Wari and Tiwanaku: International Identities in the Central Andean Middle Horizon

  • William H. Isbell

“Middle Horizon” is a period in Peruvian prehistory (Figure 37.1), but cultural dynamics embraced an area much larger than Peru (Figure 37.2). The Middle Horizon was the time when leadership in complexity within the Central Andes shifted from northern Peru and the Pacific coast – especially the spectacular Moche culture (see Chapter 36 in this volume) – to south central Peru, northwestern Bolivia and the Andean highlands (Figure 37.1). A new religious art spread through the Andes, composed of three primary supernatural images. From new urban capitals in central highland Peru and Lake Titicaca Bolivia, the distinctive religious icons diagnostic of the Middle Horizon reached the northern Peruvian mountains and coast. In the south they dispersed through the highlands, reaching southern Bolivia and the eastern valleys that descend to tropical forests – among them, Cochabamba with its immense mounds and idyllic conditions for maize agriculture. Northern Chile, at least as far south as San Pedro de Atacama, participated in this great interaction sphere, as did northwestern Argentina’s La Aguada cultural style (see Chapter 30 in this volume; Figures 30.5, 30.6).

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Agüero Piwonka, Carolina, Mauricio Uribe Rodriguez, and José Berenguer Rodriguez, 2003, La iconografia Tiwanaku: el caso de la escultura lítica. Textos Antropológicos 14: 47–82.Google Scholar
  2. Bandy, Mathew, 2006, Early village society in the Formative Period of the southern Lake Titicaca basin. In Andean Archaeology III: North and South, edited by William H. Isbell and Helaine Silverman, pp. 210–236. Springer, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bawden, Garth, 1996, The Moche. Blackwell Publishers, Cambridge, MA. and Oxford, England.Google Scholar
  4. Benitez, Leonardo R., n.d., A unique lunisolar observatory and calendar in precolumbian Bolivia. University of Pennsylvania Museum of Anthropology.Google Scholar
  5. Bennett, Wendell C., 1946, The Central Andes. In Handbook of South American Indians, Volume 2, The Andean Civilizations, edited by Julian H. Steward, pp. 61–147. Bulletin 143. Bureau of American Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  6. Berenguer Rodriguez, José, 2000, Tiwanaku: Lords of the Sacred Lake. Banco Santiago in Association with the Museo Chileno de Arte Precolombino. Morgan Impresiones, Santiago de Chile.Google Scholar
  7. Berenguer Rodriguez, José and Percy Daulesberg, 1989, El norte grande el la órbita de Tiwanaku. In Culturas de Chile Prehistorica, desde sus Orígines Hasta los Albores de la Conquista, edited by J. Hidalgo L., V. Schiappacasse F., and H. Niemeyer F., pp. 129–180. Editorial Andres Bello, Santiago, Chile.Google Scholar
  8. Blom, Deborah and Jane Buikstra, 1999, Tiwanaku “colonization”: bioarchaeological implications for migration in the Moquegua Valley, Peru. World Archaeology 30: 238–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cardona Rosas, Agusto, 2002, Arqueología de Arequipa: de sus Albores a los Incas. Centro de Investigaciones Arqueológicos de Arequipa, Arequipa, Peru.Google Scholar
  10. Castillo, Luis Jaime, 2001, La presencia de Wari en San José de Moro. In Boletín de Arqueologia PUCP, No. 4, 2000. Huari y Tiwanaku: Modelos vs. Evidencias, Primera Parte, edited by Peter Kaulicke and William H. Isbell, pp. 143–180. Departamento de Humanidades, Especialidad de Arqueología, Pontficia Universidad Católica del Perú, Lima.Google Scholar
  11. Céspedes Paz, Ricardo, 2000, Excavacíones arqueológicas en Piñami, Cochabamba, Bolivia. Boletín del Instituto de Investigacíones Antropológicas 9: 1–14 Museo Arqueológico, Universidad Mayor de San Simon, Cochabamba, Bolivia.Google Scholar
  12. Chapdelaine, Claude, 2002, Out in the streets of Moche. In Andean Archaeology I: Variations in Sociopolitical Organization, edited by William H. Isbell and Helaine Silverman, pp. 53–88. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York and London.Google Scholar
