The Politics of Economic Inequality

  • David Brady
  • Benjamin Sosnaud
Part of the Handbooks of Sociology and Social Research book series (HSSR)

One of the more remarkable features of modern society is how much economic inequalities vary across countries and over recent history. For example, the Luxembourg Income Study reveals that the 90th percentile household in Mexico has an income that is about ten times greater than the 10th percentile household. This extreme inequality dwarfs the United States' 90/10 ratio of 5.7 in 2004. Still, inequality in the U.S. dwarfs any other affluent democracy. The United Kingdom had a 90/10 ratio of 4.6 in 1999, and egalitarian countries like Denmark were as low as 2.8 in 2004. Even among seemingly similar former state socialist economies, one cannot help but be struck by the disparities between the Czech Republic with a 90/10 ratio of 2.8 in 1992 and 3.0 in 1996 versus increasingly polarized Russia. Russia's 90/10 ratio was already high at 6.7 in 1992, rose all the way to 9.4 in 1995, before plateauing at 8.4 in 2000. As the political scientist Graeme Robertson remarks, “Russia changed from being Finland into Mexico seemingly overnight.” This variation is not simply due to development or industrialization. For if it was, one would not find countries like Taiwan with a 90/10 ratio of 3.8 in 2000, far below the U.S. and U.K.Social scientists have been interested in this cross-national and historical variation in inequality since at least the nineteenth century. Marx, Weber, Adam Smith and many others devoted attention to why inequality rose with industrialization, and how and/or if anything could be done to address it. Within sociology, one can point to the influential work of scholars like Gerhard Lenski (1984). Yet, it may be only in the last 15 or so years that sociologists and other social scientists have truly begun to produce a field of inquiry on this issue. A host of studies have sought to explain differences among affluent democracies, trends in inequality with development, and global inequalities of between and within country trends. Scholars have compared inequality across countries, across cities, provinces and regions, across history, and pooled historical and spatial variations as well. In this fast moving field, we have reached a point where social scientists actually know a fair amount about what is associated with temporal and cross-national variations in inequality.


Labor Market Welfare State Economic Inequality Labor Market Institution Leftist Party 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



We thank the editors for helpful suggestions. Please direct correspondence to David Brady, Department of Sociology, Box 90088, Duke University, Durham, NC, 27708, (919) 660–5760, email:


  1. Alderson, Arthur S. and Francois Nielsen. 2002. “Globalization and the Great U-Turn: Income Inequality Trends in 16 OECD Countries.” American Journal of Sociology 107:1244–1299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. — —. 1999. “Income Inequality, Development and Dualism: A Reconsideration.” American Sociological Review 64:606–631.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alesina, Alberto and Edward L. Glaeser. 2004. Fighting Poverty in the U.S. and Europe: A World of Difference. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Allan, James P. and Lyle Scruggs. 2004. “Political Partisanship and Welfare State Reform in Advanced Industrial Societies.” American Journal of Political Science 48:496–512.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Amenta, Edwin. 1998. Bold Relief. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Ansolabehere, Stephen, Alan Gerber, and Jim Snyder. 2002. “Equal Votes, Equal Money: Court-Ordered Redistricting and Public Expenditures in the American States.” American Political Science Review 96:767–777.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Avelino, George, David S. Brown, and Wendy Hunter. 2005. “The Effects of Capital Mobility, Trade Openness, and Democracy on Social Spending in Latin America, 1980–1999.” American Journal of Political Science 49:625–641.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Beckfield, Jason. 2006. “European Integration and Income Inequality.” American Sociological Review 71:964–985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Beramendi, Pablo and Christopher Anderson. 2008. Democracy, Inequality and Representation. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  10. Bergh, Andreas. 2005. “On the Counterfactual Problem of Welfare State Research: How Can We Measure Redistribution?” European Sociological Review 21:345–357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Blau, Francine and Lawrence Kahn. 2002. At Home and Abroad. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  12. Block, Fred. 1987. Revising State Theory. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Block, Fred and Jeff Manza. 1997. “Could We Afford to End Poverty? The Case for a Progressive Negative Income Tax.” Politics & Society 25:473–510.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bluestone, Barry and Bennett Harrison. 2000. Growing Prosperity. New York: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
