Advertisement

Training for Effective Practice in the Schools

  • Thomas J. Power
  • Patricia H. Manz
  • Stephen S. Leff
Part of the Issues in Clinical Child Psychology book series (ICCP)

Reforms in health care and education have highlighted the value of schools as a setting for the delivery of intervention and prevention services for children with or at risk for mental health problems (Kolbe, Collins, & Cortese, 1997). These reforms have focused attention on the resources of the school for coordinating mental health services to reduce the fragmentation that exists among systems in the community. Further, the key role that schools can serve in preventing mental health disorders and promoting health for all children has been emphasized in the literature (Dryfoos, 1994)

Although training programs have been developed to prepare mental health professionals for some of the challenges that arise in schools, very few programs have been designed to take full advantage of the opportunities for exciting intervention and prevention work available through schools (Power & Blom-Hoffman, in press). Part of the problem is that guidelines for the preparation of school mental health providers are lacking

The intent of this chapter is to offer broad guidelines and to outline core domains of training that need to be addressed to prepare mental health professionals to become scientist-practitioners in schools. Guidelines for training are derived from the eight priorities for the future outlined in the Surgeon General's recent report on mental health (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1999). These guidelines are then used to specify core domains of training and specific competencies that should be addressed in a comprehensive training program. A model program based in a doctoral-level school psychology training program is described to illustrate how a set of didactic and practicum training experiences can be integrated to address these guidelines