  13. Chávez, Sergio Jorge, 2004, The Yaya-Mama religious tradition as an antecedent of Tiwanaku. In Tiwanaku: Ancestors of the Inca, edited by Margaret Young-Sánchez, pp. 70–75, 81–85, 90–93. Denver Art Museum and University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln and London.Google Scholar
  14. Conklin, William J., 1970, Peruvian textile fragment from the beginning of the Middle Horizon. Textile Museum Journal 1: 15–24.Google Scholar
  15. Conklin, William J., 2004, The Fire Textile. Hali 133 (March-April 2004): 94–100.Google Scholar
  16. Cook, Anita G. and Nancy Benco, 2001, Vasijas para la fiesta y la fama: producción artesanal en un centro urbano Huari. In Boletín de Arqueologia PUCP, No. 4, 2000. Huari y Tiwanaku: Modelos vs. Evidencias, Primera Parte, edited by Peter Kaulicke and William H. Isbell, pp. 489–504. Departamento de Humanidades, Especialidad de Arqueología, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, Lima.Google Scholar
  17. Couture, Nicole C., 2004, Monumental space, courtly style, and elite life at Tiwanaku. In Tiwanaku: Ancestors of the Inca, edited by Margaret Young-Sánchez, pp. 127–135, 139–143, 146–149. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln and London.Google Scholar
  18. Couture, Nicole C., and Kathryn Sampeck, 2003, Putuni: A history of palace architecture at Tiwanaku. In Tiwanaku and its Hinterland: Archaeology and Paleoecology of an Andean Civilization. Volume 2. Urban and Rural Archaeology, edited by Alan L. Kolata, pp. 226–263. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C. and London.Google Scholar
  19. Demarest, Arthur A., 1981, Viracocha: The Nature and Antiquity of the Andean High God. Peabody Museum Monographs No. 6, Harvard University, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  20. Erickson, Clark L., 2003, Agricultural landscapes as world heritage: raised field agriculture in Bolivia and Peru. In Managing Change: Sustainable Approaches to the Conservation of the Built Environment, edited by Jeanne-Marie Teutonico and Frank Matero, pp. 181–204. Getty Conservation Institute, Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  21. Escalante Moscoso, Javier, 1993, Arquitectura Prehispánica en los Andes Bolivianos. CIMA, La Paz.Google Scholar
  22. Flannery, Kent V., 2002, Prehistoric social evolution. In Archaeology: Original Readings in Method and Practice, edited by Peter N. Peregrine, Carol R. Ember, and Melvin Ember, pp. 225–244. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.Google Scholar
  23. Finucane, Brian, Patricia Maita Agurto, and William H. Isbell, in press, Human and animal diet at Conchopata, Peru: stable isotope evidence for maize agriculture and animal management practices during the Middle Horizon. Journal of Archaeological Science 12.Google Scholar
  24. Glowacki, Mary, 2002, The Huaro archaeological site complex. In Andean Archaeology I: Variations in Political Organization, edited by William H. Isbell and Helaine Silverman, pp. 267–285. Plenum, New York and London.Google Scholar
  25. Goldstein, Paul S., 2005, Andean Diaspora: The Tiwanaku Colonies and the Origins of South American Empire. University Press of Florida, Gainesville.Google Scholar
  26. Higueras, Alvaro, 1996, Prehispanic Settlement and Land-Use in Cochabamba, Bolivia. Ph.D. Dissertation. Department of Anthropology, University of Pittsburgh.Google Scholar
