Richman, Poorman, Beggarman, Chief: The Dynamics of Social Inequality

  • Brian Hayden

Trafficking with the origins of inequality is a daunting undertaking at the beginning of the millennium for both prehistorians and ethnologists, but it also is an exhilarating foray into the origins of contemporary societies. There is a bewildering array of very different conceptual approaches to the issues, and there is no lack of published material. The goal of this chapter is to briefly outline the archaeological evidence on the origins of socioeconomic inequality, characterize the diversity of approaches to the issue, and then to explore in more detail the general approach that seems to have the most potential for future productive research. The main problem that is addressed is simply how and why socioeconomic inequality emerged in previously egalitarian communities.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ames, K., 1985, Hierarchies, Stress, and Logistical Strategies Among Hunter-Gatherers in Northwestern North America. In Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherers, edited by T. D. Price and J. Brown, pp. 155-180. Academic Press, Orlando.Google Scholar
  2. Arnold, J., 1992, Complex Hunter-Gatherer-Fishers of Prehistoric California: Chiefs, Specialists, and Maritime Adaptations of the Channel Islands. American Antiquity 57:60-84.Google Scholar
  3. Arnold, J., 1993, Labor and the Rise of Complex Hunter-Gatherers. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 12:75-119.Google Scholar
  4. Arnold, J., 1995, Transportation, Innovation, and Social Complexity Among Maritime Hunter-Gatherer Society. American Anthropologist 97:733-747.Google Scholar
  5. Arnold, J., 1996, The Archaeology of Complex Hunter-Gatherers. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 3:77-126.Google Scholar
  6. Bader, O., 1964, Oldest Burial. Illustrated London News 254:731.Google Scholar
  7. Beaune, S., 1995, Les Hommes au Temps de Lascaux. Hachette, Paris.Google Scholar
  8. Berreman, G., 1981, Social Inequity: A Cross-Cultural Analysis. In Social Inequality: Comparative and Developmental Approaches, edited by G. Berreman, pp. 3-40. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  9. Bettinger, R., 1978, Alternative Adaptive Strategies in the Prehistoric Great Basin. Journal of Anthropological Research 34:27-46.Google Scholar
  10. Bettinger, R., 1983, Aboriginal Sociopolitical Organization in Owens Valley: Beyond the Family Band. In The Development of Political Organization in Native North America, edited by E. Tooker and M. Fried, pp. 45-58. American Ethnological Society, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  11. Binant, P., 1991, La Prehistoire de la Mort. Editions Errance, Paris.Google Scholar
  12. Birket-Smith, K., 1967, Studies in Circumpacific Culture Relations: Potlatch and Feasts of Merit. Kommissionaer, Munksgaard, Copenhagen.Google Scholar
  13. Bishop, C., 1983, Limiting Access to Limited Goods: The Origins of Stratification in Interior British Columbia. In The Development of Political Organization in Native North America, edited by E. Tooker and M. Fried, pp. 148-161. American Ethnological Society, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  14. Bishop, C., 1987, Coast-Interior Exchange: The Origins of Stratification in Northwestern North America. Arctic Anthropology 24:72-83.Google Scholar
  15. Blake, M. and Clark, J., 1989, The Emergence of Hereditary Inequality: The Case of Pacific Coastal Chiapas, Mexico. Paper presented at the Circum-Pacific Prehistory Conference, Seattle.Google Scholar
  16. Blanchard, R., Peyrony, D., and Vallois, H., 1972, Le Gisement et le Squelette de Saint-Germain-la-Riviere. Memoire No. 34. Institut de Paleontologie Humaine, Paris.Google Scholar
