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Molecular Genetics of Lung and Pleural Neoplasms

  • Philip T. Cagle
  • Jaishree Jagirdar
  • Helmut H. Popper

Abstract

Molecular pathology involves study of nucleic acids, genes, and gene products.1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 The development and progression of human cancers are linked to genetic instability and the accumulation of multiple genetic mutations, which can be investigated with the tools of molecular pathology.10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25 Molecular pathology provides a basis for understanding the biology of lung cancer,26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36 including its pathogenetic relationship to tobacco smoking,37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57 and increasingly is providing targets for therapeutic intervention. 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78 In this section, we briefly review the basic terminology and concepts, as an introduction or refresher to subsequent sections of this chapter, and we discuss nucleic acids, genes, and gene products; replication, translation, and transcription; posttranslational modifications of gene products and protein degradation; transcription factors, cell surface receptors and signaling pathways, the cell cycle, apoptosis, cell survival and DNA damage repair; mutations; and microRNAs and siRNAs.

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