Polymer Microscopy

pp 67-129

Image Formation in the Microscope

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The basic optics of the optical microscope and the conventional transmission electron microscope (TEM) are similar. Condenser lenses illuminate the object to be imaged with a flood of radiation, and imaging lenses form the radiation leaving the object into a magnified image. The formation, contrast and resolution of images in these microscopes can be understood with classical optics, which includes geometrical (particle) and physical (wave) optics. Both electrons and light may be considered as propagating waves with an amplitude and a phase, though only the intensity which equals (amplitude)2 can be directly observed.