Pasture Soils Contaminated with Fertilizer-Derived Cadmium and Fluorine: Livestock Effects

  • Paripurnanda Loganathan
  • Mike J. Hedley
  • Neville D. Grace
Part of the Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology book series (RECT, volume 192)


Pasture-based livestock production is a major system of agriculture in many parts of the world. Approximately one-fifth of the world’s land area is used for livestock production, twice the area used for growing crops. Grazing livestock occupy approximately 3.5 billion ha of permanent pasture (FAO Statistics 2006). In the more intensively stocked pastures, pasture production has been increased through introduction of improved pasture species and regular application of fertilizers. In ryegrass and clover-based pastures, common in temperate climates, the main nutrients applied in fertilizers have been phosphorus (P) and sulfur (S). Nitrogen, sulfur, and potassium fertilizers are relatively free of contaminants, but P fertilizers, e.g., single and triple superphosphate (SSP, TSP), and diammonium phosphate (DAP) often contain many contaminants derived from the phosphate rocks (PR) used in their manufacture. If not managed appropriately, these fertilizer contaminants may cause adverse effects on livestock health, food quality, and environment.


Soil Solution Phate Rock Grazing Livestock Pasture Soil Cadmium Accumulation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adriano DC (2001) Trace Elements in the Terrestrial Environments: Biogeo-chemistry, Bioavailability, and Risks of Metals, 2nd Ed. Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  2. Arnesen AKM (1997) Availability of fluoride to plants grown in contaminated soils. Plant Soil 191:13–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Boekhold AE Van der Zee 1992 SEATM a scaled sorption model validated at the column scale to predict cadmium contents in a spatially variable field. Soil Sci 154105–112.Google Scholar
  4. Bolan NS, Naidu R, Syers JK, Tillman RW (1999) Surface charge and solute interactions in soils. Adv Agron 67:88–141.Google Scholar
  5. Bolan NS, Adriano DC, Naidu R, Luz Mora Mdl, Mahimairaja S (2005) Phosphorustrace element interactions in soil-plant systems. In: Sims JT, Sharpley AN (eds) Phosphorus: Agriculture and the Environment. Agronomy Monograph No. 46. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI, pp 317–352.Google Scholar
  6. Bower CA, Hatcher JT (1967) Adsorption of fluoride by soils and minerals. Soil Sci 103:151–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bremner I (1978) Cadmium toxicity. World Rev Nutr Diet 32:165–197.Google Scholar
  8. Bretherton MR, Loganathan P, Hedley MJ, Grace ND (2002) A model to assess the risk of chronic fluorosis in sheep grazing New Zealand pastures. Report to New Zealand Fertiliser Manufacturers’ Research Association, Auckland.Google Scholar
  9. Brown PH, Dunemann L, Schulz R, Marschner H (1989) Influence of redox potential and plant species on the uptake of nickel and cadmium from soils. Z Pflanzenernaehr Bodenkd 152:85–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cameron RS, Ritchie GSP, Robson AD (1986) Relative toxicities of inorganic aluminium complexes to barley. Soil Sci Soc Am J 50:1231–1236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Castilho DP, Bril J, Romkens P, Oenema O (1996) Cadmium accumulation and availability in agricultural land and the effects of land use changes. In: Fertilizers as a Source of Cadmium. Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris, pp 153–167.Google Scholar
  12. Chaney RL, Filcheva E, Green CE, Brown SL (2006) Zn deficiency promotes Cd accumulation mby lettuce from biosolids amended soils with high Cd:Zn ratio. J Residuals Sci Technol 3:79–85.Google Scholar
  13. Chien SH, Carmona G, Prochnow LI, Austin ER (2003) Cadmium availability from granulated and bulk-blended phosphate-potassium fertilizers. J Environ Qual 32:1911–1914.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Clark RG, Stewart DJ (1983) Fluorine (F). In: Grace ND (ed) The Mineral Requirements of Grazing Ruminants. New Zealand Society of Animal Production. THL Publishers, Singapore, pp 129–134.Google Scholar