  27. Isbell, William H., 1991, Huari administration and the orthogonal cellular architecture horizon. In Huari Administrative Structure: Prehistoric Monumental Architecture and State Government, edited by William H. Isbell and Gordon F. McEwan, pp. 293–315. Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  28. Isbell, William H., 2004, Mortuary preferences: a Huari case study from Middle Horizon Peru. Latin American Antiquity 15: 3–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Isbell, William H., Christine Brewster-Wray, and Lynda Spickard, 1991, Architecture and spatial organization at Huari. In Huari Administrative Structure: Prehistoric Monumental Architecture and State Government, edited by William H. Isbell and Gordon F. McEwan, pp. 19–53. Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  30. Isbell, William H. and Anita G. Cook, 2002, A new perspective on Conchopata and the Andean Middle Horizon. In Andean Archaeology II: Art, Landscape and Society, edited by Helaine Silverman and William H. Isbell, pp. 249–305. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York.Google Scholar
  31. Isbell, William H. and Patricia J. Knobloch, 2006, Missing links, imaginary links: Staff God imagery in the South Andean past. In Andean Archaeology III: North and South, edited by William H. Isbell and Helaine Silverman, pp. 307–351. Springer, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Isbell, William H. and Gordon F. McEwan (eds.), 1991, Huari Administrative Structure: Prehistoric Monumental Architecture and State Government. Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, Washington D.C.Google Scholar
  33. Isbell, William H. and Katharina J. Schreiber, 1978, Was Huari a state? American Antiquity 43: 372–389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Isbell, William H. and Alexei Vranich, 2004, Experiencing the cities of Wari and Tiwanaku. In Andean Archaeology, edited by Helaine Silverman, pp. 167–182. Blackwell Publishing, Malden, MA.Google Scholar
  35. Isla, Elizabeth and Daniel Guerrero, 1987, Socos, un sitio Wari en el valle del Chillón. Gaceta Arqueológica Andina 14: 23–28.Google Scholar
  36. Janusek, John W., 2004, Household and city in Tiwanaku. In Andean Archaeology, edited by Helaine Silverman, pp. 183–208. Blackwell Publishing, Malden, MA.Google Scholar
  37. Janusek, John W., Arik T. Ohnstad, and Andrew P. Roddick, 2003, Khonkho Wankane and the rise of Tiwanaku. Antiquity 77 (http://antiquity.ac.uk/ProjGall/janusek/janusek.html).
  38. Jennings, Justin and Willy Yépez, 2002, Collota, Netahaha y el desarrollo del poder Wari en el valle de Cotahuasi. In Boletín de Arqueología PUCP, No. 5, 2001. Huari y Tiwanaku: Modelos vs. Evidencias, Segunda Parte, edited by Peter Kaulicke and William H. Isbell, pp. 13–30. Departamento de Humanidades, Especialidad de Arqueologia, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, Lima.Google Scholar
  39. Kaulicke, Peter, 2001, La sombra de Pachacamac: Huari en la costa central. In Boletín de Arqueologia PUCP, No. 4, 2000. Huari y Tiwanaku: Modelos vs. Evidencias, Primera Parte, edited by Peter Kaulicke and William H. Isbell, pp. 313–358. Departamento de Humanidades, Especialidad de Arqueología, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, Lima.Google Scholar
  40. Knobloch, Patricia J., 2000, Wari ritual power at Conchopata: an interpretation of Anadananthera colubrina iconography. Latin American Antiquity 11: 387–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Knudson, Kelly J. and Tiffiny A. Tung, in press, Using Archaeological Chemistry to Investigate the Geographic Origins of Trophy Heads in the Central Andes: Strontium Isotope Analysis at the Wari Site of Conchopata. American Chemical Society edited volume.Google Scholar
  42. Kolata, Alan L., 1993, The Tiwanaku: Portrait of an Andean Civilization. Blackwell, Cambridge, MA and Oxford, UK.Google Scholar
  43. Kolata, Alan L.,(ed.), 2003, Tiwanaku and its Hinterland: Archaeology and Paleoecology of an Andean Civilization, Volume 2. Urban and Rural Archaeology. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C. and London.Google Scholar
  44. Kolata, Alan L., and Carlos Ponce Sanginés, 1992, Tiwanaku: the city at the center. In The Ancient Americas. Art from Sacred Landscapes, edited by Richard F. Townsend, pp. 317–333. The Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago.Google Scholar