  17. Blackburn, T., 1976, Ceremonial Integration and Social Interaction in Aboriginal California. In Native Californians: A Theoretical Retrospective, edited by L. Bean and T. C. Backburn, pp. 225-243. Ballena Press, Socorro.Google Scholar
  18. Blanton, R., 1995, The Cultural Foundations of Inequality in Households. In Foundations of Social Inequality, edited by T. D. Price and G. M. Feinman, pp. 105-128. Plenum, New York.Google Scholar
  19. Blanton, R. and Taylor, J., 1995, Patterns of Exchange and the Social Production of Pigs in Highland New Guinea: Their Relevance to Questions About the Origins and Evolution of Agriculture. Journal of Archaeological Research 3:113-145.Google Scholar
  20. Boelscher, M., 1989, The Curtain Within: Haida Social and Mythological Discourse. University of British Columbia Press, Vancouver.Google Scholar
  21. Bogucki, P., 1993, Animal Traction and Household Economies in Neolithic Europe. Antiquity 67:492-503.Google Scholar
  22. Boyd, D., 1996, Skeletal Correlates of Human Behavior in the Americas. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 3:189-251.Google Scholar
  23. Brumfiel, E., 1976, Regional Growth in the Valley of Mexico: A Test of the ‘Population Pressure’ Hypothesis. In The Early Mesoamerican Village, edited by K. V. Flannery, pp. 234-247. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  24. Brumfiel, E., 1995, Heterarchy and the Analysis of Complex Societies: Comment. In Heterarchy and the Analysis of Complex Societies, edited by R. Ehrenreich, C. Crumley, and J. Levy, pp. 125-131. Archeological Paper No. 6. American Anthropological Association, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  25. Byrd, B., and Monahan, C., 1995, Death, Mortuary Ritual, and Natufian Social Structure. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 14:252-287.Google Scholar
  26. Carlson, R., 1991, The Northwest Coast Before A.D. 1600. Proceedings of the Great Ocean Conferences 1:109-136.Google Scholar
  27. Carlson, R., 1996, The First British Columbians. In The Pacific Province, edited by H. Johnson, pp. 12-46. Douglas and McIntyre, Vancouver.Google Scholar
  28. Carneiro, R., 1970, A Theory of the Origin of the State. Science 169:733-738.Google Scholar
  29. Cauvin, J., 1994, Naissance des Divinites, Naissance de l’Agriculture. CNRS Editions, Paris.Google Scholar
  30. Cauwe, N., 1995, Les Sepultures Collectives dans le Temps et l’Espace. Bulletin, Societe Prehistorique Francaises 93:342-352.Google Scholar
  31. Cauwe, N., 1997, Les Morts en Mouvement. In Actes, International Symposium O Neolitico Atlantico e as Orixes do Megalitismo. Universidade de Santiago de Compostela.Google Scholar
  32. Chatters, J., 1989, The Antiquity of Economic Differentiation Within Households in the Puget Sound Region, Northwest Coast. In Households and Communities, edited by S. MacEachern, D. Archer, and R. Garvin, pp. 168-78. Archaeological Association, University of Calgary, Calgary.Google Scholar
  33. Chatters, J., 1995, Population Growth, Climatic Cooling, and the Development of Collector Strategies on the Southern Plateau. Journal of World Prehistory 9:341-400.Google Scholar
  34. Clark, J., and Blake, M., 1989, The Emergence of Rank Societies on the Pacific Coasts of Chiapas, Mexico. Paper presented at the Circum-Pacific Prehistory Conference, Seattle.Google Scholar
  35. Clark, J. and Blake, M., 1994, The Power of Prestige: Competitive Generosity and the Emergence of Rank Societies in Lower Mesoamerica. In Factional Competition and Political Development in the New World, edited by E. Brumfiel and J. Fox, pp. 17-30. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  36. Clarke, J. and Parry, W., 1990, Craft Specialization and Cultural Complexity. Research in Economic Anthropology 12:289-346.Google Scholar
  37. Clarke, M., 1998, Feasting Among the Akha of Northern Thailand. M. A. thesis, Archaeology Department, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia.Google Scholar