  15. Clark RG, Hunter AC, Stewart DJ (1976) Deaths in cattle suggestive of subacute fluorine poisoning following the ingestion of superphosphate. N Z Vet J 24:193–197.Google Scholar
  16. Clay AB, Suttie JW (1985) The availability of fluoride from NaF and phosphorus supplements. Vet Hum Toxicol 27:3–6.Google Scholar
  17. Cook PJ, Freney RJ (1988) Sources of cadmium in agriculture. In: Simpson J, Curnow WJ (eds) Cadmium Accumulations in Australian Agriculture. Bureau of Rural Resources, Canberra, ACT, pp 4–19.Google Scholar
  18. Coote GE, Cutress TW, Suckling GW (1997) Uptake of fluoride into developing sheep teeth, following the 1995 volcanic eruption of Mt. Ruapehu, New Zealand. Nucl Instrum Methods Phys Res B 130:571–575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cronin SJ, Manoharan V, Hedley MJ, Loganathan P (2000) Fluoride: a review of its fate, bioavailability, and risks of fluorosis in grazed-pasture systems in New Zealand. N Z J Agric Res 43:295–321.Google Scholar
  20. Cronin SJ, Neall VE, Lecointre JA, Hedley MJ, Loganathan P (2003) Environmental hazards of fluoride in volcanic ash: a case study from Ruapehu volcano, New Zealand. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 121:271–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Davister A (1996) Studies and research on processes for the elimination of cadmium from phosphoric acid. In: Fertilizers as a Source of Cadmium. Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris, pp 21–30.Google Scholar
  22. Degryse F, Smolders E (2006) Mobility of Cd and Zn in polluted and unpolluted Spodosols. Eur J Soil Sci 57:122–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. FAO Statistics (2006) Landuse 2003. Scholar
  24. Fergusson JE, Stewart C (1992) The transport of air-bourne trace elements copper, lead, cadmium, zinc and manganese from a city into rural area. Sci Total Environ 121:247–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Fleischer M, Robinson WO (1963) Some problems of the geochemistry of fluorine. In: Shaw DM (ed) Studies in Analytical Geochemistry. Royal Society of Canada Spec Publ No. 6. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, pp 58–75.Google Scholar
  26. Fung KF, Wong MH (2004) Application of different forms of calcium to tea soil to prevent aluminium and fluorine accumulation. J Sci Food Agric 84:1469–1477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Furness H (2001) Cadmium in New Zealand. Its Presence and Management. New Zealand Fertiliser Manufacturers’ Research Association, Auckland.Google Scholar
  28. Grace ND, Loganathan P, Hedley MJ, Wallace GC (2003) Ingestion of soil fluorine: its impact on the fluorine metabolism and status of grazing young sheep. N Z J Agric Res 46:279–286.Google Scholar
  29. Grace ND, Loganathan P, Deighton MW, Molano G, Hedley MJ (2005) Ingestion of soil fluorine: its impact on the fluorine metabolism of dairy cows. N Z J Agric Res 48:23–27.Google Scholar
  30. Grace ND, Loganathan P, Hedley MJ (2007) The effect of temporal change in ingestion rates of fluorine (F) in soil on the concentration of F in serum and bone of young sheep. N Z Vet J 55:77–80.Google Scholar
  31. Gray CW, McLaren RG, Roberts AHC, Condron LM (1998) Sorption and desorption of cadmium from some New Zealand soils: effect of pH and contact time. Aust J Soil Res 36:199–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gray CW, McLaren RG, Roberts AHC, Condron LM (1999a) The effect of longterm phosphatic fertiliser applications on the amounts and forms of cadmium in soils under pasture in New Zealand. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 54:267–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Gray CW, McLaren RG, Roberts AHC, Condron LM (1999b) Solubility, sorption and desorption of native and added cadmium in relation to properties of soils in New Zealand. Eur J Soil Sci 50:127–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Gray CW, McLaren RG, Roberts AHC (2003) Cadmium leaching from some New Zealand pasture soils. Eur J Soil Sci 54:159–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Healy WB (1968) Ingestion of soil by dairy cows. N Z J Agric Res 11:487–499.Google Scholar
