Revisiting Haritalyangar, the Late Miocene Ape Locality of India

  • Rajeev Patnaik
Part of the Developments in Primatology: Progress and Prospects book series (DIPR)


Late Miocene Tree Shrew Northern Indian Ocean Fossil Primate Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Amano, K., and Taira, A. (1992). Two-phase uplift of higher Himalayas since 17 Ma. Geology 20: 391–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Andrews, P., and Cronin, J. (1982). The relationships of Sivapithecus and Ramapithecus and the evolution of the orangutan. Nature 297: 541–546.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Andrews, P., and Tekkaya, I. (1980). A revision of the Turkish Miocene hominoid Sivapithecus meteai. Palaeontology 23: 83–95.Google Scholar
  4. Barry, J. C., Morgan, M. E., Flynn, L. J., Pilbeam, D., Behrensmeyer, A. K., Raza, S. M., Khan I. A., Badgley C., Hicks J., and Kelley, J. (2002). Faunal and environmental change in the latest Miocene Siwaliks of northern Pakistan. Paleobiol. Mem. 28(2): 1–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Berggren, W. A., Kent, D. V., and van Couvering, J. A. (1985). Neogene geochronology and chronostratigraphy. In: Snelling, N. J.(ed.), The Chronology of the Geological Record. Blackwell Scientific, Oxford, pp. 211–260.Google Scholar
  6. Burkle, L. H. (1989). Distribution of diatoms in sediments of the northern Indian ocean: Relationship to physical oceanography. Mar. Micropaleontol., 15: 53–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cameron, D. W. (2001). The taxonomic status of the Siwalik Late Miocene hominid Gigantopithecus (‘Indopithecus’). Himalayan Geol. 22: 29–34.Google Scholar
  8. Cameron, D. W. (2003). A functional and phylogenetic interpretation of the late Miocene Siwalik hominid Indopithecus and the Chinese Pleistocene hominid Gigantopithecus. Himalayan Geol. 24: 19–28.Google Scholar
  9. Cande, S. C., and Kent, D. V. (1992). A new geomagnetic polarity time scale for the Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic. J. Geophys. Res. 97:13917–13951.Google Scholar
  10. Cande, S. C., and Kent, D. V. J. (1995). Revised calibration of geomagnetic polarity time scale for the Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic. J. Geophys. Res. 100(B): 6093–6095.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cerling, T. E., Wang, Y., and Quade, J. (1993). Expansion of C4 ecosystems as an indicator of global ecological change in the Late Miocene. Nature 361: 344–345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cerling, T. E., Harris, J. M., MacFadden, M. G., Leakey, M. G., and Quade, J. (1997). Global vegetation change through the Miocene/Pliocene boundary. Nature 389: 153–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chopra, S. R. K., and Kaul, S. (1979). A new species of Pliopithecus from the Indian Siwaliks. J. Hum. Evol. 8:475–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chopra, S. R. K., and Vasishat, R. N. (1979). Siwalik fossil tree shrew from Haritalyangar, India. Nature 281:214–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ciochon, R. L., Piperno, D. R., and Thompson, R. G. (1990). Opal phytoliths found on the teeth of the extinct ape Gigantopithecus blacki: Implications for paleodietary studies. P. Natl Acad. Sci. USA, 87: 8120–8124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ehleringer, J. R. (1978). Carbon Isotope ratios and physiological processes in aridland plants. In: Rundel, P. W., Ehlinger, J. R., and Nagy, K. R. (eds.), Stable Isotopes in Ecological Research. Springer, New York, pp. 41–44.Google Scholar
