Providing Transition and Outpatient Services to the Mentally Ill Released from Correctional Institutions

  • Steven K. Hoge

More than a generation ago, the mentally ill began to flood our jails and prisons. Correctional institutions were not prepared for the influx of mentally disordered offenders and numerous reports have graphically detailed deficiencies in the provision of needed services (Center for Mental Health Services, 1995; National Commission on Correctional Health Care, 2002a, b; The Correctional Association of New York, 2004). However, little attention has been focused on the problems related to transitioning this population to the community and the provision of outpatient-based mental health services. Though the quality of institutional care remains woefully inadequate in many jurisdictions, it has become increasingly apparent that community-based care is an urgent necessity. Parallels between the current state of correctional mental health services and the civil public psychiatric system can be drawn. For many years, the public sector struggled with the problem of the “revolving door”: following discharge from inpatient care, many mentally ill individuals were unable to function in the community, relapsed, and were readmitted. In most jurisdictions, efforts to address this problem have relied on an increased emphasis on discharge planning for patients transitioning from state civil hospitals to community-based treatment and, once in the community, aggressive support services. There is now universal recognition that these measures are essential ingredients to maintaining many of the seriously mentally ill in the community. At present, correctional care systems have not broadly adopted such services, with predictable results. A study from the state of Washington illustrates the consequences. A cohort of mentally ill individuals convicted of felonies was followed postrelease. In the first year in the community, only 16% received any form of mental health treatment; by the end of year three, nearly 40% had been rearrested (Lovell, Gagliardi, & Peterson, 2002).