  36. Healy WB (1973) Nutritional aspects of soil ingestion by grazing animals. In: Butler GW, Bailet RW (eds) Chemistry and Biochemistry of Herbage, vol. 1. Academic Press, London, pp 567–588.Google Scholar
  37. Hewitt AE (1998) New Zealand Soil Classification. Manaaki Whenua Press, Landcare Research New Zealand Ltd, Lincoln, New Zealand.Google Scholar
  38. Jackson AP, Alloway BJ (1992) The transfer of cadmium from agricultural soils to the human food chain. In: Adriano DC (ed) Biogeochemistry of Trace Elements. Science Reviews, Chicago, pp 109–158.Google Scholar
  39. Jones JG, Jones JM (1962) Suspected poisoning of a dairy herd by basic slag. Ir Vet J 16: 43–44.Google Scholar
  40. Kau PMH, Smith DW, Binning P (1998) Experimental sorption of fluoride by kaolinite and bentonite. Geoderma 84:89–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Koh TS, Bansemer PC, Frensham AB (1998) A survey of the cadmium concentration in kidney, liver and muscle of South Australian cattle. Aust J Exp Agric 38:535–540.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Langlands JP, Donald GE, Bowles JE (1988) Cadmium concentrations in liver, kidney and muscle in Australian sheep and cattle. Aust J Exp Agric 28:291–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Larsen S, Widdowson AE (1971) Soil fluorine. J Soil Sci 22:210–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Lee J, Grace ND, Martell S (1991) Effect of high and sustained zinc supplements on trace element metabolism in sheep. Proc N Z Soc Anim Prod 51:173–177.Google Scholar
  45. Lee J, Treloar BP, Grace ND (1994) Metallothionein and trace element metabolism in sheep tissues in response to high and sustained zinc doses. II. Expression of metallothionein mRNA. Aust J Agric Sci 45:321–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Lee J, Rounce JR, Mackay AD, Grace ND (1996) Accumulation of cadmium with time in Romney sheep grazing ryegrass-white clover pasture: effect of cadmium from pasture and soil intake. Aust J Agric Sci 47:877–894.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Loganathan P, Hedley MJ (1997) Downward movement of cadmium and phosphorus from phosphatic fertilisers in a pasture soil in New Zealand. Environ Pollut 95:319–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Loganathan P, Mackay AD, Lee J, Hedley MJ (1995) Cadmium distribution in hill pastures as influenced by 20 years of phosphate fertilizer application and sheep grazing. Aust J Soil Res 33:859–871.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Loganathan P, Hedley MJ, Gregg PEH, Currie LD (1996) Effect of phosphate fertiliser type on the accumulation and plant availability of cadmium in grassland soils. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 46:169–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Loganathan P, Louie K, Lee J, Hedley MJ, Roberts AHC, Longhurst RD (1999) A model to predict kidney and liver cadmium concentration in grazing animals. N Z J Agric Res 42:423–432.Google Scholar
  51. Loganathan P, Hedley MJ, Wallace GC, Roberts AHC (2001) Fluoride accumulation in pasture forages and soils following long-term applications of phosphorus fertilizers. Environ Pollut 115:275–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Loganathan P, Hedley MJ, Grace ND, Lee J, Cronin SJ, Bolan NS, Zanders JM (2003) Fertiliser contaminants in New Zealand grazed pasture with special reference to cadmium and fluorine: a review. Aust J Soil Res 41:501–532.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Loganathan P, Gray CW, Hedley MJ, Roberts AHC (2006) Total and soluble fluorine concentrations in relation to properties of soils in New Zealand. Eur J Soil Sci 57:411–421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Loganathan P, Bretherton MR, Hedley MJ (2007) Effect of soil cultivation and winter pugging on fluorine distribution in soil profiles under pasture following long-term applications of phosphate fertilisers. Aust J Soil Res 45:41–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Longhurst RD, Roberts AHC, Brown MW, Carlson B (1994) Cadmium cycling in sheep-grazed hill country pastures. In: Currie LD, Loganathan P (eds) The Efficient Use of F in a Changing Environment: Reconciling Productivity with Sustainability. Fertilizer and Lime Research Centre, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand, pp 297–302.Google Scholar