  17. Filippelli, G. M. (1997). Intensification of the Asian Monsoon and a chemical weathering event in the late Miocene–early Pliocene: Implications for late Neogene climate change. Geology 25: 27–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Flynn, L. J., Barry, J. C., Morgan, M. E., Pilbeam, D. R., Jacobs, L. L., and Lindsay, E. H. (1995). Neogene Siwalik mammalian lineages: Species longevities, rates of change, and modes of speciation. Palaeogeogr. Palaeocl. 115: 249–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Flynn, L. J., Sahni, A., Jaeger, J. J., Singh, B., Bhatia, S. B. (1990). Additional fossil rodents from the Siwalik Beds of India. Proc. Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van. Wetenschappen 93: 7–20.Google Scholar
  20. Gingerich, P. D. and Sahni, A. (1979). Indraloris and Sivaladapis: Miocene adapid primates from the Siwaliks of India and Pakistan. Nature 279:415–416.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gingerich, P. D. and Sahni, A. (1984). Dentition of Sivaladapis nagrii (Adapidae) from the Late Miocene of India. Int. J.Primatol. 5(1):63–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gregory, W. K., Hellman, M., and Lewis, G. E. (1938). Fossil anthropoids of the Yale Cambridge India Expedition of 1935. Carnegie Ins. Washington Pub. No. 495.Google Scholar
  23. Gupta, A. K. and Melice, J.-L. (2003). Orbital forcing of the Plio–Pleistocene Indian monsoons: Benthic foraminiferal proxies from ODP Site 758. Curr. Sci. India 85: 179–184.Google Scholar
  24. Han, K. Z., and Zhao, L. X. (2002). Dental caries of Gigantopithecus blacki from Hubei Province of China. Acta Anthropologica Sinica 21: 191–198.Google Scholar
  25. Harrison, T. M., Copeland, P., Hall, S. A., Quade, J., Burner, S., Ojha, T. P., and Kidd W. S. F. (1993). Isotopic preservation of Himalaya-Tibetan uplift, denudation, and climatic histories in two molasse deposits. J Geol. 101: 157–175.Google Scholar
  26. Hay, W. W. (1996). Tectonics and climate. Geologische Rundschau 85: 409–437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hoorn, C., Ojha, T., and Quade, J. (2000). Palynological evidence for vegetation development and climatic change in the sub-Himalayan zone (Neogene, Central Nepal). Palaeogeogr. Palaeocl. 163: 133–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Johnson G. D., Opdyke N. D., Tandon S. K., and Nanda A. C. (1983) The magnetic polarity stratigraphy of the Siwaliks group at Haritalyangar (India) and a new last appearance datum for Ramapithecus and Sivapithecus in Asia. Palaeogeogr. Palaeocl. 44: 223–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kappelman, J., Kelley, J., Pilbeam, D. R., Sheikh, K. A., Ward, S., Anwar, M., Barry, J. C., Brown, B., Hake, P., Johnson, N. M., Raza, S. M., and Imbrahim Shah, S. M. (1991). The earliest occurrence of Sivapithecus from the middle Miocene Chinji Formation of Pakistan. J. Hum. Evol. 21: 61–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kutzbach, J. E., Prell, W. L., and Ruddiman, W. F. (1993). Sensitivity of Eurasian climate to surface uplift of the Tibetan Plateau. J. Geol. 101: 177–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lewis, G. E. (1934). Preliminary notice of man-like apes from India. Am. J. Sci. 27:161–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lewis, G. E. (1937). Taxonomic syllabus of Siwalik fossil anthropoids. Am. J. Sci. 34:139–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Molnar, P., England, P., and Martinod, J. (1993). Mantle dynamics, uplift of the Tibetan plateau, and the Indian monsoon. Rev. Geophys. 31: 357–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Nelson, S. (2003a). The preferred habitats of Sivapithecus and paleoenvironmental changes leading to its extinction in the Siwaliks of Pakistan. Asian Paleoprimatol. 3: 36.Google Scholar
  35. Nelson, S. V. (2003b). The Extinction of Sivapithecus: Faunal and Environmental Changes Surrounding the Disappearance of a Miocene Hominoid in the Siwaliks of Pakistan. American School of Prehistoric Research Monograph Series. Brill, Boston.Google Scholar