  15. Blyth, Mark. 2002. Great Transformations. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Bollen, Kenneth A. and Robert W. Jackman. 1985. “Political Democracy and the Size Distribution of Income.” American Sociological Review 50:438–457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bradley, David, Evelyne Huber, Stephanie Moller, Francois Nielsen, and John D. Stephens. 2003. “Distribution and Redistribution in Postindustrial Democracies.” World Politics 55:193–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Brady, David. 2009. Rich Democracies, Poor People: How Politics Explain Poverty. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. — —. 2007. “Institutional, Economic or Solidaristic? Assessing Explanations for Unionization Across Affluent Democracies.” Work and Occupations 34:67–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. — —. 2005. “The Welfare State and Relative Poverty in Rich Western Democracies, 1967–1997.” Social Forces 83:1329–1364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. — —. 2003. “The Politics of Poverty: Left Political Institutions, the Welfare State, and Poverty.” Social Forces 82:557–588.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Brady, David, Jason Beckfield, and Martin Seeleib-Kaiser. 2005. “Economic Globalization and the Welfare State in Affluent Democracies, 1975–2001.” American Sociological Review 70:921–948.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Brady, David and Denise Kall. 2008. “Nearly Universal, But Somewhat Distinct: The Feminization of Poverty in Affluent Western Democracies, 1969–2000.” Social Science Research 37:976–1007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Brady, David and Kevin Leicht. 2008. “Party to Inequality: Right Party Power and Income Inequality in Rich Western Democracies.” Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 26:77–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Brady, David, Benjamin Sosnaud, and Steven Frenk. 2009. “The Shifting and Diverging White Working Class in U.S. Presidential Elections, 1972–2004.” Social Science Research 38:118–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Brooks, Clem and David Brady. 1999. “Income, Economic Voting and Long Term Political Change, 1952–1996.” Social Forces 77:1339–1375.Google Scholar
  27. Brooks, Clem and Jeff Manza. 2007. Why Welfare States Persist. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  28. Burgoon, Brian and Phineas Baxandall. 2004. “Three Worlds of Working Time: The Partisan and Welfare Politics of Work Hours in Industrialized Countries.” Politics & Society 32:439–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Burris, Val. 2001. “The Two Faces of Capital: Corporations and Individual Capitalists as Political Actors.” American Sociological Review 66:361:381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Campbell, John L. and Ove K. Pedersen. 2001. The Rise of Neoliberalism and Institutional Analysis. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  31. Chang, Mariko L. 2004. “Cross-National Variation in Sex Segregation in Sixteen Developing Countries.” American Sociological Review 69:114–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Chwieroth, Jeffrey. 2007. “Testing and Measuring the Role of Ideas: The Case of Neoliberalism in the International Monetary Fund.” International Studies Quarterly 51:5–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. DeFina, Robert H. and Kishor Thanawala. 2004. “International Evidence on the Impact of Transfers and Taxes on Alternative Poverty Indexes.” Social Science Research 33:322–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Domhoff, G. William. 1998. Who Rules America? Power and Politics in the Year 2000, 3rd Edition. Mountain View, CA: Mayfield.Google Scholar
  35. Esping-Andersen, Gosta. 2003. “Why No Socialism Anywhere? A Reply to Alex Hicks and Lane Kenworthy.” Socio-Economic Review 1:63–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. — —. 1999. Social Foundations of Postindustrial Economies. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. — —. 1990. The Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  38. Fellowes, Matthew C. and Gretchen Rowe. 2004. “Politics and the New American Welfare States.” American Journal of Political Science 48:362–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Fischer, Claude S., Michael Hout, Martin Sanchez Jankowski, Samuel R. Lucas, Ann Swidler, and Kim Voss. 1996. Inequality By Design Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  40. Fligstein, Neil. 2001. The Architecture of Markets Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  41. Freeman, Richard B. 1999. The New Inequality. Boston: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
  42. Gangl, Markus. 2006. “Scar Effects of Unemployment: An Assessment of Institutional Complementarities.” American Sociological Review 71:986–1013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Gerber, Theodore P. and Michael Hout. 2004. “Tightening Up: Declining Class Mobilty during Russia's Market Transition.” American Sociological Review 69:677–703.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Gilens, Martin. 1999. Why Americans Hate Welfare. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  45. Gordon, David M. 1996. Fat and Mean. New York: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  46. Gornick, Janet C. and Jerry A. Jacobs. 1998. “Gender, the Welfare State, and Public Employment: A Comparative Study of Seven Industrialized Countries.” American Sociological Review 63:688–710.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Gottschalk, Peter and Timothy M. Smeeding. 1997. “Cross National Comparisons of Earnings and Income Inequality.” Journal of Economic Literature 35:633–687.Google Scholar