  56. Louekari K (1996) The relation between the cadmium content in soil and in food plants. In: Fertilizers as a Source of Cadmium. Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris, pp 180–188.Google Scholar
  57. MacLean DC, Hansen KS, Schneider RE (1992) Amelioration of aluminium toxicity in wheat by fluoride. New Phytol 121:81–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Manoharan V, Loganathan P, Parfitt RL, Tillman RW (1996) Changes in soil solution composition and aluminium speciation under legume-based pastures in response to long-term phosphate fertiliser applications. Aust J Soil Res 34:985–998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Manoharan V, Loganathan P, Tillman RW, Parfitt RL (2007) Interactive effects of soil acidity and fluorine on soil solution aluminium chemistry and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) root growth. Environ Pollut 145:778–786.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Marshall B (1993) Recent MAF cadmium residue data. In: Lee J (ed) Second Cadmium Research Liaison Meeting Proceedings. AgResearch Grasslands Research Centre, Palmerston North, New Zealand, pp 2–6.Google Scholar
  61. McBride M, Sauve S, Hendershot W (1997) Solubility control of Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb in contaminated soils. Eur J Soil Sci 48:337–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. McLaughlin MJ (2000) Unwanted passengers in fertilizers, a threat to sustainability? In: Currie LD, Loganathan P (eds) Soil Research: A Knowledge Industry for Land-Based Exporters. Occasional report no. 13. Fertilizer and Lime Research Centre, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand, pp 7–28.Google Scholar
  63. McLaughlin MJ, Tiller KG, Naidu R, Stevens DP (1996a) Review: The behaviour and environmental impact of contaminants in fertilizers. Aust J Soil Res 34:1–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. McLaughlin MJ, Tiller KG, Hamblin A (1996b) Managing cadmium contamination of agricultural land. In: Fertilizers as a Source of Cadmium. Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris, pp 189–217.Google Scholar
  65. McLaughlin MJ, Simpson PG, Fleming N, Stevens DP, Cozens G, Smart MK (1997a) Effect of fertilizer type on cadmium and fluorine concentrations in clover herbage. Aust J Exp Agric 37:1019–1026.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. McLaughlin MJ, Tiller KG, Smart MK (1997b) Speciation of cadmium in soil solutions of saline/sodic soils and relationship with cadmium concentrations in potato tubers (Solarium tuberrosum L.) Aust J Soil Res 35:183–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. McLaughlin MJ, Hamon RE, McLaren RG, Speir TW, Rogers SL (2000) Review: A bioavailability-based rationale for controlling metal and metalloid contamination of agricultural land in Australia and New Zealanad. Aust J Soil Res 38:1037–1086.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. McLaughlin MJ, Stevens DP, Keerthisinghe DG, Cayley JWD, Ridley AM (2001) Contamination of soil with fluoride by long-term application of superphosphates to pastures and risk to grazing animals. Aust J Soil Res 39:627–640.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Merry RH (1988) Investigations on cadmium in South Australia: rainfall, soils, cereals, pastures and soil-plant relations. In: Simpson J, Curnow WJ (eds) Cadmium Accumulations in Australian Agriculture. Bureau of Rural Resources, Canbera, ACT, pp 62–79.Google Scholar