  36. Patnaik, R., Cameron, D., Sharma, J. C., and Hogarth, J. (2005). Extinction of Siwalik fossil apes: A review based on a new fossil tooth and on palaeoecological and palaeoclimatological evidence Anthropol. Sci. 113: 65–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Patnaik, R. (2003). Reconstruction of Upper Siwalik palaeoecology and palaeoclimatology using microfossil palaeocommunities. Palaeogeogr. Palaeocl. 197: 133–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Patnaik, R., and Cameron, D. W. (1997). New Miocene fossil ape locality, Dangar, Hari-Talyangar region, Siwaliks, northern India. J. Hum. Evol. 32: 93–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Patnaik, R., Cameron, D., Sahni, A., Pillans, B., Chatrath, P., Simons, E., Williams, M., and Bibi, F. (in review). Ostrich eggshells of a new oospecies (Struthiolithus sivalensis sp. nov) from 10.1 Ma old Middle Siwalik sediments of India. Curr. Sci. India.Google Scholar
  40. Pilbeam, D. R. (1966). Notes on Ramapithecus, the earliest known hominid, and Dryopithecus. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 25:1–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Pilbeam, D. R. (1969a). Early hominidae and cranial capacity. Nature 224 (5217):386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Pilbeam, D. R. (1969b). Newly recognized mandible of Ramapithecus. Nature 222:1093–1094.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Pilbeam, D. R. (1982). New hominoid skull material from the Miocene of Pakistan. Nature 295: 232–234.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Pilbeam, D. R. (1983). Ramapithecus disowned. Science 23(1):24–25.Google Scholar
  45. Pilgrim, G. E. (1910a). Notices of new mammalian genera and species from the Tertiaries freshwater deposits of India. Records Geological Survey of India 40:63–71.Google Scholar
  46. Pilgrim, G. E. (1910b). New Siwalik Primates and their bearing on the question of the evolution of Man and the Anthropoids. Records Geological Survey of India 45:1–74.Google Scholar
  47. Pillans, B., Williams, M., Cameron, D., Patnaik, R., Hogarth, J., Sahni, A., Sharma, J. C., Williams, F., and Bernor, R. (2005). Revised correlation of the Haritalyangar magnetostratigraphy, Indian Siwaliks: implications for the age of the Miocene hominids Indopithecus and Sivapithecus, with a note on a new hominid tooth. J. Hum. Evol. 48: 507–515PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Prell, W. L., and Kutzbach, J. E. (1992). Sensitivity of the Indian monsoon to forcing parameters and implications for its evolution. Nature 360: 647–652.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Prell, W. L., Murray, D. W., Clemens, S. C., and Anderson D. M. (1992). Evolution and variability of the Indian Ocean summer monsoon: Evidence from the western Arabian Sea drilling program. In: Duncan, R. A. (ed.), The Indian Ocean: A Synthesis of Results from the Ocean Drilling Program. Geophysical Monograph, No. 70, American Geophysical Union, Washington DC, pp. 447–469.Google Scholar
  50. Quade, J. T., and Cerling, T. E. (1995). Expansion of C4 grasses in the Late Miocene of northern Pakistan: evidence from stable isotopes in paleosols. Palaeogeogr. Palaeocl. 115: 91–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Quade, J. T., Cerling, T. E., and Bowman, J. R. (1989). Development of the Asian monsoon revealed by marked ecological shift in the latest Miocene of northern Pakistan. Nature 342: 163–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Quade, J., Cater, J. M., Ojha, T. P., Adam, J., and Harrison, T. M. (1995). Late Miocene environmental change in Nepal and the northern Indian subcontinent: stable isotopic evidence from paleosols. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 107:1381–1397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Ramstein, G., Fluteau, F., Besse, J., and Joussaume, S. (1997). Effect of orogeny, plate motion and land-sea distribution on Eurasian climate change over the past 30 million years. Nature 386: 788–795.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Raymo, M. E., and Ruddiman, W. F. (1992). Tectonic forcing of late Cenozoic climate. Nature 359: 117–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Retallack, G. J. (1991). Miocene Paleosols and Ape Habitats of Pakistan and Kenya. Oxford University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  56. Retallack, G. J. (1995). Palaeosols of the Siwalik Group as a 15 Mys record of South Asian palaeoclimate. Mem. Geol. Soc. India, 32: 36–51.Google Scholar