  38. Coe, M., and Diehl, R., 1980, In the Land of the Olmec, Volume 2. University of Texas Press, Austin.Google Scholar
  39. Cohen, M., 1977, The Food Crisis in Prehistory. Yale University Press, New Haven.Google Scholar
  40. Cohen, M. and Armelagos, G., 1984, Paleopathology at the Origin of Agriculture: Editors’ Summary. In Paleopathology at the Origin of Agriculture, edited by M. Cohen and G. Armelagos, pp. 585-602. Academic Press, Orlando.Google Scholar
  41. Condominas, G., 1977, We Have Eaten the Forest. Hill and Wang, New York.Google Scholar
  42. Coupland, G., 1988, Prehistoric Economies and Social Change in the Tsimshian Area. In Prehistoric Economies of the Pacific Northwest Coast. Research in Economic Anthropology, Supplement 3, edited by B. Isaac, pp. 211-244. JAI Press, Greenwich, CT.Google Scholar
  43. Cowan, C. and Watson, P. J., 1992, Some Concluding Remarks. In The Origins of Agriculture, edited by C. W. Cowan and P. J. Watson, pp. 207-212. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  44. Cowgill, G., 1975, On Causes and Consequences of Ancient and Modern Population Changes. American Anthropologist 77:505-525.Google Scholar
  45. Cowgill, G., 1996, Population, Human Nature, Knowing Actors, and Explaining the Onset of Complexity. In Debating Complexity, edited by D. D. Myer, P. Dawson, and D. Hanna, pp. 16-22. Archaeological Association, University of Calgary, Calgary.Google Scholar
  46. Curet, L., 1992, House Structure and Cultural Change in the Caribbean. Latin American Quarterly 3:160-174.Google Scholar
  47. Dalton, G., 1977, Aboriginal Economies in Stateless Societies. In Exchange Systems in Prehistory, edited by T. Earle and J. Ericson, pp. 191-212. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  48. Defleur, A., 1987, Les Sepultures Mousteriennes. Ph.D. dissertation, Prehistoire-Anthropologie-Technologie, Universite de Provence, Marseille.Google Scholar
  49. Dietler, M., 1996, Feasts and Commensal Politics in the Political Economy: Food, Power, and Status in Prehistoric Europe. In Food and the Status Quest, edited by P. Wiessner and W. Schiefenhovel, pp. 87-126. Berghahn, Providence.Google Scholar
  50. Dietler, M. and Herbich, I., 2000, Feasts and Labor Mobilization. In Feasts: Ethnoarchaeological Perspectives, edited by B. Hayden and M. Dietler. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C., in press.Google Scholar
  51. Douglas, M. and Isherwood, B., 1979, The World of Goods. Routledge, London.Google Scholar
  52. Earle, T., 1989, The Evolution of Chiefdoms. Current Anthropology 30:84-88.Google Scholar
  53. Ehrenreich, R., Crumley, C., and Levy, J. (editors), 1995, Heterarchy and the Analysis of Complex Societies. Archeology Paper No. 6. American Anthropological Association, Arlington.Google Scholar
  54. Emmons, G. and de Laguna, F., 1991, The Tlingit Indians. University of Washington Press, Seattle.Google Scholar
  55. Ensminger, J. and Knight J., 1997, Changing Social Norms. Current Anthropology 38:1-29.Google Scholar
  56. Falvey, L., 1977, Ruminants in the Highlands of Northern Thailand. Australian Development Assistance Bureau / Tribal Research Center, Canberra.Google Scholar
  57. Feil, D., 1987, The Evolution of Highland Papua New Guinea Societies. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  58. Feinman, G. M., 1995, The Emergence of Inequality: A Focus on Strategies and Processes. In Foundations of Social Inequality, edited by T. D. Price and G. M. Feinman, pp. 255-280. Plenum, New York.Google Scholar
  59. Feinman, G. M., 2000, Dual-Processual Theory and Social Formations in the Southwest. In Alternative Leadership Strategies in the Prehispanic Southwest, edited by B. Mills, pp. 207-224. University of Arizona Press, Tucson.Google Scholar