  70. Milhaud GE, Clauw M, Joseph-Enriquez B (1989) Bioavailability in soil fluoride in sheep. Fluoride 22:188–194.Google Scholar
  71. Milhaud GE, Charles E, Loubière M, Kolf-Clauw M, Joubert C (1992) Effects of fluoride on secretory and postsecretory phases of enamel formation in sheep molars. Am J Vet Res 53:1241–1247.Google Scholar
  72. Moore CS, Ritchie GSP (1988) Aluminium speciation and pH of an acid soil in the presence of fluoride. J Soil Sci 39:1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Morton JD, Roberts AHC (1999) Fertilizer use on New Zealand sheep and beef farms. New Zealand Fertilizer Manufacturers’ Research Association and AgResearch, Auckland, New Zealand.Google Scholar
  74. Mortvedt JJ (1996) Heavy metal contaminants in inorganic and organic fertilisers. Fert Res 43:55–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Naidu R, Bolan NS, Kookana RS, Tiller KG (1994) Ionic strength and pH effects on the adsorption of cadmium and the surface charge of soils. Eur J Soil Sci 45:419–429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Nicholson FA, Jones KC, Johnston AE (1996) Evidence for the leaching of surface deposited cadmium in agricultural soils. In: Fertilizers as a Source of Cadmium. Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris, pp 218–231.Google Scholar
  77. Öborn I, Jansson G (1998) Effects of liming on cadmium contents of spring wheat and potatoes. PP 1–7. Can be obtained in internet CD-ROM. In: Proceedings of the 16th World Congress of Soil Sciences on CD-ROM, August 20–26, Montpellier, France. Windows Internet Explorer.Google Scholar
  78. O’Hara PJ, Cordes DO (1982) Superphosphate poisoning of sheep: a study of natural outbreaks. N Z Vet J 30:153–155.Google Scholar
  79. O’Hara P, Fraser AJ, James MP (1982) Superphosphate poisoning of sheep: the role of fluoride. N Z Vet J 30:199–201.Google Scholar
  80. Omueti JAI, Jones RL (1977) Fluoride adsorption by Illinois soils. J Soil Sci 28:564–572.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Oosterhuis FH, Brouwer FM, Wijnants HJ (2000) A possible EU wide charge on cadmium in phosphate fertilisers: economic and environmental implications. Final report to the European Commission. Report number E-00/02. April 2000.Google Scholar
  82. Pallière C (2005) Prospective EU Cadmium Regulation for Fertilizers. Phosphate 2005 Conference, Paris, 3–5 April 2005.Google Scholar
  83. Parker DR, Chaney RL, Norvell WA (1994) Chemical equilibrium models: applications to plant nutrition research. In: Loeppert RH, Schwab AP, Goldberg S (eds) Chemical Equilibrium and Reaction Models. Soil Science Society of America Spec Publ No. 42. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI, pp 163–200.Google Scholar
  84. Petering DH, Fowler BA (1986) Discussion summary. Roles of metallothionein and related proteins in metabolism and toxicity, problems and perspectives. Environ Health Perspect 65:217–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Peterson MG, Mercer JFB (1988) Differential expression of four linked sheep metallothionein genes. Eur J Biochem 174:425–429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Petterson DS, Masters HG, Speijers EJ, Williams DE, Edwards JR (1991) Accumulation of cadmium in the sheep. 26-13-26-14 In: Momćilović B (ed) Trace Elements in Man and Animals 7. IMI, Zagreb, Yugoslavia.Google Scholar
  87. Phillips CJC, Chiy PC, Omed H, Saatci M (1997) Cadmium pollution of feed consumed by sheep and its amelioration with zinc supplements. Proc Br Soc Anim Sci 149.Google Scholar
  88. Pickering WF (1985) The mobility of soluble fluoride in soils. Environ Pollut B 9:281–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Prankel SH, Nixon RM, Phillips CJC (2005) Implications for the human food chain of models of cadmium accumulation in sheep. Environ Res 97:348–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Rayment GE (1988) Cadmium in Queensland’s primary industries, 1988. In: Simpson J, Curnow WJ (eds) Cadmium Accumulations in Australian Agriculture. Bureau of Rural Resources, Canberra, ACT, pp 151–160.Google Scholar