  57. Ruddiman, W. F., and Kutzbach, J. E. (1989). Forcing of late Cenozoic northern hemisphere climate by plateau uplift in Southern Asia and the American West. J. Geophys. Res. 94: 409–418.Google Scholar
  58. Sahni, A., and Khare, S. K. (1976). Siwalik insectivore. J. Geol. Soc. India 17:114–116.Google Scholar
  59. Sahni, A., and Khare, S. K. (1977). A Middle Siwalik fish fauna from Ladhyanai (Haritalyangar) Himachal Pradesh. Biol. Mem. Vertebr. Palaeontol. 2:187–221.Google Scholar
  60. Sankhyan, A. R. (1985). Late Occcurrence of Sivapithecus in Indian Siwaliks. J. Hum. Evol. 14:573–578.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Simons, E. L. (1961). The phyletic position of Ramapithecus. Peabody Mus. Postilla 57:1–9.Google Scholar
  62. Simons, E. L. (1963). Some fallacies in the study of hominid phylogeny. Science 141: 879–889.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Simons, E. L. (1964). On the mandible of Ramapithecus. P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 51: 528–535.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Simons, E. L. (1972). Primate Evolution: An introduction to Man’s place in Nature. Macmillan, New York, p. 322.Google Scholar
  65. Simons, E. L. (1976a). The nature of transition in the dental mechanism from Pongids and hominids. J. Hum. Evol. 5:511–528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Simons, E. L. (1976b). Relationship between Dryopithecus, Sivapithecus and Ramapithecus and their bearing on hominid origins, In: Tobias, P. V., and Coppens, Y. (eds), Les Plus Anciens Hominides (Colloque 6,9 Union Internationale des Sciences Prehistorique et Protohistorique, Nice). CNRS, Paris, pp. 60–67.Google Scholar
  67. Simons, E. L., and Chopra, S. R. K. (1969). Gigantopithecus (Pongidae, Hominoidea): A new species from Northern India. Postilla 138: 1–8.Google Scholar
  68. Simons, E. L., and Ettel, P. C. (1970). Gigantopithecus. Sci. Am. 222: 77–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Simons, E. L., and Pilbeam, D. (1965). Preliminary revision of Dryopithecinae (Pongidae, Anthropoidae). Folia. Primatol. 3:1–152.Google Scholar
  70. Simons, E. L., and Pilbeam, D. (1972). Hominid Paleoprimatology, In: Tuttle, R. (ed.), The functional and evolutionary Biology of Primates. Aldine, Atherton, pp. 36–62Google Scholar
  71. Simons, E. L., and Pilbeam, D. (1973). A gorilla-sized ape from the Miocene of India. Science 173:23–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Simons, E. L., Pilbeam, D., and Boyer, S. (1971). Appearance of Hipparion in the Tertiary of the Siwalik Hills of North India, Kashmir and West Pakistan. Nature 229: 408–409.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Schrader, H. J. (1974). Cenozoic marine planktonic diatom stratigraphy of the tropical Indian Ocean. Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project 24: 887–968.Google Scholar
  74. Tiwari, B. N. (1996). Middle Siwalik murid rodents from Ladhyani, Bilaspur, Himachal Pradesh. In: Dehra, D., Pandey, J., Azmi, R. J., Bhandari, A., and Dave, A. (Eds.), Ind. Coll. Micropalaeo. Strat. 15: 513–518.Google Scholar
  75. Von Koenigswald, G. H. R. (1950). Bemerkungen zu Dryopithecus giganteus Pilgrim. Eclogae Geologicae Helvetiae 42: 515–519.Google Scholar
  76. Vasishat, R. N. (1985). Antecedents of early man in northwestern India: Paleontological and Paleoecological evidences. Inter India Publications, New Delhi.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rajeev Patnaik
    • 1
  1. 1.Center of Advanced Study in Geology, Panjab UniversityIndia

Personalised recommendations