Compliance Costs for Regulatory Approval of New Biotech Crops

  • Nicholas Kalaitzandonakes
  • Julian M. Alston
  • Kent J. Bradford
Part of the Natural Resource Management and Policy book series (NRMP, volume 30)


The regulatory approval process for new biotech crop varieties is said to be unduly slow and expensive, presenting important barriers to the development of new cropping technologies. To date, however, the private and social costs have not been analyzed or measured, let alone compared with alternatives. This chapter reports initial findings from our continuing project on the costs of regulatory compliance for biotech crops. In this chapter we describe and document the regulatory requirements, and we provide estimates of representative compliance costs for key biotechnologies based on confidential data supplied to us by several major biotech companies.

Key words

biotechnology regulatory approval compliance costs cost estimates 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nicholas Kalaitzandonakes
    • 1
  • Julian M. Alston
    • 2
  • Kent J. Bradford
    • 2
  1. 1.University of Missouri-ColumbiaColumbia
  2. 2.University of CaliforniaDavis

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