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Achenbach, T. M., & McConaughy, S. H, (1996). Relations between DSM–IV and empirically-based assessment. School Psychology Review, 25, 329–341.Google Scholar
  2. Adelman, H. S., & Taylor, L. (1998). Mental health in schools: Moving forward. School Psychology Review, 27,175–190Google Scholar
  3. American Psychological Association (1998). Report of the Task Force on Child and Adolescent Professional Psychology to the Board of Professional Affairs, Washington, DC: AuthorGoogle Scholar
  4. American Psychological Association (1999). Warning signs, Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  5. Bennett, D. S., Power, T. J., Rostain, A. L., & Carr, D. E. (1996). Parent acceptability and feasibility of ADHD interventions: Assessment, correlates, and predictive validity. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 21, 643–657.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Benson, P. L. (1997). All kids are our kids: What communities must do to raise caring and responsible children and adolescents. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  7. Blalock, G. (1991). Paraprofessionals: Critical team members in our special education programs. Intervention in School and Clinic, 36, 200–214.Google Scholar
  8. Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Chambless, D. L., & Hollon, S. D. (1998). Defining empirically supported therapies. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66, 7–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Children's Defense Fund (2001). Accessing health services: Moving beyond enrollment. Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  11. Christenson, S. L., & Sheridan, S. M. (2001). Schools and families: Creating essential connections for learning. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  12. Comer, J. P., Haynes, N. M., Joyner, E. T., & Ben-Avie, M. (1996). Rallying the whole village: The Comer process for reforming education. New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  13. Cowen, E. L., Hightower, A. D., Pedro-Carroll, J. L., Work, W. C., Wyman, P. A., & Haffey, W. G. (1996). School-based prevention for children at risk: The primary mental health project. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  14. Doll, B., & Lyon, M. A. (1998). Risk and resilience: Implications for the delivery of mental health services in the schools. School Psychology Review, 27, 348–363.Google Scholar
  15. Donovan, C. L., & Spence, S. H. (2000). Prevention of childhood anxiety disorders. Clinical Psychology Review, 20, 509–531.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dowrick, P. W., Power, T. J., Manz, P. H., Ginsburg-Block, M., Leff, S. S., & Kim-Rupnow, S. (2001). Community responsiveness: Examples from under-resourced urban schools. Journal of Prevention and Intervention in the Community, 21, 71–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dryfoos, J. G. (1994). Full-service schools: A revolution in health and social services for children, youth, and families. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  18. Epstein, M. H., & Sharma, J. (1998). Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale: A strength&-based approach to assessment. Austin, TX: PRO-ED.Google Scholar
  19. Fantuzzo, J. W., Coolahan, K., & Weiss, A. (1997). Resiliency partnership-directed research: Enhancing the social competencies of preschool victims of physical abuse by developing peer resources and community strengths. In D. Cicchetti & S. Toth (Eds.), Developmental perspective on trauma: Theory, research and intervention(pp.463–514). Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press.Google Scholar
  20. Fantuzzo, J. W., King, J. A., & Heller, L. R. (1992). Effects of reciprocal peer tutoring on mathematics and school adjustment: A component analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 84, 331– 339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fantuzzo, J. W., & Mohr, W. (2000). Pursuit of wellness in Head Start: Making beneficial connections for children and families. In D. Cicchetti, J. Rapapport, I. Sandler, & R. Weissberg (Eds.), The promotion of wellness in children and adolescents(pp. 341–369). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  22. Fischetti, B. A., & Mortati, A. L. (1998, Fall). Post-doctoral school-based clinical supervision: A training model for credentialling as a licensed psychologist. The School Psychologist, 52, 105, 120– 121.Google Scholar
  23. Garcia Coll, C., Crnic, K., Lamberty, G., Wasik, B. H., Jenkins, R., Garcia, H. V., & McAdoo, H. P. (1996). An integrative model for the study of developmental competencies in minority children. Child Development, 67, 1891–1914.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gibbs, J. T., & Huang, L. N. (Eds.). (1998). Children of color: Psychological interventions with culturally diverse youth. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  25. Greenwood, D. J., Whyte, W. F., & Harkavy, I. (1993). Participatory action research as a process and as a goal. Human Relations, 46,175–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hoemagles, C., & Baartman, H. (1997). On the threshold of disclosure. The effects of a mass media field experiment. Child Abuse & Neglect, 21, 557–573.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hughes, J. N. (2000). The essential role of theory in the science of teaching children: Beyond empirically supported treatments. Journal of School Psychology, 38, 301–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kolbe, L. J., Collins, J., & Cortese, P. (1997). Building the capacity of schools to improve the health of the nation: A call for assistance from psychologists. American Psychologist, 52, 256–265.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Leff, S. S., Power, T. J., Manz, P. H., Costigan, T. E., & Nabors, L. A. (2001). School-based aggression prevention programs for young children: Current status and implications for violence prevention. School Psychology Review, 30, 344–362.Google Scholar
  30. Manz, P. H., Fantuzzo, J. W., & McDermott, P. A. (1999). The parent version of the preschool social skills rating scale: An analysis of its use with low-income, ethnic minority children. School Psychology Review, 28, 493–504.Google Scholar
  31. Manz, P. H., Power, T. J., Ginsburg-Block, M., & Dowrick, P. W. (2002). Community paraeducators: Improving the effectiveness of urban schools through the engagement and empowerment of low-income, ethnically diverse community residents. Manuscript submitted for publication.Google Scholar