  48. Gustafsson, Bjorn and Mats Johansson. 1999. “In Search of Smoking Guns: What Makes Income Inequality Vary Over Time in Different Countries?” American Sociological Review 64:585–605.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hall, Peter A. and David Soskice. 2001. Varieties of Capitalism: The Institutional Foundations of Comparative Advantage. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Harrison, Bennett and Barry Bluestone. 1988. The Great U-turn. New York, NY: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  51. Harvey, David. 2007. A Brief History of Neoliberalism. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  52. Hechter, Michael. 2004. “From Class to Culture.” American Journal of Sociology 110:400–445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hicks, Alexander. 1999. Social Democracy and Welfare Capitalism: A Century of Income Security Politics Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  54. Hicks, Alexander and Gosta Esping-Andersen. 2005. “Comparative Historical Studies of Public Policy and the Welfare State.” Pp. 509–525 in The Handbook of Political Sociology, edited by T. Janoski, R. Alford, A.M. Hicks, and M.A. Schwartz. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  55. Hout, Michael, Richard Arum, and Kim Voss. 1996. “The Political Economy of Inequality in the ‘Age of Extremes’.” Demography 33:421–425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Huber, Evelyne, Francois Nielsen, Jenny Pribble, and John D. Stephens. 2006. “Politics and Inequality in Latin America and the Caribbean.” American Sociological Review 71:943–963.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Huber, Evelyne and John D. Stephens. 2001. Development and Crisis of the Welfare State. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  58. Iversen, Torben and David Soskice. 2006. “Electoral Institutions and the Politics of Coalitions: Why Some Democracies Redistribute More Than Others.” American Political Science Review 100:165–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Jenkins, J. Craig and Craig Eckert. 1989. “The Corporate Elite, The New Conservative Policy Network, and Reaganomics.” Critical Sociology 16:121–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Kalleberg, Arne L., Michael Wallace, and Robert P. Althauser. 1981. “Economic Segmentation, Worker Power, and Income Inequality.” American Journal of Sociology 87:651–683.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Knoke, David, Franz Urban Pappi, Jeffrey Broadbent, and Yutaka Tsujinaka. 1996. Comparing Policy Networks. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Korpi, Walter. 1983. The Democratic Class Struggle. Boston: Routledge.Google Scholar
  63. — —. 1985. “Power Resources Approach vs. Action and Conflict: On Causal and Intentional Explanations in the Study of Power.” Sociological Theory 3(2):31–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. — —. 1989. “Power, Politics and State Autonomy in the Development of Social Citizenship.” American Sociological Review 54:309–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Korpi, Walter and Joakim Palme. 2003. “New Politics and Class Politics in the Context of Austerity and Globalization: Welfare State Regress in 18 Countries, 1975–95.” American Political Science Review 97:425–446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. — —. 1998. “The Paradox of Redistribution and Strategies of Equality: Welfare State Institutions, Inequality, and Poverty in the Western Countries.” American Sociological Review 63:661–687.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Kuznets, Simon. 1953. “Economic Growth and Income Inequality.” American Economic Review 45:1–28.Google Scholar
  68. Lee, Cheol-Sung. 2005. “Income Inequality, Democracy, and Public Sector Size.” American Sociological Review 70:158–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Leicht, Kevin T. 1989. “On the Estimation of Union Threat Effects.” American Sociological Review 54:1035–1047.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Leicht, Kevin T., Michael Wallace, and Don Sherman Grant II. 1993. “Union Presence, Class, and Individual Earnings Inequality.” Work and Occupations 20:429–451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Lenski, Gerhard E. 1984. Power and Privilege. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press.Google Scholar
  72. Lieberson, Stanley. 1985. Making It Count: The Improvement of Social Research and Theory. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  73. Lieberson, Stanley. 1985. Making It Count. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  74. Link, Bruce G. and Jo Phelan. 1995. “Social Conditions as Fundamental Causes of Disease.” Journal of Health and Social Behavior Extra Issue: 80–94.Google Scholar
  75. Lo, Clarence Y. and Michael Schwartz. 1998. Social Policy and the Conservative Agenda Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers.Google Scholar