  45. Larco Hoyle, Rafael, 1948, Cronología Arqueológica del Norte del Perú. Sociedad Geográfica Americana, Buenos Aires.Google Scholar
  46. Leoni, Juan B., 2006, Ritual and society in Early Intermediate Period Ayacucho: a view from the site of Ñawinpukyo. In Andean Archaeology III: North and South, edited by William H. Isbell and Helaine Silverman, pp. 279–306. Springer, New York and London.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Lumbreras, Luis Guillermo, 1974, Las Fundaciones de Huamanga. Editorial Nueva Education, Lima.Google Scholar
  48. MacNeish, Richard, Angel Garcia Cook, Luis G. Lumbreras, Robert K. Vierra, and Antoinette Nelken-Terner (eds.), 1981, Prehistory of the Ayacucho Basin, Peru. Vol. II. Excavations and Chronology. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor.Google Scholar
  49. Malpass, Michael, 2002, Sonay: un centro Wari cellular ortogonal en el Valle de Camana. In Boletín de Arqueología PUCP, No. 5, 2001. Huari y Tiwanaku: Modelos vs. Evidencias, Segunda Parte, edited by Peter Kaulicke and William H. Isbell, pp. 51–68. Departamento de Humanidades, Especialidad de Arqueologia, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, Lima.Google Scholar
  50. McEwan, Gordon F., 2005, Pikillacta: The Wari Empire in Cuzco. University of Iowa Press, Iowa City.Google Scholar
  51. Meddens, Frank M., 1985, The Chicha/Soras Valley during the Middle Horizon: Provincial Aspects of Huari. Ph.D. dissertation. University of London.Google Scholar
  52. Menzel, Dorothy, 1964, Style and time in the Middle Horizon. Ñawpa Pacha 2: 1–106.Google Scholar
  53. Menzel, Dorothy, 1968, New data on Middle Horizon Epoch 2A. Ñawpa Pacha 6: 47–114.Google Scholar
  54. Menzel, Dorothy, 1977, The Archaeology of Ancient Peru and the Work of Max Uhle. R. H. Lowie Museum of Anthropology, University of California, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  55. Morris, Craig and Adriana von Hagen, 1993, The Inka Empire and its Andean Origins. Abbeville Press, New York.Google Scholar
  56. Nash, Donna J. and Patrick Ryan Williams, 2002, Architecture and power on the Wari-Tiwanaku frontier. In Foundations of Power in the Prehispanic Andes, edited by Kevin J. Vaughn, Dennis Ogburn, and Christine A. Conlee, pp. 151–174. Anthropological Papers of the American Anthropological Association, Number14. Arlington, VA.Google Scholar
  57. O’Brien, Tyler, 2003, Cranial Microvariation in Prehistoric South Central Andean Populations: An Assessment of Morphology in the Cochabamba Collection, Bolivia. Ph.D. dissertation. Department of Anthropology, State University of New York at Binghamton.Google Scholar
  58. Ochatoma Paravicino, José and Martha Cabrera Romero, 2002, Religious ideology and military organization in the iconography of a D-shaped ceremonial precinct at Conchopata. In Andean Archaeology II: Art, Landscape and Society, edited by Helaine Silverman and William H. Isbell, pp. 225–247. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishing, New York and London.Google Scholar
  59. Owen, Bruce, in press, Rural Wari far from the heartland: Huamanga ceramics from Beringa, Majes. Andean Past.Google Scholar
  60. Parsons, Jeffrey R., 1968, An estimate of size and population for the Middle Horizon at Tiahuanaco, Bolivia. American Antiquity 33: 243–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Pérez Calderón, Ismael, 1999, Huari: Misteriosa Ciudad de Piedra. Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Universidad Nacional San Cristóbal de Huamanga, Ayacucho.Google Scholar
  62. Ponce Sanginés, Carlos, 1981, Tiwanaku: Espacio, Tiempo y Cultura. Los Amigos del Libro, La Paz and Cochabamba.Google Scholar
  63. Posnansky, Arthur, 1910, Guía para el visitante de los monumentos prehistóricos de Tihuanacu e Islas del Sol y la Luna (Titicaca y Koaty). La Paz.Google Scholar
  64. Posnansky, Arthur, 1945, Tihuanacu — The Cradle of American Man, Vols. I and II. American Museum of Natural History, New York.Google Scholar
