Educational change has some reason for taking place. Those reasons are driving forces. Based on a conceptual framework representing the key elements of learning process, this chapter discusses four driving forces for the use of ICT in learning: the teacher, the learner, the learning content and the learning materials. A learning process is seen as the result of both structural conditions (of content and materials) and individual characteristics (of teacher and learner). We argue that the dominance of each driving force can be seen as an instructional paradigm for learning. In order to illustrate the mutual influence and dependence of the driving forces, we elaborate an example of the way driving forces interact. In a final section, we discuss some major implications derived from the various paradigms of ICT in learning and the controversies teachers face when integrating ICT in classroom practice: technology push versus educational pull, and the necessity of leadership and personal entrepreneurship.


driving forces educational change technology push instructional paradigm educational pull 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alfons ten Brummelhuis
    • 1
  • Els Kuiper
    • 2
  1. 1.Kennisnet FoundationZoetermeerThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Department of Theory and Research of EducationVU UniversityAmsterdamThe Netherlands

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