Journal of Virology, 65, 5491–5498PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Karasin, A. I., Olsen, C. W., & Anderson, G. A. (2000). Genetic characterization of an H1N2 influenza isolated from a pig in Indiana. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 38, 2453–2456PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Kawaoka, Y., Krauss, S., & Webster, R. G. (1989). Avian to human transmission of the PB1 gene of influenza A viruses in the 1957 and 1968 pandemics. Journal of Virology, 63, 4603–4608PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Koen, J. S. (1919). A practical method for field diagnosis of swine diseases. American Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 14, 468–470Google Scholar
  42. Lamb, R. A., Zebedee, S. L., & Richardson, C. D. (1985). Influenza virus M2 protein is an integral membrane protein expressed on the infected-cell surface. Cell, 40, 627–633PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Le, Q. M., Kiso, M., Someya, K., Sakai, Y., Nguyen, T, H., Nguyen, K. H. L., Dinh Pham, N., Nguyen, H. N., Yamada, S., Muramoto, Y. Horimoto, T., Takada, A., Goto, H. Suzuki, T., Suzuki, Y., & Kawaoka, Y. (2005). Isolation of drug resistant H5N1 virus. Nature, 437, 1108PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Levi, R., & Arnon, R. (1996). Synthetic recombinant influenza vaccine induces efficient long-term immunity and cross strain protection. Vaccine, 14, 85–92PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Liu, W., Peng, Z., Liu, Z., Lu, Y., Ding, J., & Chen, Y-H. (2004). High epitope density in a single recombinant protein molecule of the extracellular domain of influenza A virus M2 protein significantly enhances protective immunity. Vaccine, 23, 366–371PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Longini, I. M., Nizam, A., Xu, S., Ungchusak, K., Hanshaoworakul, W., Cummings, D. A. T., & Halloran, M. E. (2005). Containing pandemic influenza at the source. Science, 309, 1083–1087PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Luk, J., Gross, P., & Thompson, W. W. (2001). Observations on mortality during the 1918 influenza pandemic. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 33, 1375–1378PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Maassab, H. F., & Bryant, M. L. (1999). The development of live attenuated cold adapted influenza virus vaccine for humans. Reviews in Medical Virology, 9, 237–244PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Matrosovitch, M., Tuzikov, A., Bovin, N., Gambaryan, A., Klimov, A., Castrucci, M. R., Donatelli, I., & Kawaoka, Y. (2000). Early alterations of the receptor-binding properties of H1, H2 and H3 avian influenza virus hemagglutinins after their introduction into mammals. Journal of Virology, 74, 8502–8512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. McMichael, A. J. (2004). Environmental and social influences on emerging infectious diseases: Past, present and future. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, 359, 1049–1058PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Mozdzanowska, K., Feng, J. Q., Eid, M., Kragol, G., Cudic, M., Otvos, L., & Gerhard, W. (2003). Induction of Influenza type A virus specific resistance by immunization of mice with a synthetic multiple antigenic peptide vaccine that contains ectodomains of matrix protein 2. Vaccine, 21, 2616–2626PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Murphy, F. A. (1996). Virus taxonomy. In Virology (Fields, B. N., Knipe, D. M. & Howley, P. M., Eds.), pp. 15–57, Lippincott-Raven, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  53. Murray, R. (1969). Production and testing in the USA of influenza virus vaccine made from the Hong Kong variant in 1868–69. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 41, 495–496PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Naeem, K. (1998). The avian influenza outbreak in South Central Asia. In Proceedings of the International Symposium on Avian Influenza American Association of Avian Pathologists. Pennsylvania, Athens, Georgia, USA, pp. 31–35Google Scholar
  55. Nierynck, S., Deroo, T., Saelens, X., Vanlandschoot, P., Min Lou, W., & Fiers, W. (1999). A universal influenza A vaccine based on the extracellular domain of the M2 protein. Nature Medicine, 5, 1157–1163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Nobusawa, E., Ishihara, H., Morishita, T., Sato, K., & Nakajima, K. (2000). Change in receptor-binding specificity of recent human influenza A viruses (H3N2): A single amino acid change in hemagglutinin altered its recognition of sialyloligosaccharides. Virology, 278, 587–596PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Obenauer, J. C., Denson, J., Mehta, P. K., Su, X., Mukatira, S., Finkelstein, D. B., Xu, X., Wang, J., Ma, J., Fan, Y., Rakestraw, K. M., Webster, R. G., Hoffman, E., Krauss, S., Zheng, J., Zhang, Z., & Naeve, C. W. (2006). Large-scale sequence analysis of avian influenza isolates. Science, 311, 1576–1580PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Oxford, J. S., McGeoch, D. J., Schild, G. C., & Beare, A. S. (1978). Analysis of virion RNA segments and polypeptides of influenza A virus recombinants of defined virulence. Nature, 273, 778–779PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. PAHO Meeting. (2005). Avian Influenza and Pandemic Preparedness: The Vaccine Industry Perspective. Washington, DC, 21 November 2005Google Scholar