  91. Roberts AHC, Longhurst RD (2002) Cadmium cycling in sheep-grazed hill-country pastures. N Z J Agric Res 45:103–112.Google Scholar
  92. Roberts TL, Stauffer MD (1996) Agronomic implications of restricting cadmium content of phosphate rock. In: Fertilizers as a Source of Cadmium. Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris, pp 70–78.Google Scholar
  93. Roberts AHC, Longhurst RD, Brown MW (1994) Cadmium status of soils, plants, and grazing animals in new Zealand. N Z J Agric Res 37:119–129.Google Scholar
  94. Römkens PFAM, Vries WD (1995) Acidification and metal mobilization: effects of land use changes on cadmium mobility. In: Hey GJ, Erisman JW (eds) Acid Rain Research: Do We Have Enough Answers. Elsevier S, Amsterdam, pp 367–380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Rounce JR, Knowles SO, Grace ND, Lee J (1998) Effect of zinc oxide treatment for facial eczema on the copper status of Romney sheep grazing ryegrass pastures. Proc N Z Soc Anim Prod 58:199–210.Google Scholar
  96. Sauerbeck D (1992) Conditions controlling the bioavailability of trace elements and heavy metals derived from phosphate fertilizers in soils. In: Proceedings of the 4th International Imphos Conference on Phosphorus, Life and Environment. Institute Mondial du Phosphate, Casablanca, pp 419–448.Google Scholar
  97. Shupe DVM (1980) Clinicopathologic features of fluoride toxicosis in cattle. J Anim Sci 51:746–758.Google Scholar
  98. Simons JH (1950) Fluorine Chemistry. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  99. Soler JS, Rovira JS (1996) Cadmium in inorganic fertilizers. In: Rodriguez-Barrueco C (ed) Fertilizers and Environment. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp 541–545.Google Scholar
  100. Stevens DP, McLaughlin MJ, Alston AM (1997) Phytotoxicity of aluminium-fluoride complexes and their uptake from solution culture by Avena sativa and Lycopersicon esculentum. Plant Soil 192:81–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Stevens DP, McLaughlin MJ, Randall PJ, Keerthisinghe G (2000) Effect of fluoride supply on fluoride concentrations in five pasture species: levels required to reach phytotoxic or potentially zootoxic concentrations in plant tissue. Plant Soil 227:223–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Taylor MD, Percival HJ (2001) Cadmium in soils and soil solutions from a transect away from a fertilser bin. Environ Pollut 113:35–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Wang HL, Magesan GN, Bolan NS (2004) An overview of the environmental effects of land application of farm effluents. N Z J Agric Res 47:389–403.Google Scholar
  104. Weinstein LH, Davison A (2004) Fluorides in the Enivironment. CABI Publishing, CAB International, Oxon, UK.Google Scholar
  105. Wheeler SM, Fell LR (1983) Fluorides in cattle nutrition. Nutr Abstr Rev 53:741–767.Google Scholar
  106. Wheeler SM, Turner AD (1986) The bone fluoride of ewes and lambs in NSW. Proc Aust Soc Anim Prod 16:391–394.Google Scholar
  107. Williams CH, David DJ (1973) The effect of superphosphate on the cadmium content of soils and plants. Aust J Soil Res 11:43–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Wöhlbier W, Oelschlager W, Gronbach G, Giessler H (1968) Die Resorption von Fluor durch Ochsen aus Erde und Flugstaub einer Aluminiumhütte Forschungsberung 14 der DFG Fluor-Wirkung. Fr Steiner, Wiesbaden.Google Scholar
  109. Zanders JM (1998) Studies on the origin, distribution and mobility of cadmium in pastoral soils. PhD thesis. Massey University, New Zealand.Google Scholar
  110. Zasoski RJ, Burau RG (1988) Sorption and sorptive interaction of cadmium and zinc on hydrous manganese oxide. Soil Sci Soc Am J 52:81–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paripurnanda Loganathan
    • 1
  • Mike J. Hedley
    • 1
  • Neville D. Grace
    • 2
  1. 1.Fertilizer and Lime Research Centre, Institute of Natural ResourcesMassey UniversityPalmerston NorthNew Zealand
  2. 2.AgResearch Limited, Grasslands Research CentrePalmerston NorthNew Zealand

Personalised recommendations