The Drake Equation, Take Three

  • Michael A. G. Michaud


The Drake equation was derived from an assumed mode of contact: the detection of electromagnetic signals from very distant stars. It rested on the assumption that technological civilizations do not expand beyond their home systems. The density of such civilizations was determined by the number of separate evolutions to life and intelligence. The equation did not take into account the possibility of interstellar exploration, interstellar colonization, and direct contact.


Technological Civilization Electromagnetic Signal Settle Region Colonization Factor Separate Evolution 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Dyson, in G. Seth Shostak, editor, Third Decennial US-USSR Conference on SETI, Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 1993, 434.Google Scholar
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    Shostak and Barnett, Cosmic Company, 134.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    David Viewing, “Directly Interacting Extraterrestrial Technological Communities,” JBIS, Vol. 28 (1975) 735–744.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Brin, in Bova and Preiss, editors, 130.Google Scholar

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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael A. G. Michaud

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