  60. Feinman, G, and Neitzel, J., 1984, Too Many Types: An Overview of Sedentary Prestate Societies in the Americas. Advances in Archaeological Method and Theory 7:39-102.Google Scholar
  61. Ferguson, R., 1984, A Reexamination of the Causes of Northwest Coast Warfare. In Warfare, Culture, and Environment, edited by R. Ferguson, pp. 267-328. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  62. Firth, R., 1957, We, the Tikopia. Novello and Company, London.Google Scholar
  63. Flannery, K., 1972, The Cultural Evolution of Civilizations. Annual Review of Systematics and Ecology 3:399-426.Google Scholar
  64. Freedman, M., 1970, Ritual Aspects of Chinese Kinship and Marriage. In Family and Kinship in Chinese Society, edited by M. Freedman, pp. 164-179. Stanford University Press, Stanford.Google Scholar
  65. Freeman, L. and González Edhegaray, J., 1981, El Juyu: A 14,000-Year-Old Sanctuary from Northern Spain. History of Religions 21:1-19.Google Scholar
  66. Fried, M., 1960, On the Evolution of Social Stratification and the State. In Culture in History, edited by S. Diamond, pp. 713-731. Columbia University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  67. Fried, M., 1967, The Evolution of Political Society. Random House, New York.Google Scholar
  68. Gilman, A., 1981, The Development of Social Stratification in Bronze Age Europe. Current Anthropology 22:1-24.Google Scholar
  69. Girard, C., 1976, L’Habitat et la Mode de Vie au Paleolithique Moyen. Arcy-sur-Cure (Yonne). In Les Structures d’Habitats au Paleolithique Moyen, edited by L. Freeman, pp. 49-63. Papers of Colloque XI, IXe Congres UISPP, Nice.Google Scholar
  70. Gosden, C., 1989, Debt, Production, and Prehistory. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 8:355-387.Google Scholar
  71. Gould, S. J., 1987, Wonderful Life: The Burgess Shale and the Nature of History. W. W. Norton, New York. Google Scholar
  72. Gummerman, G. and Kohler, T., 1994, Archaeology and the Sciences of Complexity. Paper presented at the 59th Annual Meeting of the Society for American Archaeology, Anaheim.Google Scholar
  73. Hakansson, N. T., 1994, Grain, Cattle, and Power: Social Processes of Intensive Cultivation and Exchange in Precolonial Western Kenya. Journal of Anthropological Research 50:249-276.Google Scholar
  74. Hakansson, N. T., 1995, Irrigation, Population Pressure, and Exchange in Precolonial Pare, Tanzania. Research in Economic Anthropology 16:297-323.Google Scholar
  75. Halstead, P. and O’Shea, J., 1982, A Friend Is a Friend Indeed: Social Change and the Origins of Social Ranking. In Ranking, Resources and Exchange, edited by C. Renfrew and S. Shennan, pp. 92-99. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  76. Harlan, J., 1992, Indigenous African Agriculture. In The Origins of Agriculture, edited by C. W. Cowan and P. J. Watson, pp. 59-70. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  77. Harner, M., 1975, Scarcity, the Factors of Production, and Social Evolution. In Population, Ecology and Social Evolution, edited by S. Polgar, pp. 123-138. Mouton, Chicago.Google Scholar
  78. Harrison, L., 1985, Underdevelopment is a State of Mind: The Latin American Case. University Press of America, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  79. Harrison, L., 1992, Who Prospers? How Cultural Values Shape Economic and Political Success. Basic Books, New York.Google Scholar
  80. Hayden, B., 1986, Resources, Rivalry, and Reproduction: The Influence of Basic Resource Characteristics on Reproductive Behavior. In Culture and Reproduction, edited by P. Handwerker, pp. 176-195. Westview Press, Boulder, CO.Google Scholar
  81. Hayden, B., 1987, Traditional Metate Manufacturing in Guatemala Using Chipped Stone Tools. In Lithic Studies Among the Contemporary Highland Maya, edited by B. Hayden, pp. 8-119. University of Arizona Press, Tucson.Google Scholar
