Estrogen-Signaling Pathways in Lung Cancer

  • D. C. Márquez-Garbán
  • R. J. Pietras
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 617)

Lung cancer (LC) is the most common cause of mortality from malignancy throughout the world, causing an estimated 1.2 million deaths annually (1). In the USA, it constitutes the leading cause of cancer death among men and women, exceeding the combined number of deaths from breast, prostate, and colon cancers. Despite advances in chemotherapy treatments, the five-year survival rate for LC has not significantly increased in the past 25 years, remaining at 15%, as compared with 61% for colon cancer, 86% for breast cancer, and 96% for prostate cancer. Cigarette smoking remains the primary risk factor for LC with 85–90% of all LC patients having smoked cigarettes at some time in their lives. Remaining LC cases occur in nonsmokers, mainly women. Of note, there has been a dramatic increase in the number of LC cases in women mainly as a consequence of increased prevalence of smoking. This phenomenon has been defined as a “full blown epidemic” by the US Surgeon General (2), with a 600% increase in the death rate from 1930 to 1997. Moreover, it is projected that mortality from LC will continue to increase as the at-risk populations increases.


Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Estrogen Receptor Aromatase Inhibitor Natl Cancer Inst Estrogen Receptor Alpha 
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Copyright information

© Springer 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. C. Márquez-Garbán
    • 1
  • R. J. Pietras
  1. 1.LA Division of Hematology-OncologyUniversity of CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA

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