  76. Lobao, Linda and Gregory Hooks. 2003. “Public Employment, Welfare Transfers, and Economic Well-Being across Local Populations: Does a Lean and Mean Government Benefit the Masses?” Social Forces 82:519–556.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Mahler, Vincent A. 2004. “Economic Globalization, Domestic Politics, and Income Inequality in the Developed Countries.” Comparative Political Studies 37:1025–1053.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Mahler, Vincent A., David K. Jesuit, and Douglas D. Roscoe. 1999. “Exploring the Impact of Trade and Investment on Income Inequality.” Comparative Political Studies 32:363–395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Mandel, Hadas and Moshe Semyonov. 2005. “Family Policies, Wage Structures, and Gender Gaps: Sources of Earnings Inequality in 20 Countries.” American Sociological Review 70:949–967.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Manza, Jeff and Clem Brooks. 1999. Social Cleavages and Political Change. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  81. Manza, Jeff and Christopher Uggen. 2006. Locked Out. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  82. Mares, Isabela. 2004. “Wage Bargaining in the Presence of Social Services and Transfers.” World Politics 57:99–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Mills, C. Wright. 2000. The Power Elite, New Edition. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  84. Misra, Joya. 2002. “Class, Race, and Gender and Theorizing Welfare States.” Research in Political Sociology 11:19–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Misra, Joya, Michelle Budig, and Stephanie Moller. 2007. “Reconciliation Policies and the Effects of Motherhood on Employment, Earnings, and Poverty.” Journal of Comparative Policy Analysis 9:135–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Mizruchi, Mark S. 1992. The Structure of Corporate Political Action. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  87. Moene, Karl Ove and Michael Wallerstein. 1995. “How Social Democracy Worked: Labor-Market Institutions.” Politics and Society 23:185–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Moller, Stephanie, David Bradley, Evelyne Huber, Francois Nielsen, and John D. Stephens. 2003. “Determinants of Relative Poverty in Advanced Capitalist Democracies.” American Sociological Review 68:22–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Morris, Martina and Bruce Western. 1999. “Inequality in Earnings at the Close of the Twentieth Century.” Annual Review of Sociology 25:623–657.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Mosher, James S. 2007. “U.S. Wage Inequality, Technological Change, and Decline in Union Power.” Politics & Society 35:225–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Myles, John and Paul Pierson. 2001. “The Comparative Political Economy of Pension Reform.” Pp. 305–333 in The New Politics of the Welfare State, edited by P. Pierson. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Navarro, Vicente and Leiyu Shi. 2001. “The Political Context of Social Inequalities and Health.” International Journal of Health Services 31:1–21.Google Scholar
  93. Neckerman, Kathryn M. and Florencia Torche. 2007. “Inequality: Causes and Consequences.” Annual Review of Sociology 33.Google Scholar
  94. Orloff, Ann S. 1993. “Gender and the Social Rights of Citizenship: The Comparative Analysis of Gender Relations and Welfare States.” American Sociological Review 58:303–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Oskarsson, Sven, 2005. “Divergent Trends and Different Causal Logics: The Importance of Bargaining Centralization When Explaining Earnings Inequality across Advanced Democratic Societies.” Politics & Society 33:359–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Page, Benjamin I. and James R. Simmons. 2000. What Government Can Do: Dealing with Poverty and Inequality. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  97. Parrado, Emilio. A. 2005. “Economic Restructuring and Intra-Generational Class Mobility in Mexico.” Social Forces 84:733–758.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Perrucci, Robert and Earl Wysong. 1999. The New Class Society. Lanham, MD.: Rowan and Littlefield.Google Scholar
  99. Pettit, Becky and Jennifer Hook. 2005. “The Structure of Women's Employment in Comparative Perspective.” Social Forces 84:779–801.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Pierson, Paul. 2004. Politics in Time: History, Institutions and Social Analysis. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  101. — —. 2001. The New Politics of the Welfare State. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Pontusson, Jonas. 2005. Inequality and Prosperity: Social Europe vs. Liberal America. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  103. Quadagno, Jill. 1994. The Color of Welfare. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  104. Rainwater, Lee and Timothy M. Smeeding. 2004. Poor Kids in a Rich Country: America's Children in Comparative Perspective. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  105. Reuveny, Rafael and Quan Li. 2003. “Economic Openness, Democracy, and Income Inequality.” Comparative Political Studies 36:575–601.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Rosenfeld, Jake. 2006a. “Desperate Measures: Strikes and Wages in Post-Accord America.” Social Forces 85:235– 263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. — —. 