  82. Hayden, B., 1992, Ecology and Complex Hunter-Gatherers. In A Complex Culture of British Columbia Plateau, edited by B. Hayden, pp. 525-563. University of British Columbia Press, Vancouver.Google Scholar
  83. Hayden, B., 1993, The Cultural Capacities of Neanderthals: A Review and Re-Evaluation. Journal of Human Evolution 24:113-146.Google Scholar
  84. Hayden, B., 1995a, Pathways to Power: Principles for Creating Socioeconomic Inequities. In Foundations of Social Inequality, edited by T. D. Price and G. M. Feinman, pp. 15-85. Plenum, New York.Google Scholar
  85. Hayden, B., 1995b, A New Overview of Domestication. In Last Hunters—First Farmers: New Perspectives on the Prehistoric Transition to Agriculture, edited by T. D. Price and A. Gebauer, pp. 273-299. School of American Research Press, Santa Fe, New Mexico.Google Scholar
  86. Hayden, B., 1996, Thresholds of Power in Emergent Complex Societies. In Emergent Complexity: The Evolution of Intermediate Societies, edited by J. Arnold, pp. 50-58. International Monographs in Prehistory, Ann Arbor, MI.Google Scholar
  87. Hayden, B., 1997, The Pithouses of Keatley Creek. Harcourt Brace, Fort Worth.Google Scholar
  88. Hayden, B., 1998, Practical and Prestige Technologies: The Evolution of Material Systems. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 5:1-55.Google Scholar
  89. Hayden, B., 2000, On Territoriality and Sedentism. Current Anthropology 41:109-112.Google Scholar
  90. Hayden, B. and Gargett, R., 1990, Big Man, Big Heart? A Mesoamerican View of the Emergence of Complex Society. Ancient Mesoamerica 1:3-20.Google Scholar
  91. Hayden, B., Deal, M., Cannon, A., and Casey, J., 1986, Ecological Determinants of Women’s Status Among Hunter/Gatherers. Human Evolution 1:449-474.Google Scholar
  92. Henry, D., 1989, From Foraging to Agriculture—The Levant at the End of the Ice Age. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  93. Housley, R., Gamble C., Street, M., and Pettit, P., 1997, Radiocarbon Evidence for the Late Glacial Human Recolonization of Northern Europe. Proceedings, Prehistoric Society 63:25-54.Google Scholar
  94. Isaac, G., 1978, Food-Sharing and Human Evolution: Archaeological Evidence from the Plio-Pleistocene of East Afica. Journal of Anthropological Research 34:311-325.Google Scholar
  95. Isbell, W. and Cook, A., 1987, Ideological Origins of an Andean Conquest State. Archaeology 40:27-33.Google Scholar
  96. Izikowitz, K., 1951, Lamet: Hill Peasants in French Indochina. Goteborg, Uppsala.Google Scholar
  97. Jacobs, K., 1995, Returning to Oleni’ostrov: Social, Economic, and Skeletal Dimensions of a Boreal Forest Mesolithic Cemetery. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 14:359-403.Google Scholar
  98. Johnson, G., 1982, Organizational Structure and Scalar Stress. In Theory and Explanation in Archaeology, edited by C. Renfrew, M. Rowland, and B. Segraves, pp. 389-421. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  99. Junker, L., 1998, The Evolution of Ritual Feasting Systems in Prehistoric Philippine Chiefdoms. Paper presented at the 63rd Annual Meeting of the Society for American Archaeology, Seattle.Google Scholar
  100. Keeley, L., 1988, Hunter-Gatherer Economic Complexity and “Population Pressure”: A Cross-Cultural Analysis. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 7:373-411.Google Scholar
  101. Keeley, L., 1995, Protoagricultural Practices Among Hunter-Gatherers: A Cross-Cultural Survey. In Last Hunters-First Humans, edited by T. D. Price and A. B. Gebauer, pp. 243-272. School of American Research Press, Santa Fe, NM.Google Scholar