  65. Posnansky, Arthur, 1957, Tihuanacu — The Cradle of American Man, Vols. III and IV. Ministerio de Educación, La Paz.Google Scholar
  66. Protzen, Jean-Pierre and Stella Nair, 2002, The gateways of Tiwanaku: symbols or passages? In Andean Archaeology II: Art, Landscape and Society, edited by Helaine Silverman and William H. Isbell, pp. 189–224. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York.Google Scholar
  67. Protzen, Jean-Pierre and Stella Nair, 2002, Pumapuncu: plataformas y portales. In Boletín de Arqueología PUCP, No. 5, 2001. Huari y Tiwanaku: Modelos vs. Evidencias, Segunda Parte, edited by Peter Kaulicke and William H. Isbell, pp. 309–336. Departamento de Humanidades, Especialidad de Arqueologia, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, Lima.Google Scholar
  68. Rodman, Amy Oakland, 1992, Textiles and ethnicity: Tiwanaku in San Pedro de Atacama, north Chile. Latin American Antiquity 3: 316–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Rowe, John H., 1956, Archaeological explorations in southern Peru, 1954–55. American Antiquity 22: 135–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Schaedel, Richard P., 1951, Major ceremonial and population centers in northern Peru. In Civilizations of Ancient America: Selected Papers of the 29th International Congress of Americanists, edited by Sol Tax, pp. 232–243. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  71. Schreiber, Katharina J., 1992, Wari Imperialism in Middle Horizon Peru. Anthropological Papers of the Museum of Anthropology, No. 87, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.Google Scholar
  72. Schreiber, Katharina J., 2001, Los Wari en su contexto local: Nasca y Sondondo. In Boletín de Arqueologia PUCP, No. 4, 2000. Huari y Tiwanaku: Modelos vs. Evidencias, Primera Parte, edited by Peter Kaulicke and William H. Isbell, pp. 425–448. Departamento de Humanidades, Especialidad de Arqueología, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, Lima.Google Scholar
  73. Schreiber, Katharina J., 2005, Sacred boundaries and imperial ideologies: the Wari empire in Sondondo, Peru. In Foundations of Power in the Prehispanic Andes, edited by Kevin J. Vaughn, Dennis Ogburn, and Christine A. Conlee, pp. 131–150. Anthropological Papers of the American Anthropological Association, Number 14, Arlington, VA.Google Scholar
  74. Shimada, Izumi, 1994, Pampa Grande and the Mochica Culture. University of Texas Press, Austin.Google Scholar
  75. Squier, E. George, 1877, Peru: Incidents of Travel and Explorations in the Land of the Incas. Harper and Brothers, New York.Google Scholar
  76. Stanish, Charles, 2003, Ancient Titicaca: The Evolution of Complex Society in Southern Peru and Northern Bolivia. University of California Press, Berkeley, Los Angeles and London.Google Scholar
  77. Steward, Julian H. (ed.), 1946, Handbook of South American Indians: Volume 2: The Andean Civilizations. Bulletin 143. Bureau of American Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution, Washington D.C.Google Scholar
  78. Stübel, Alphons, and Max Uhle, 1892, Die Ruinenstätte von Tiahuanaco im Hochlande des Alten Peru: Eine Kulturgeschichtliche Studie. Verlag von Karl W. Hiersemann, Leipzig.Google Scholar
  79. Sutter, Richard C., 2005, A bioarchaeological assessment of prehistoric ethnicity among the Early Late Intermediate Period populations of the Azapa Valley, Chile. In Us and Them: Archaeology and Ethnicity in the Andes, edited by Richard Martin Reycraft, pp. 183–205. The Cotsen Institute of Archaeology, University of California, Los Angeles, Monograph 53, Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  80. Topic, John R., 1991, Huari and Huamachuco. In Huari Administrative Structure: Prehistoric Monumental Architecture and State Government, edited by William H. Isbell and Gordon F. McEwan, pp. 141–164. Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  81. Topic, John R. and Theresa Topic, 1987, The archaeological investigation of Andean militarism: some cautionary observations. In The Origins and Development of the Andean State, edited by Jonathan Haas, Shelia Pozorski, and Thomas Pozorski, pp. 47–55. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge and New York.Google Scholar
