Zirconia is a very important industrial ceramic for structural applications because of its high toughness, which has proven to be superior to other ceramics. In addition, it has applications making use of its high ionic conductivity. The thermodynamically stable, room temperature form of zirconia is baddeleyite. However, this mineral is not used for the great majority of industrial applications of zirconia. The intermediate-temperature phase of zirconia, which has a tetragonal structure, can be stabilized at room temperature by the addition of modest amounts (below ∼8 mol%) of dopants such as Y3+ and Ca2+. This doped zirconia has mechanical toughness values as high as 17MPa·m1/2. On the other hand, the high-temperature phase of zirconia, which has a cubic structure, can be stabilized at room temperature by the addition of significant amounts (above ∼8 mol%) of dopants. This form of zirconia has one of the highest ionic conductivity values associated with ceramics, allowing the use of the material in oxygen sensors and solid-oxide fuel cells. Research on this material actively continues and many improvements can be expected in the years to come.


Fracture Toughness Tetragonal Phase Monoclinic Phase Tetragonal Structure High Ionic Conductivity 
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Authors and Affiliations

  • Olivia A. Graeve
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemical and Metallurgical EngineeringUniversity of NevadaRenoUSA

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