  102. King, C., 1978, Don’t that Beat the Band? Nonegalitarian Political Organization in Prehistoric Central California. In Social Archaeology, edited by C. Redman, M. Berman, E. Curtin, W. Langhorne, N. Versaggi, and J. Wanser, pp. 225-248. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  103. Landa, J., 1994, Trust, Ethnicity, and Identity. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor.Google Scholar
  104. Leach, E. R., 1954, Political Systems of Highland Burma. Beacon Press, Boston.Google Scholar
  105. Lee, R., 1990, Primitive Communism and the Origin of Social Inequality. In The Evolution of Political Systems, edited by S. Upham, pp. 225-246. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  106. Legros, D., 1982, Reflections sur l’Origine des Inegalities Sociales a Partir du Cas de Athapaskan Tutchone. Culture 2:65-84.Google Scholar
  107. Lewis-Williams, J. D., 1994, Rock Art and Ritual: South Africa and Beyond. Complutum 5:277-289.Google Scholar
  108. Lewis-Williams, J. D., 1995, Seeing and Construing: The Making and “Meaning” of a Southern African Rock Art Motif. Cambridge Archaeological Journal 5:3-23.Google Scholar
  109. Lewis-Williams, J. D., 1997, Agency, Art and Altered Consciousness. Antiquity 71:810-830.Google Scholar
  110. Lewis-Williams, J. D. and Dowson, T., 1993, On Vision and Power in the Neolithic: Evidence from the Decorated Monuments. Current Anthropology 34:55-65.Google Scholar
  111. Lightfoot, K., 1993, Long-Term Development in Complex Hunter/gatherer Societies: Recent Perspectives from the Pacific Coast of North America. Journal of Archaeological Research 1:167-189.Google Scholar
  112. Lightfoot, K. and Feinman, G. M., 1982, Social Differentiation and Leadership Development in Early Pithouse Villages in the Mogollon Region of the American Southwest. American Antiquity 47:64-85.Google Scholar
  113. Lourandos, H., 1980, Change or Stability? Hydraulics, Hunter-Gatherers and Population in Temperate Australia. World Archaeology II:245-264.Google Scholar
  114. Lourandos, H., 1985, Intensification and Australian Prehistory. In Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherers: The Emergence of Cultural Complexity, edited by T. D. Price and J. Brown, pp. 385-423. Academic Press, Orlando.Google Scholar
  115. McGuire, R., 1983, Breaking Down Cultural Complexity: Inequality and Heterogeneity. In Advances in Archaeological Method and Theory, Volume 6,, edited by M. Schiffer, pp. 91-142. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  116. Marshack, A., 1988, . In L’homme de Neandertal, Volume 5, La Pensee, edited by M. Otte, pp. 57-92. Etudes et Recherches Archeologiques de l’Université de Liege, Liege, Belgium.Google Scholar
  117. Marshack, A., 1989, Evolution of the Human Capacity: The Symbolic Evidence. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology 32:1-34.Google Scholar
  118. Matson, R. G., 1985, The Relationship Between Sedentism and Status Inequities Among Hunters and Gatherers. In Status, Structure and Stratification, edited by M. Thompson, M. Garcia, and F. Kense, pp. 245-252. Archaeological Association, University of Calgary, Calgary.Google Scholar
  119. Matson, R. G. and Coupland, G., 1995, The Prehistory of the Northwest Coast. Academic Press, San Diego.Google Scholar
  120. Mauss, M., 1967, The Gift. Norton, New York. [Originally published 1925.Google Scholar
  121. Milisauskas, S. and Kruk, J., 1993, Archaeological Investigations on Neolithic and Bronze Age Sites in Southern Poland. In Case Studies in European Prehistory, edited by P. Bogucki, pp. 63-94. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.Google Scholar
  122. Miller, B. and Boxberger, D., 1994, Creating Chiefdoms: The Puget Sound Case. Ethnohistory 41:267-294.Google Scholar
  123. Mitchell, D. and Donald, L., 1985, Some Economic Aspects of Tlingit, Haida, and Tsimshian Slavery. Research in Economic Anthropology 7:19-35.Google Scholar
