Biological Psychiatry in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries

  • John Gach


Though mental illnesses have been described since antiquity, psychological concepts played little role in theory and practice until the Enlightenment, when psychiatry emerged as a medical specialty under the culminating influence of Phillipe Pinel (Riese 1969). In this chapter we shall use the term “psychiatry” to name this emerging field, including within its purview the various terms used by early investigators in different nations. Attempting to understand madness using the prevailing Enlightenment and Romantic biomedical concepts, these first psychiatrists interpreted mental disorders as failures of biological function. Little interested in theoretical issues such as the mind-body problem, they derived their psychiatric ideas from the organic medical tenets of their time. Even so, pioneers like Pinel and his pupil Jean Esquirol acknowledged the importance of sociocultural factors in mental disorders and maintained a humanitarian approach (deemed “moral therapy”), which attempted to respect the dignity of the mentally ill as persons (Pinel 1801; Esquirol 1838).


Mental Disease Nineteenth Century Academic Psychiatry English Edition Electroconvulsive Therapy 
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Notes and References

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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

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  • John Gach

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