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abram, K.M., & Teplin, L.A. (1991). Co-occurring disorders among mentally ill jail detainees: Implications for public policy. American Psychologist, 46, 1036–1045.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abramson, M.F. (1972). The criminalization of mentally disordered behavior: Possible side-effect of a new mental health law. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 23, 101–106.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Appelbaum, P.S. (1994). Almost a revolution: Mental health law and the limits of change. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Beck, A.J. (2000, April 13). State and federal prisoners returning to the community: Findings from the Bureau of Justice Statistics. Presented at the First Reentry Courts Initiative Cluster Meeting, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  5. Beck, A.J., & Maruschak, L.M. (2001). Mental health treatment in state prisons, 2000. Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report, NCJ 188215. Washington, DC: U.S. DOJ.Google Scholar
  6. California Board of Corrections. (2004). Mentally Ill Offender Crime Reduction Grant Program: Legislative Report.Google Scholar
  7. Center for Mental Health Services. (1995). Double jeopardy: Persons with mental illness in the criminal justice system. A report to Congress.Google Scholar
  8. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fourth edition, text revision (DSM-IV-TR). (2000). Washington DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  9. Ditton, P.M. (1999). Mental health and treatment of inmates and probationers. Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report, NCJ 174463. Washington, DC: U.S. DOJ.Google Scholar
  10. Fisher, W.H., Packer, I.K., Banks, S.M., Smith, D., Simon, L.J., & Roy-Bujnowski, K. (2002). Self-reported psychiatric hospitalization histories of jail detainees with mental disorders: Comparison with a non-incarcerated national sample. Journal of Behavioral Health Services and Research, 29, 458–465.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fisher, W.H., Packer, I.K., Simon, L.J., & Smith, D. (2000). Community mental health services and the prevalence of severe mental illness in local jails: Are they related? Administration and Policy in Mental Health, 27, 371–382.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Grob, G. N. (1973). Mental institutions in America. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  13. Hartwell, S.W. (2004). Comparison of offenders with mental illness only and offenders with dual diagnoses. Psychiatric Services, 55, 145–150.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hartwell, S.E., & Orr, K. (2000). Release planning. American Jails, Nov/Dec, 9–13Google Scholar
  15. Hills, H.A. (2000). Creating effective treatment programs for persons with co-occurring disorders in the justice system. Delmar, NY: GAINS Center.Google Scholar
  16. Hoge, S.K., Appelbaum, P.S., & Geller, J.G. (1989). Involuntary treatment. In A. Tasman, R.E. Hales, and A.J. Frances (Eds.), American Psychiatric Press review of psychiatry: Volume 8 (pp. 432–450). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.Google Scholar
  17. James, D.J., & Glaze, L.E. (2006). Mental health problems of prison and jail inmates. Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report, NCJ 213600. Washington, DC: U.S. DOJ.Google Scholar
  18. Lamb, H.R. (1982). Treating the long-term mentally ill. San Francisco: Jossey–Bass.Google Scholar
  19. Lamb, H.R,. & Weinberger, L.E. (1998). Persons with severe mental illness in jails and prisons: A review. Psychiatric Services, 49, 483–492.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Lamberti, J.S., Weisman, R.L., Schwarzkopf, S.B., Price, N., Ashton, R.M., & Trompeter, J. (2001). The mentally ill in jails and prisons: Towards an integrated model of prevention. Psychiatric Quarterly, 71, 62–77.Google Scholar
  21. Lamberti, J.S., Weisman, R., & Faden, D.I. (2004). Forensic assertive community treatment: Preventing incarceration of adults with severe mental illness. Psychiatric Services, 55, 1285–1293.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lovell, D., Gagliardi, G.J., & Peterson, P.D. (2002). Recidivism and use of services among persons with mental illness after release from prison. Psychiatric Services, 53, 1290–1298.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Manderscheid, R.W., Atay, J.E., Male, A., Blacklow, B., Forest, C., Ingram, L., Maedke, J., Sussman, J., & Ndikumwami, J. (2002). Highlights of organized mental health services in 2000 and major national and state trends. In R.W. Mandersheid & M.J. Henderson (Eds.), Mental health, United States, 2002. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.Google Scholar
  24. Manderscheid, R.W., Gravesande, A., & Goldstrom, I.D. (2004). Growth of mental health services in state adult correctional facilities, 1988 to 2000. Psychiatric Services, 55, 869–872.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. McGuire, J.F., & Rosenheck, R.A. (2004). Criminal history as a prognostic indicator in the treatment of homeless people with severe mental illness. Psychiatric Services, 55, 42–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Mueser, K.T., Bond, G.R., Drake, R.E., & Resnick, S.G. (1998). Models of community care for severe mental illness: A review of research on case management. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 24, 37–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. National Commission on Correctional Health Care. (2002a). The health status of soon-to-be-released inmates: A report to Congress. Volume 1.Google Scholar
  28. National Commission on Correctional Health Care. (2002b). The health status of soon-to-be-released inmates: A report to Congress. Volume 2.Google Scholar
  29. Osher, F.C., & Drake, R.E. (1996). Reversing a history of unmet needs: Approaches to care for persons with co-occurring addictive and mental disorders. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 6, 4–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Osher, F., Steadman, H.J., & Barr, H. (2002). A best practice approach to community re-entry from jails for inmates with co-occurring disorders: The APIC model. Delmar, NY: GAINS Center.Google Scholar
  31. Project Link. (1999). Prevention of jail and hospital recidivism among persons with severe mental illness. Psychiatric Services, 50, 1477–1480.Google Scholar
  32. Robins, L.H., & Regier, D.A. (1991). Psychiatric disorders in America: The Epidemiological Catchment Area Study. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  33. Steadman, H.J., & Veysey, B.M. (1997). Providing services for jail inmates with mental disorders. NIJ Research in Brief.Google Scholar
  34. Steadman, H.J., Fabisiak, S., Dvoskin, J., & Holohean, E.J. (1987). A survey of mental disability among state prison inmates. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 38, 1086–1090.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Steadman, H.J., Mulvey, E.P., Monahan, J., Robbins, P.C., Appelbaum, P.S., Grisso, T., Roth, L.H., & Silver, E. (1998). Violence by people discharged from acute psychiatric inpatient facilities and by others in the same neighborhoods. Archives of General Psychiatry, 55, 393–401.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Stein, L.K., & Test, M.A. (1980). Alternative to mental hospital treatment: I. Conceptual model, treatment program, and clinical evaluation. Archives of General Psychiatry, 37, 392–397.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Stelovich, S. (1979). From the hospital to the prison: A step forward in deinstitutionalization? Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 30, 618–620.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Swank, G., & Winer, D. (1976). Occurrence of psychiatric disorders in a county jail population. American Journal of Psychiatry, 133, 1331–1333.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Swanson, J.W., Holzer, C.E., Ganju, V.K., & Jono, R.T. (1990). Violence and psychiatric disorder in the community: Evidence from the Epidemiologic Catchment Area surveys. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 41, 761–770.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Teplin, L.A. (1990). The prevalence of severe mental disorder among male urban jail detainees: Comparison with the Epidemiologic Catchment Area Program. American Journal of Public Health, 80, 655–656.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Teplin, L.A. (1994). Psychiatric and substance abuse disorders among male urban jail detainees. American Journal of Public Health, 84, 290–293.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Teplin, L.A., Abram, K.M., & McClelland, G.M. (1996). Prevalence of psychiatric disorders among incarcerated women. I. Pretrial jail detainees. Archives of General Psychiatry, 53, 505–512.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. The Correctional Association of New York. (2004). Mental health in the house of corrections: A study of the mental health care in New York State prisons. New York: Author.Google Scholar
  44. The Thresholds State, County Collaborative Jail Linkage Project. (2001). Helping mentally ill people break the cycle of jail and homelessness. Psychiatric Services, 52, 1380–1382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Torrey, E.F. (1997). Out of the shadows: Confronting America’s mental illness crisis. New York: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  46. Travis, J. (2002). But they all come back: Facing the challenges of prisoner reentry. Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press.Google Scholar
  47. U.S. Census Bureau. (2004). Accessed July 11, 2006, at http://www.census.gov/compendia/statab/tables/06s0338.xls.
  48. Ventura, L.A., Cassel, C.A., Jacoby, J.E., & Huang, B. (1998). Psychiatric Services, 49, 1330–1337.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Whitmer, G.E. (1980). From hospitals to jails: The fate of California’s deinstitutionalized mentally ill. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 50, 65–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Wine, F. H. (1888). Report on the defective, dependent and delinquent classes of the population of the United States. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Steven K. Hoge
    • 1
  1. 1.Bellevue Hospital CenterNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations