Production of Enzymes by Solid-state Fermentation

  • Sudheer Kumar Singh
  • George Sczakas
  • Carlos Ricardo Soccol
  • Ashok Pandey


The process of solid-state fermentation for food applications is one of the oldest knowledges available to humans. To many communities it is a part of their traditional knowledge to prepare the fermented food (Hesseltine, 1977). The expanded form of Japanese word for Koji relates to growth of mold. The traditional fermentations such as Koji, Tofu, miso, sauceges, pickles, ensilling are the extension of the traditional fermentation knowledge exploiting the GRAS strains of fungi and bacteria to carry out the fermentation. The processes provide extracellular fungal enzymes and have been the basis to initiate the microbial enzymes production by SSF in industrial environment. The koji process undoubtedly influenced the first production of microbial enzymes by SSF on industrial scale. The emergence of modern SSF based enzyme industry may be attributed to the entrepreneurship of Jokichi Takamine and later by Underkofler‐s efforts in producing mold bran enzymes for saccharification of grain (Bennett, 2001). The discovery of Penicillin in early thirtee‐s and streptomycin, chloramphenicol and tetracyclin‐s in early fifty‐s took the sheen of the emerging SSF process and emphasized on submerged fermentation. The SSF process development was still in its infancy and was considered not suitable for many of the potential large-scale applications.


Wheat Straw Wheat Bran Solid State Fermentation Lipase Production Xylanase Production 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sudheer Kumar Singh
    • 1
  • George Sczakas
    • 2
  • Carlos Ricardo Soccol
    • 3
  • Ashok Pandey
    • 1
  1. 1.Biotechnology DivisionNational Institute for Interdisciplinary Science & Technology, (formerly Regional Research Laboratory)TrivandrumIndia
  2. 2.Department of Agricultural Chemical TechnologyTechnical University of BudapestGeliert terHungary
  3. 3.Bioprocess Engineering and Biotechnology DivisionFederal University of ParanáCuritiba-PRBrazil

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