2006b. “Widening the Gap: The Effect of Declining Unionization on Managerial and Worker Pay, 1983–2000.” Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 24:223–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Ross, Michael. 2006. “Is Democracy Good for the Poor?” American Journal of Political Science 50:860–874.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Rudra, Nita and Stephan Haggard. 2005. “Globalization, Democracy, and Effective Welfare Spending in the Developing World.” Comparative Political Studies 38:1015–1049.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Rueda, David. 2005. “Insider-Outsider Politics in Industrialized Democracies: The Challenge to Social Democratic Parties.” American Political Science Review 99:61–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Rueda, David and Jonas Pontusson. 2000. “Wage Inequality and Varieties of Capitalism.” World Politics 52:350–383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Sassoon, Donald. 1996. One Hundred Years of Socialism: The West European Left in the Twentieth Century. London: Fontana Press.Google Scholar
  113. Scruggs, Lyle and James P. Allan. 2006. “The Material Consequences of Welfare States.” Comparative Political Studies 39:880–904.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Sen, Amartya. 1999. Development as Freedom. New York: Anchor Books.Google Scholar
  115. Simpson, Miles. 1993. “Political Power Versus Ecological Evolutionary Forces: What Are the Proximal Sources of Income Distribution?” Social Forces 71:797–806.Google Scholar
  116. Skocpol, Theda. 1992. Protecting Soldiers and Mothers: The Political Origins of Social Policy in the United States. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  117. Stasavage, David. 2005. “Democracy and Education Spending in Africa.” American Journal of Political Science 49:343–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Steensland, Brian. 2006. “Cultural Categories and the American Welfare State: The Case of Guaranteed Income Policy.” American Journal of Sociology 111:1273–1326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Stephens, John D. 1979. The Transition from Capitalism to Socialism. Macmillan: London.Google Scholar
  120. Swank, Duane and Cathie Jo Martin. 2001. “Employers and the Welfare State.” Comparative Political Studies 34:889–923.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Swenson, Peter A. 2002. Capitalists Against Markets. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Tilly, Charles. 1998. Durable Inequality. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  123. van den Berg, Axel and Thomas Janoski. 2005. “Conflict Theories in Political Sociology.” Pp. 72–95 in The Handbook of Political Sociology, edited by T. Janoski, R. Alford, A.M. Hicks, and M.A. Schwartz. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  124. Volscho, Thomas W. 2005. “Minimum Wages and Income Inequality in the American States, 1960–2000.” Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 23:343–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Volscho, Thomas W. and Andrew S. Fullerton. 2005. “Metropolitan Earnings Inequality: Unions and Government Sector Effects.” Social Science Quarterly 86:1324–1337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Voss, Kim and Rick Fantasia. 2004. “The Future of American Labor: Reinventing Unions.” Contexts 3(2):35–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Wallace, Michael, Kevin T. Leicht, and Lawrence E. Raffalovich. 1999. “Unions, Strikes, and Labor's Share of Income.” Social Science Research 28:265–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Wallerstein, Michael. 1999. “Wage-Setting Institutions and Pay Inequality in Advanced Industrial Societies.” American Journal of Political Science 43:649–680.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Waylen, Georgina. 2007. “Women's Mobilization and Gender Outcomes in Transitions to Democracy.” Comparative Political Studies 40:521–546.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Western, Bruce. 2007. Punishment and Inequality in America. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  131. — —. 1997. Between Class and Market. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  132. Western, Bruce and Katherine Beckett. 1999. “How Unregulated is the U.S. Labor Market? The Penal System as a Labor Market Institution.” American Journal of Sociology 104:1030–1060.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Western, Bruce and Kieran Healy. 1999. “Explaining the OECD Wage Slowdown: Recession or Labour Decline?” European Sociological Review 15:233–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Wilensky, Harold L. 2002. Rich Democracies. Berkeley, CA.: The University of California Press.Google Scholar
  135. Wright, Erik Olin. 2004. “Introduction.” Politics and Society 32:3–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Zylan, Yvonne and Sarah A. Soule. 2000. “Ending Welfare As We Know It (Again): Welfare State Retrenchment, 1989–1995.” Social Forces 79:623–652.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • David Brady
    • 1
  • Benjamin Sosnaud
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of SociologyDuke UniversityDurhamUSA

Personalised recommendations