  32. Masten, A. S. (2001). Ordinary magic: Resilience processes in development. American Psychologist, 56, 227–238.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. McComas, J. J., & Mace, F. C. (2000). Theory and practice in conducting functional analysis. In E. S. Shapiro & T. R. Kratochwill (Eds.), Behavioral assessment in schools: Theory, research, and clinical foundations. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  34. McLaughlin, J. M., Leone, P. E., Meisel, S., & Henderson, K. (1997). Strengthen school and community capacity. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 5,15–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. McMahon, T. J., Ward, N. L., Pruett, M. K., Davidson, L., & Griffith, E. (2000). Building full-service schools: Lessons learned in the development of interagency collaboratives. Journal of Educational & Psychological Consultation, 11, 65–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. McMiller, W. P., & Weisz, J. R. (1997). Help-seeking preceding mental health clinic intake among African-American, Latino, and Caucasian youths. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 35,1086–1094.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Nastasi, B. K. (2000). School psychologists as health-care providers in the 21st century: Conceptual framework, professional identity, and professional practice. School Psychology Review, 29, 540– 554.Google Scholar
  38. Nastasi, B. K., & Berg, M. (1999). Using ethnography to strengthen and evaluate intervention programs. In J. J. Schensul & M. D. LeCompte (Eds.), The ethnographer's toolkit: Using ethnographic data: In terventions, public programming, and public policy(Vol. 9, pp. 1–56). Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press.Google Scholar
  39. Nastasi, B. K., Varjas, K., Schensul, S. L., Silva, K. T., Schensul, J. J., & Ratnayake, P. (2000). The participatory intervention model: A framework for conceptualizing and promoting intervention acceptability. School Psychology Quarterly, 15, 207–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Nathan, P. E. (1998). Practice guidelines: Not yet ideal. American Psychologist, 53, 290–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Patterson, G., Reid, J., & Dishion, T. (1992). Antisocial boys. Eugene, OR: Castalia Publishing.Google Scholar
  42. Paul, G. L. (1967). Outcome research in psychotherapy. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 31, 109–118.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Phelps, L., Brown, R. T., & Power, T. J. (2001). Pediatric psychopharmacology: Facilitating collaborative practices. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  44. Power, T. J. (2000). Commentary: The school psychologist as community-focused, public health professional: Emerging challenges and implications for training. School Psychology Review, 29, 557–559.Google Scholar
  45. Power, T. J., & Bartholomew, K. L. (1987). Family-school relationship patterns: An ecological assessment. School Psychology Review, 14, 222–229.Google Scholar
  46. Power, T. J., & Blom-Hoffman, J. (in press). The school as venue for managing and preventing health problems: Opportunities and challenges. In R. Brown (Ed.), Handbook of pediatric psychology in school settings. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  47. Power, T. J., DuPaul, G. J., Shapiro, E. S., & Parrish, J. M. (1995). Pediatric school psychology: The emergence of a subspecialty. School Psychology Review, 24, 244–257.Google Scholar
  48. Power, T. J., & Eiraldi, R. B. (2000). Educational and psychiatric classification systems. In E. S. Shapiro & T. R. Kratochwill (Eds.), Behavioral assessment in schools: Theory, research, and clinical foundations. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  49. Power, T. J., Shapiro, E. S., & DuPaul, G. J. (in press). Preparing psychologists to link the educational and health systems in managing and preventing children's health problems. Journal of Pediatric Psychology.Google Scholar
  50. Roberts, M., Carlson, C., Erickson, M., Friedman, R., LaGreca, A., Lemanek, K., Russ, S., Schroeder, C., Vargas, L., & Wohlford, P. (1998). A model for training psychologists to provide services for children and adolescents. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 29, 293–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Schensul, J. J., & LeCompte, M. D. (Eds.). (1999). Ethnographer's toolkit(Vols. 1–7). Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press.Google Scholar
  52. Schwartz, I. S., & Baer, D. M. (1991). Social validity assessments: Is current practice state of the art? Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 24,189–204.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Seligman, M. E., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2000). Positive psychology. American Psychologist, 55, 5–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Shapiro, E. S., DuPaul, G. J., & Power, T. J. (1997, August). Pediatric school psychology: A new specialty in school health reform. The Pennsylvania Psychologist Quarterly, 20–21.Google Scholar
  55. Talley, R. C., & Short, R. J. (1995). School health: Psychology's role. A report to the nation. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  56. Toppelberg, C. O. (1997). Minority help seeking. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 443–444.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (1999). Mental health: A report of the Surgeon General. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration, Center for Mental Health Services, National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Mental Health.Google Scholar
  58. Wakefield, J. C. (1997). When is development disordered? Developmental psychopathology and the harmful dysfunction analysis of mental disorder. Development and Psychopathology, 9, 269– 290.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Weist, M. D., Nabors, L. A., Myers, P. C., & Ambruster, P. (2000). Evaluation of expanded school mental health programs. Community Mental Health Journal, 36, 395–411.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Weisz, J. R., McCarty, C. A., Eastman, K. L., & Chaiyasit, W. (1997). Developmental psychopathology and culture: Ten lessons from Thailand. In S. S. Luthar & J. A. Burak (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology: Perspectives on adjustment, risk and disorder(pp. 568–592). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  61. Wilson, D. K., Rodrique, J. R., & Taylor, W. C. (Eds.). (1997). Health&-promoting and health-compromising behaviors among minority youth. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  62. Wooten, S. A. (1997, Fall). School psychology into the twenty-first century: The internship in the Dallas public schools. The School Psychologist, 51,114–117.Google Scholar
  63. Worden, J. K., Flynn, B. S., Solomon, L. J., & Seeker-Walker, R. H. (1996). Using mass media to prevent cigarette smoking among adolescent girls. Health Education Quarterly, 23, 453–468.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas J. Power
    • 1
  • Patricia H. Manz
    • 2
  • Stephen S. Leff
    • 1
  1. 1.Children's Hospital of PhiladelphiaUniversity of Pennsylvania School of MedicinePhiladelphiaPennsylvania
  2. 2.Lehigh University College of EducationBethlehem

Personalised recommendations