Testing Visual Functions in Patients with Visual Prostheses

  • Robert Wilke
  • Michael Bach
  • Barbara Wilhelm
  • Wilhelm Durst
  • Susanne Trauzettel-Klosinski
  • Eberhart Zrenner
Part of the Biological and Medical Physics, Biomedical Engineering book series (BIOMEDICAL)

Abstract

A number of different technical devices for restoring vision in blind patients have been proposed to date. They employ different strategies for the acquisition of optical information, image processing, and electrical stimulation. Devices with external cameras or with integrated components for light detection have been developed and are designed to stimulate such different sites as the retina, optic nerve, and cortex. First clinical trials for these devices are being planned or already underway. As vision with these artificial vision devices (AVDs) may differ considerably from natural vision and as it may not be possible to predict visual functions provided by such devices on the basis of technical specifications alone, novel test strategies are needed to comprehensively describe visual performance. We propose a battery of tests for standardized well-controlled investigations in these patients that allow for objective assessment of efficacy of these devices.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Ricci F, Cedrone C, and Cerulli L: “Standardized measurement of visual acuity” Ophthalmic Epidemiol. Mar 1998; 5(1):41–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kniestedt C and Stamper RL: “Visual acuity and its measurement” Ophthalmol Clin North Am. Jun 2003; 16(2):155–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Tamai M, Kunikata H, Itabashi T, Kawamura M, Saigo Y, Sato H, Wada Y, and Nakagawa Y.: “An instrument capable of grading visual function: results from patients with retinitis pigmentosa.” Tohoku J Exp Med. 2004 Aug; 203(4):305–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Marmor MF, Holder GE, Seeliger MW, and Yamamoto S: “Standard for clinical electroretinography” Doc Ophthalmol 2004; 108:107–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bach M, Hawlina M, Holder GE, Marmor M, Meigen T, Vaegan, and Miyake Y: “Standard for Pattern Electroretinography” Doc Ophthalmol 2000; 101:11–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Odom JV, Bach M, Barber C, Brigell M, Marmor MF, Tormene AP, Holder GE, and Vaegan: “Visual Evoked Potentials Standard” Doc Ophthalmol 2004; 108:115–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kersten D and Yuille A: “Bayesian models of object perception” Curr Opin Neurobiol. Apr 2003; 13(2):150–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Albright TD and Stoner GR: “Contextual influences on visual processing” Annu Rev Neurosci. 2002; 25:339–379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hayes JS, Yin VT, Piyathaisere D, Weiland JD, Humayun MS, and Dagnelie G: “Visually guided performance of simple tasks using simulated prosthetic vision” Artif Organs. Nov 2003; 27(11):1016–1028CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Thompson RW Jr, Barnett GD, Humayun MS, and Dagnelie G: “Facial recognition using simulated prosthetic pixelized vision.” Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. Nov 2003; 44(11):5035–5042CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hossain P, Seetho IW, Browning AC, and Amoaku WM: “Artificial means for restoring vision” BMJ. 1 Jan 2005; 330(7481):30–33Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Alteheld N, Roessler G, Vobig M, and Walter P: “The retina implant–new approach to a visual prosthesis” Biomed Tech (Berl). Apr 2004; 49(4):99–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Loewenstein JI, Montezuma SR, and Rizzo JF 3rd: “Outer retinal degeneration: an electronic retinal prosthesis as a treatment strategy” Arch Ophthalmol. Apr 2004; 122(4):587–596CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Chow AY, Chow VY, Packo KH, Pollack JS, Peyman GA, and Schuchard R: “The artificial silicon retina microchip for the treatment of vision loss from retinitis pigmentosa” Arch Ophthalmol. Apr 2004; 122(4):460–469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Zrenner E: “Will retinal implants restore vision?” Science 8 Feb 2002;295(5557):1022–1025.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Stanley OH: “Cortical development and visual function” Eye. 1991; 5 (Pt 1):27–30Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gwiazda JE: “Detection of amblyopia and development of binocular vision in infants and children” Curr Opin Ophthalmol. Dec 1992;3(6):735–740CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hess RF: “Assessment of stimulus field size for strabismic amblyopes” Am J Optom Physiol Opt. May 1977; 54(5):292–299.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bach M: “The ‘Freiburg Visual Acuity Test’ – Automatic measurement of visual acuity” Optometry and Vision Science 1996; 73:49–53Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Dennis RJ, Beer JM, Baldwin JB, Ivan DJ, Lorusso FJ, and Thompson WT: “Using the Freiburg Acuity and Contrast Test to measure visual performance in USAF personnel after PRK” Optom Vis Sci 2004; 81:516–524CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Schulze-Bonsel K, Feltgen N, Burau H, Hansen LL, and Bach M: “Visual acuities ‘Hand Motion’ and ‘Counting Fingers’ can be quantified using the Freiburg Visual Acuity Test.” Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2006; 47:1236–1240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Green DM and Swets JA (1966) Signal detection theory and psychophysics. New York, WileyGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Harvey LO: “Efficient estimation of sensory thresholds” Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, Computers 1986; 18:623–632CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Alagappan K, Steinberg M, MancherjeN, Pollack S, and Carpenter K: “The psychological effects of a four-week emergency medicine rotation on residents in training” Academic Emergency Medicine 1996; 3(12): 1131–1135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Aroian KJ and Patsdaughter CA: “Multiple-method, cross-cultural assessment\break of psychological distress” Image – the Journal of Nursing Scholarship 1989; 21(2): 90–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Boulet J: “Reliability and validity of the Brief Symptom Inventory” Psychological Assessment 1991; 3(3):433–437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Vonk ME and Thyer BA: “Evaluating the effectiveness of short-term treatment\break at a university counseling center” Journal of Clinical Psychology, 1999; 55(9), 1095–1106CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert Wilke
    • 1
  • Michael Bach
    • 2
  • Barbara Wilhelm
    • 3
  • Wilhelm Durst
    • 1
  • Susanne Trauzettel-Klosinski
    • 1
  • Eberhart Zrenner
    • 1
  1. 1.University Eye Hospital TübingenGermany
  2. 2.University Eye Hospital FreiburgGermany
  3. 3.Steinbeis Transfer Center for Biomedical Optics OfterdingenGermany

Personalised recommendations