Vascular Leukocytes: a Population with Angiogenic and Immunossuppressive Properties Highly Represented in Ovarian Cancer
Physiological angiogenesis occurs mainly during the embryonic stage, originating a vascular network that meets the nutritional and functional demands of the developing organism. In the embryo, formation of blood vessels occurs via vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. Vasculogenesis involves the de-novo differentiation of endothelial cells from angioblasts, mesoderm-derived precursor cells, which assemble into primary capillary vessels1. This network differentiates then by angiogenesis, where new vessels arise from sprouting of preexisting capillaries. In the adult, physiological neovessel formation is involved in wound healing, tissue remodeling, and the female reproductive cycle, while pathological angiogenesis is associated with ischemia, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, psoriasis, inflammatory bowel diseases, endometriosis, and tumor neovascularization2,3. Pathological neovascularization is characterized by increased vascular permeability, which leads to leakage, hemorrhaging, and inflammation. Although sprouting of blood vessels is the principal process in neovascularization, other mechanisms such as intussusception or cooptation of circulating endothelial cell progenitors have also been described 4.
KeywordsVascular Endothelial Growth Factor Ovarian Cancer Ovarian Carcinoma Endothelial Cell Progenitor Costimulatory Molecule
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