  82. Topic, John R. and Theresa Lange Topic, 2001, Hacia la comprensión del fenómeno Huari: una perapective norteña. In Boletín de Arqueologia PUCP, No. 4, 2000. Huari y Tiwanaku: Modelos vs. Evidencias, Primera Parte, edited by Peter Kaulicke and William H. Isbell, pp. 102–127. Departamento de Humanidades, Especialidad de Arqueología, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, Lima.Google Scholar
  83. Torres, Constantino Manuel, 2002, Iconografía Tiwanaku en la parafernalia inhalatoria de los Andes Centro-Sur. In Boletín de Arqueología PUCP, No. 5, 2001. Huari y Tiwanaku: Modelos vs. Evidencias, Segunda Parte, edited by Peter Kaulicke and William H. Isbell, pp. 427–454. Departamento de Humanidades, Especialidad de Arqueologia, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, Lima.Google Scholar
  84. Tung, Tiffiny A. and Anita Cook, 2006, Intermediate-elite agency in the Wari empire: the bioarchaeological and mortuary evidence. In Intermediate Elites in Pre-Columbian States and Empires, edited by Christina M. Elson and Alan Covey, pp. 68–93. University of Arizona Press, Tucson.Google Scholar
  85. Uhle, Max, 1903, Pachacamac: Report of the William Pepper, M.D.L.L.D. Peruvian Expedition of 1896. Department of Archaeology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  86. Uribe R., Mauricio and Carolina Agüero, 2002, Alfarería, textiles y la integración del norte grande de Chile a Tiwanaku. In Boletín de Arqueología PUCP, No. 5, 2001. Huari y Tiwanaku: Modelos vs. Evidencias, Segunda Parte, edited by Peter Kaulicke and William H. Isbell, pp. 397–426. Departamento de Humanidades, Especialidad de Arqueología, Pontficia Universidad Católica del Perú, Lima.Google Scholar
  87. Vranich, Alexei, 1999, Intepreting the Meaning of Ritual Spaces: The Temple Complex of Pumapuncu, Tiwanaku, Bolivia. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  88. Vranich, Alexei, 2002, La piramide de Akapana: reconsiderando el centro monumental de Tiwanaku. In Boletín de Arqueologia PUCP, No. 5, 2001. Huari y Tiwanaku: Modelos vs. Evidencias, Segunda Parte, edited by Peter Kaulicke and William H. Isbell, pp. 295–308. Departamento de Humanidades, Especialidad de Arqueología, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, Lima.Google Scholar
  89. Willey, Gordon R., 1948, A functional analysis of “horizon styles” in Peruvian archaeology. In A Reappraisal of Peruvian Archaeology, edited by Wendell C. Bennett, pp. 8–15. Memoirs of the Society for American Archaeology, No.4.Google Scholar
  90. Willey, Gordon R., 1953, Prehistoric Settlement Patterns in the Virú Valley, Perú. Bulletin 155. Bureau of American Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  91. Williams, Patrick Ryan, 2003, Hydraulic landscapes and social conflict in Middle Horizon Peru. In The Reconstruction of Archaeological Landscapes through Digital Technologies, edited by Maurizio Forte and Patrick Ryan Williams. BAR International Series, S1151, Oxford.Google Scholar
  92. Williams, Patrick Ryan and Donna Nash, 2005, Beer and Identity in the Middle Horizon Borderlands. Paper presented at the Fredrick and Jan Mayer Tiwanaku Symposium, organized by Margaret Young-Sanchez. Denver Art Museum. 14–15 January 2005.Google Scholar
  93. Zapata, Julinho, 1997, Arquitectura y contextos funerarios Wari en Batan Urqu, Cusco. In La Muerte en el Antiguo Perú, edited by Peter Kaulicke, pp. 165–206. Boletin de Arqueologia PUCP, Vol. 1, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Peru, Lima.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • William H. Isbell
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of AnthropologyState University of New York BinghamtonBinghamtonUSA

Personalised recommendations