Mimicking the Plastoquinone-Binding Pocket of Photosystem II Using Molecularly Imprinted Polymers
The photosystem II (PSII) is a complex system consisting of at least 10 proteins. The electron-flow events in PSII are mediated via prosthetic groups (plastoquinones QA and QB) bound to two proteins called D1 and D2. A large group of photosynthesis-inhibiting herbicides consisting of arylureas, triazines, triazinones and phenylic herbicides has an ability to replace the plastoquinone QB from its binding pocket located in the D1 protein, interrupting the electron flow between the photosystems and causing the plant’s death. The plastoquinone-binding pocket continues to be a subject of intense research by specialists working on the design and testing of new herbicides, as well as scientists and engineers developing new sensors for herbicide detection. The goal of this review is to analyze the structure of the herbicide-binding pocket of the D 1 protein in comparison to known natural and synthetic receptors of herbicides with the aim of developing efficient synthetic mimics useful in the generation of new stable environmental sensor devices.
KeywordsElectron Paramagnetic Resonance Methacrylic Acid Itaconic Acid Functional Monomer Imprint Polymer
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.Salih G, Wiklund R, Tyystjärvi T et al. Constructed deletions in lumen-exposed regions of the D1 protein in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis 6803: Effects on D1 insertion and accumulation in the thylakoid membranes, and on Photosystem II assembly. Photosynth Res 1996; 49:131–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 6.Giardi MT. Significance of photosystem II core phosphorylation heterogeneity for the herbicide-binding domain. Z Naturforsch 1992; 48c:241–245.Google Scholar
- 9.Piletskaya E, Piletsky S, Lavrik N et al. Towards the D1 protein application for the development of sensors specific for herbicides. Anal Lett 1998; 31:2577–2589.Google Scholar
- 14.Trebst A. The three dimensional structure of the herbicide binding niche on the reaction center polypeptides of photosystem II. Z Naturforsch 1987; 42c:742–750.Google Scholar
- 15.Mackay SP, O’Malley PJ. Molecular modelling of the interaction between optically active triazine herbicides and photosystem II. Z Naturforsch 1993; 48c:474–481.Google Scholar
- 20.Mackay SP, O’Malley PJ. Molecular modelling of the interaction between DCMU and the QB-binding site of photosystem II. Z Naturforsch 1993; 48c:191–198.Google Scholar
- 21.Pfister K, Arntzen CJ. The mode of action of photosystem II-specific inhibitors in herbicide-resistant weed biotypes. Z Naturforsch 1979; 34c:996–1009.Google Scholar
- 24.Ewald G, Wiessner C, Michel H. Sequence analysis of atrazine resistant mutants from Rps. viridis. Z Naturforsch 1989; 45:459–462.Google Scholar
- 27.Bowyer J, Hilton M, Whitelegge J et al. Molecular modelling studies on the binding of phenylurea inhibitors to the D1 protein of photosystem II. Z Naturforsch 1990; 45c:379–387.Google Scholar
- 49.Oettmeier W, Masson K, Hohfeld J et al. I-azido-ioxynil labels Val249 of the photosystem II D-1 reaction center protein. Z Naturforsch 1989; 44c:444–449.Google Scholar
- 50.Creuzet S, Ajlani G, Vernotte C et al. A new ioxynil-resistant mutant in Synechocystis PCC6714: Hypothesis on the interaction of ioxynil with the D1 protein. Z Naturforsch 1990; 45:436–440.Google Scholar