  124. Muller, J., 1987, Salt, Chert, and Shell: Mississippian Exchange and Economy. In Specialization, Exchange, and Complex Societies, edited by E. Brumfiel and T. Earle, pp. 10-21. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  125. O’Shea, J. and Zvelebil, M., 1984, Oleneostrovski Mogilnik: Reconstructing the Social and Economic Organization of Prehistoric Foragers in Northern Russia. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 3:1-40.Google Scholar
  126. Owens, D. and Hayden, B., 1997, Prehistoric Rites of Passage: A Comparative Study of Transegalitarian HunterGatherers. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 16:121-161.Google Scholar
  127. Paynter, R., 1989, The Archaeology of Equity and Inequity. Annual Review of Anthropology 18:363-399.Google Scholar
  128. Peebles, C. and Kus, S., 1977, Some Archaeological Correlates of Ranked Societies. American Antiquity 42:421-448.Google Scholar
  129. Price, T. D. and Brown, J. (editors), 1985, Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherers. Academic Press, Orlando.Google Scholar
  130. Rathje, W., 1972, Praise the Gods and Pass the Metates. In Contemporary Archaeology, edited by M. Leone, pp. 365-392. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.Google Scholar
  131. Renfrew, C. and Bahn, P., 1996, Archaeology: Theories, Methods and Practice. Thames and Hudson, New York.Google Scholar
  132. Rosenberg, M., 1998, Territoriality and Sedentism in an Evolutionary Context. Current Anthropology 39:653-682.Google Scholar
  133. Rousseau, J., 1979a, Stratification and Chiefship. In Challenging Anthropology, edited by D. Turner and G. Smith, pp. 229-244. McGraw-Hill, Toronto.Google Scholar
  134. Rousseau, J., 1979b, Kayan Stratification. Man 14:215-236.Google Scholar
  135. Rouzaud, F., Soulier, M., and Lignereux, Y., 1996, La Grotte de Bruniquel. Spelunca 60:28-34.Google Scholar
  136. Sandarupa, S., 1996, Life and Death in Toraja. PT Torindo, Ujung Pandang.Google Scholar
  137. Schele, L. and Freidel, D., 1990, A Forest of Kings. William Morrow, New York.Google Scholar
  138. Schlegel, A., 1991, Status, Property, and the Value of Virginity. American Ethnologist 18:719-734.Google Scholar
  139. Schulting, R., 1995, Mortuary Variability and Status Differentiation on the Columbia Fraser Plateau. Archaeology Press, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby.Google Scholar
  140. Schurr, M. and Schoeninger, M., 1995, Associations Between Agricultural Intensification and Social Complexity: An Example from the Prehistoric Ohio Valley. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 14:315-339.Google Scholar
  141. Sherman, D. G., 1990, Rice, Rupees, and Ritual. Stanford University Press, Stanford.Google Scholar
  142. Sherratt, A., 1981, Plough and Pastoralism: Aspects of the Secondary Products Revolution. In Patterns of the Past, edited by I. Hodder, G. Isaac, and N. Hammond, pp. 261-305. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  143. Sherratt, A., 1983, The Secondary Exploitation of Animals in the Old World. World Archaeology 15:20-104.Google Scholar
  144. Shnirelman, V., 1990, Class and Social Differentiation in Oceania. In Culture and History in the Pacific, edited by J. Siikala, pp. 125-138. Finnish Anthropological Society Transactions No. 27. Helsinki.Google Scholar
  145. Shnirelman, V., 1992, Complex Hunter-Gatherers: Exceptions or Common Phenomenon? Dialectical Anthropology 17:183-196.Google Scholar
  146. Stanish, C., 1994, The Hydraulic Hypothesis Revisited: Lake Titicaca Basin Raised Fields in Theoretical Perspective. Latin American Antiquity 5:312-332.Google Scholar
  147. Smith, M., 1993, New World Complex Societies: Recent Economic, Social and Political Studies. Journal of Archaeological Research 1:5-41.Google Scholar
  148. Soffer, O., 1989, Storage, Sedentism and the Eurasian Paleolithic Record. Antiquity 63:719-732.Google Scholar