  60. Palumbi, S.R. (2001). Humans as the world’s greatest evolutionary force. Science. 293, 5536, 1786–1790PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Payne, A. M. (1953). The influenza programme of WHO. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 8, 755–774PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Perdue, M., Crawford, J., Garcia, M., Latimer, J., & Swayne, D. (1998). Occurrence and possible mechanisms of cleavage site insertions in the avian influenza hemagglutinin gene. In Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Avian Influenza. Athens, Georgia, USA, pp. 182–193Google Scholar
  63. Perroncito, E. (1878). Epizoozia tifoide nei gallinacei. Annals of the Academy of Agriculture, 21, 87–93Google Scholar
  64. Petersen, L. R., & Roehrig, J. T. (2001). West Nile Virus: A reemerging global pathogen. Emerging Infectious Disease, 7(4), 611–614CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Potter, C. W. (2001). A history of influenza. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 91, 572–579PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Puzelli, S., Di Trani, L., Fabiani, C., Campitelli, L., De Marco, M. A., Capua, I, Aguilera, J. F., Zambom, M., & Donatelli, I. (2005). Serological analysis of serum samples from humans exposed to avian H7 influenza viruses in Italy between 1999 and 2003. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 192, 1318–1322PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Rappuoli, R., Miller, H. I., & Falkow, S. (2002). The intangible value of vaccines. Science, 297, 937–939PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Reid, A. H., Fanning, T. G., Janczewski, T. A., Lourens, R. M., & Tanbenberger, J. K. (2004). Novel origin of the 1918 pandemic influenza virus nucleoprotein gene. Journal of Virology, 78, 12462–12470PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Roberts, B. E., & Lu, Y. (2004). Infectious Diseases in Asia: Implications for Global Health in Aids in Asia (Lu, Y. & Essex, M., Eds), Kluwer/Plenum, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  70. Rogers, G. N., Paulson, J. C., Daniels, R. S., Skehel, J. J., Wilson, I. A., & Wiley, D. C. (1983). Single amino acid substitutions in influenza haemagglutinin change receptor specificity. Nature, 304, 76–78PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Rohm, C., Horimoto, T., Kawaoka, Y., Suss, J., & Webster, R. G. (1995). Do hemagglutinin genes of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses constitute unique phylogenetic lineages? Virology, 209, 664–670PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Rojas, H., Moreira, R., Avalos, P., & Marangon, S. (2002). Avian influenza in poultry in Chile. Veterinary Record, 151, 188PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Scholtissek, C., & Murphy, B. R. (1978). Host range mutants of an influenza A virus. Archives of Virology, 58, 323–333PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Shaw, M. W., Xu, X., Normand, S., Ueki, R. T., Kumimoto, G. Y., Hall, H, Kimov, A., Cox, N. J., & Subbarao, K. (2002). Reappearance and global spread of variants of influenza B/Victoria/2/87 lineage viruses in the 2000–2001 and 2001–2002 seasons. Virology, 303, 1–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Shinya, K., Ebinall, M., Shinya, Y., Ono, M., Kasai, N., & Kawaoka, Y. (2006). Influenza virus receptors in the human airway. Nature, 440, 435–436PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Shope, R. E. (1931). Swine influenza filtration experiments and etiology. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 54, 373–385CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Simonsen, L., Clarke, M. J., Williamson, G. D., Stroup, D. F., Arden, N. H., & Schonberger, L. B. (1997). The impact of influenza epidemics on mortality: Introducing a severity index. American Journal of Public Health, 87, 1944–1950PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Simonsen, L., Clarke, M. J., Schonberger, L. B., et al. (1998). Pandemic versus epidemic influenza mortality: A pattern of changing age distribution. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 178, 53–60PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Slepushkin, V.A., Katz, J.M., Black R.A., Gamble, W.A., Rota, P.A., & Cox, N.J. (1995). Protection of mice against influenza A virus challenge by vaccination with baculovirus-expressed M2 protein. Vaccine 13(15) 1399–1402PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Smith, W., Andrews, C. H., & Laidlaw, P. P. (1933). A virus obtained from influenza patients. Lancet, 2, 66–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Steinhauer, D. A. (1999). Minireview role of hemagglutinin cleavage for the pathogenicity of influenza virus. Virology, 258, 1–20PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Stevens, J., Blixt, O, Tumpey, T. M., Taubenberger, J. K., Paulson, J. C., & Wilson, I. A. (2006). Structure and receptor specificity of the hemagglutinin from an H5N1 influenza virus. Sciencexpress Research article,, 20 March 2006