  149. Strathern, A., 1971, The Rope of Moka. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  150. Straus, L. G., 1991, Human Geography of the Late Upper Paleolithic in Western Europe: Present State of the Question. Journal of Anthropological Research 47:259-278.Google Scholar
  151. Suttles, W., 1968, Coping with Abundance: Subsistence on the Northwest Coast. In Man the Hunter, edited by R. Lee and I. Devore, pp. 56-68. Aldine, Chicago.Google Scholar
  152. Swanton, J., 1975, Contributions to the Ethnology of the Haida. Memoirs No. 5. American Museum of Natural History, New York. [Originally published 1909.Google Scholar
  153. Testart, A., 1982, The Significance of Food Storage Among Hunter-Gatherers. Current Anthropology 23:523-537.Google Scholar
  154. Tremaine, K., 1997, Social Incentives: Explaining Subsistence Intensification in Prehistoric Central California. Unpublished dissertation proposal, Anthropology Department, University of California, Davis.Google Scholar
  155. Trinkaus, E., 1983, The Shanidar Neandertals. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  156. Tuchman, B., 1978, A Distant Mirror: The Calamitous 14th Century. Ballantine, New York.Google Scholar
  157. Turner, B., 1983, Once Beneath the Forest: Prehistoric Terracing in the Rio Bec Region of the Maya Lowlands. Westview Press, Boulder, CO.Google Scholar
  158. Upham, S., 1990, The Evolution of Political Systems. Sociopolitics in Small-Scale Sedentary Societies. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  159. van Berg, P. and Cauwe, N., 1995, Magdalithiques et Megaleniens. Bulletin, Societe Prehistorique Francaise 93:366-387.Google Scholar
  160. Wason, P., 1994, The Archaeology of Rank. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  161. Webster, D., 1975, Warfare and the Evolution of the State: A Reconsideration. American Antiquity 40:464-470.Google Scholar
  162. Wenke, R., 1989, Egypt: Origins of Complex Societies. Annual Review of Anthropology 18:29-55.Google Scholar
  163. White, R., 1985, Upper Paleolithic Land Use in the Perigord. BAR International Series No. 253. British Archaeological Reports, Oxford.Google Scholar
  164. White, R., 1992, The Earliest Images: Ice Art in Europe. Expedition 34:37-51.Google Scholar
  165. White, R., 1993, Technology and Social Dimensions of “Aurignacian Age” Body Ornaments Across Europe. In Before Lascaux: The Complex Record of the Early Upper Paleolithic, edited by H. Knecht, A. Pike-Tay, and R. White, pp. 277-299. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.Google Scholar
  166. Wiessner, P. and Tumu, A., 1999, A Collage of Cults. Canberra Anthropology 22:34-65.Google Scholar
  167. Winters, H., 1969, The Riverton Culture. Reports of Investigations No. 13. Illinois State Museum, Springfield.Google Scholar
  168. Wittfogel, K., 1957, Oriental Despotism: A Comparative Study of Total Power. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT.Google Scholar
  169. Wright, G., 1978, Social Differentiation in the Early Natufian. In Social Archaeology, edited by C. Redman, M. Berman, E. Curtin, W. Langhorne, N. Versaggi, and J. Wanser, pp. 201-224. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  170. Wright, R., 1994, The Moral Animal. Vintage Books, New York.Google Scholar
  171. Yan, Y., 1996, The Flow of Gifts. Stanford University Press, Stanford.Google Scholar
  172. Young, M., 1971, Fighting With Food. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  173. Zhang, X. and Baohe, L., 1993, On Hani Nationality’s Customary Law and Cultural Value. Paper presented at the Conference on the Hani, Tribal Research Institute, Chiang Mai, Thailand.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Brian Hayden
    • 1
  1. 1.Archaeology DepartmentSimon Fraser UniversityBurnabyCanada

Personalised recommendations