  83. Sturm-Ramirez, K. M., Hulse-Post, D. J., Govorkova, E. A., Humberd, J., Seiler, P., Puthavathana, P., Buranathai, C., Nguyen, T. D. Chaisingh, A., Long, H. T., Naipospos, T. S. P., Chen, H., Ellis, T. M., Guan, Y., Peiris, J. S. M., & Webster, R. G. (2005). Are ducks contributing to the endemicity of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus in Asia? Journal of Virology, 79, 11269–11279PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Sugrue, R. J., & Hay, A. J. (1991). Structural characteristics of the M2 protein of influenza A viruses: Evidence that it forms a tetrameric channel. Virology, 180, 617–624PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Szucs, T. (1999). The socio-economic burden of influenza. The Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 44, Topic B, 11–15PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Tilman, D. (1999). Global environmental impacts of agricultural expansion: The need for sustainable and efficient practices. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 96, 5995–6000PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Treanor, J. J., Snyder, M. H., London, W. T., & Murphy, B. R. (1989). The B allele of the NS gene of avian influenza viruses but not the A allele attenuates a human influenza A virus for squirrel monkeys. Virology, 171, 1–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Treanor, J. J., Tierney, E. L., Zebedee, S. L., Lamb, R. A., & Murphy, B. R. (1990). Passively transferred monoclonal antibody to the M2 protein inhibits influenza A virus replication in mice. Journal of Virology, 64, 1375–1377PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Uiprasertkul, M., Puthavathana, P., Sangsiriwut, K., Pooruk, P., Srisook, K., Peiris, M., Nicholls, J. M., Chokephaibulkit, K., Vanprapar, N., & Auewarakul, P. (2005). Influenza A H5N1 replication sites in humans. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11, 1036–1041PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. United Nations. (2004). World Population Prospects: The 2004 Revision. United Nations, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  91. Van Riel, D., Munster, V. J. deWit, E. Rimmelzwaan, G. F., Fouchier, R. A. M., Osterhaus, A. D. M. E., & Kuiken, T. (2006). H5N1 virus attachment to lower respiratory tract. Sciencexpress Brevia,, 23 March 2006
  92. Vijayanand, P., Wilkins, E., & Woodhead, M. (2004). Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS): A review. Clinical Medicine, 4, 152–160PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Villarreal, C. L., & Flores, A. O. (1997). The Mexican avian influenza H5N2 outbreak. In Proceedings of the International Symposium on Avian Influenza American Association of Avian Pathologists, Pennsylvania, Athens, Georgia, USA, pp. 18–22Google Scholar
  94. Webby, R. J., Swenson, S. L., Krauss, S. L., Gerrish, P. J., Goyal, S. M., & Webster, R. G. (2000). Evolution of swine H3N2 influenza viruses in the United States. Journal of Virology 74, 8243–8251PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Webster, R. G., & Kawaoka, Y. (1988). Avian influenza. Critical Reviews in Poultry Biology, 1, 211–246Google Scholar
  96. Webster, R. G., & Laver W. G. (1972). The origin of pandemic influenza. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 47, 449–452PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Webster, R. G., Bean, W. J., Gorman, O. T., Chambers, T. M., & Kawaoka, Y. (1992). Evolution and ecology of influenza A viruses. Microbiological Reviews, 56, 152–179PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Weiss, R. A., & McMichael, A. J. (2004). Social and environmental risk factors in the emergence of infectious diseases. Nature Medicine, 10(Suppl. 12), S70–S76PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Wood, J. M. (2001). Developing vaccines against pandemic influenza. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, 356, 1953–1960PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. World Health Organization. (1999). Influenza Pandemic Preparedness Plan. The Role of WHO and Guidelines for National and Regional Planning. WHO, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  101. World Health Organization. (2003). Influenza Fact Sheet #211, revised March 2003 WHO, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  102. Writing Committee of the World Health Organization Consultation on Human Influenza A/H5. (2005). Avian influenza A (H5N1) infections in humans. New England Journal of Medicine, 353, 1374–1385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Zebedee, S. L., & Lamb, R. A. (1988). Influenza A virus M2 protein: Monoclonal antibody restriction of virus growth and detection of M2 in virions. Journal of Virology, 62, 2762–2772PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bryan Roberts
    • 1
  1. 1.Apex Consulting GroupCambridgeUSA

Personalised recommendations