Advertisement

Gender and Disaster: Foundations and Directions

  • Elaine Enarson
  • Alice Fothergill
  • Lori Peek
Part of the Handbooks of Sociology and Social Research book series (HSSR)

Abstract

Gendered disaster social science rests on the social fact of gender as a primary organizing principle of societies and the conviction that gender must be addressed if we are to claim knowledge about all people living in risky environments. Theoretically, researchers in the area are moving toward a more nuanced, international, and comparative approach that examines gender relations in the context of other categories of social difference and power such as race, ethnicity, nationality, and social class. At a practical level, researchers seek to bring to the art and science of disaster risk reduction a richer appreciation of inequalities and differences based on sex and gender. As the world learns from each fresh tragedy, gender relations are part of the human experience of disasters and may under some conditions lead to the denial of the fundamental human rights of women and girls in crisis.

Keywords

Disaster Risk Social Vulnerability Disaster Risk Reduction Gender Relation Poor Woman 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Rocheleau, D., Thomas-Slayter, B., & Wangarai, E. (Eds.). (1996). Feminist political ecology: Global issues and local experiences. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  2. Fothergill, A., & Peek, L.A. (2004). Poverty and disasters in the United States: A review of recent sociological findings. Natural Hazards, 32, 89–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Rozario, S. (1997). ‘Disasters’ and Bangladeshi women. In R. Lentin (Ed.), Gender and catastrophe (pp. 255–268). New York: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  4. Cutter. S., Tiefenbacher, J., & Soleci, W. (1992). Engendered fears: Femininity and technological risk perception. Industrial Crisis Quarterly, 6, 5–22.Google Scholar
  5. Begum, R. (1993). Women in environmental disasters: The 1991 cyclone in Bangladesh. Focus on Gender, 1(1), 34–39.Google Scholar
  6. Alway, J., Belgrave, L.L., & Smith, K. J. (1998). Back to normal: Gender and disaster. Symbolic Interaction, 21(2), 175–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Barnecut, C. (1998). Disaster prone: Reflections of a female permanent disaster volunteer. In E. Enarson & B.H. Morrow (Eds.), The gendered terrain of disaster: Through women’s eyes (pp. 151–159). Westport, CT: Praeger.Google Scholar
  8. Yelvington, K. (1997). Coping in a temporary way: The tent cities. In W. Peacock, B. Morrow, & H. Gladwin (Eds.), Hurricane Andrew: Ethnicity, gender, and the sociology of disaster (pp. 92–115). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  9. Morris, P. (1998). Weaving gender in disaster and refugee assistance. Washington, DC: Interaction: American Council for Voluntary International Action.Google Scholar
  10. Quarantelli, E.L. (1998b). Epilogue: Where we have been and where we might go. In E.L. Quarantelli (Ed.), What is a disaster: Perspective on the question (pp. 234–273). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  11. Bolin, R.C., Jackson, M., & Crist, A. (1998). Gender inequality, vulnerability, and disaster: Issues in theory and research. In E. Enarson & B.H. Morrow (Eds.), The gendered terrain of disaster: Through women’s eyes (pp. 27–44). Westport, CT: Praeger.Google Scholar
  12. Morrow, B.H. (1997). Stretching the bonds: The families of Hurricane Andrew. In W.G. Peacock, B.H. Morrow, & H. Gladwin (Eds.), Hurricane Andrew: Ethnicity, gender, and the sociology of disasters (pp. 141–170). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  13. Khondker, H.H. (1996). Women and floods in Bangladesh. International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters, 14(3), 281–292.Google Scholar
  14. Phillips, B. (1990). Gender as a variable in emergency response. In R. Bolin (Ed.), The Loma Prieta earthquake: Studies of short-term impacts (pp. 84–90). Boulder, CO: Natural Hazards Research and Applications Information Center, University of Colorado.Google Scholar
  15. Fothergill, A. (2003). The stigma of charity: Gender, class, and disaster assistance. The Sociological Quarterly, 44(4), 659–680.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Nigg, J., & Tierney, K. (1990). Explaining differential outcomes in the small business disaster loan application process. Preliminary Paper 156. Newark, DE: Disaster Research Center, University of Delaware.Google Scholar
  17. Palinkas, L., Downs, M., Petterson, J., & Russel, J. (1993). Social, cultural, and psychological impacts of the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Human Organization, 52(1), 1–13.Google Scholar
  18. Fothergill, A. (1999). Women’s roles in a disaster. Applied Behavioral Science Review, 7(2), 125–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ollenburger, J.C., & Tobin, G.A. (1998). Women and postdisaster stress. In E. Enarson & B.H. Morrow (Eds.), The gendered terrain of disaster: Through women’s eyes (pp. 95–108). Greenwood, CT: Praeger.Google Scholar
  20. Rivers, J.W. (1982). Women and children last: An essay on sex discrimination in disasters. Disasters, 6(4), 256–267.Google Scholar
  21. Major, A.M. (1999). Gender differences in risk and communication behavior: Responses to the New Madrid earthquake prediction. International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters, 17(3), 313–338.Google Scholar
  22. Scanlon, T.J. (1999b). Myths of male and military superiority: Fictional accounts of the 1917 Halifax explosion. English Studies in Canada, 24, 1001–1025.Google Scholar
  23. Peacock, W.G., & Ragsdale, A.K. (1997). Social systems, ecological networks, and disasters: Toward a socio-political ecology of disasters. In W.G. Peacock, B.H. Morrow, & H. Gladwin (Eds.), Hurricane Andrew: Ethnicity, gender, and the sociology of disasters (pp. 20–35). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  24. Lorber, J. (1998). Gender inequality: Feminist theories and politics. Los Angeles: Roxbury.Google Scholar
  25. Van Willigen, M. (2001). Do disasters affect individuals’ psychological well-being? An over-time analysis of the effect of Hurricane Floyd on men and women in eastern North Carolina. International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters, 19, 59–83.Google Scholar
  26. Ikeda, K. (1995). Gender differences in human loss and vulnerability in natural disasters: A case study from Bangladesh. Indian Journal of Gender Studies, 2(2), 171–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Fordham, M., & Ketteridge, A. (1998). Men must work and women must weep: Examining gender stereotypes in disasters. In E. Enarson, & B.H. Morrow (Eds.), The gendered terrain of disaster: Through women’s eyes (pp. 81–94). Westport, CT: Praeger.Google Scholar
  28. Millican, P. (1993). Women in disaster. Paper presented at the Symposium on Women in Emergencies and Disasters, Brisbane, Queensland.Google Scholar
  29. Enarson, E., & Meyreles, L. (2004). International perspectives on gender and disaster: Differences and possibilities. International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, 24(10/11), 49–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Enarson, E., & Morrow B.H. (Eds.). (1998). The gendered terrain of disaster: Through women’s eyes. Wesport, CT: Greenwood Publications.Google Scholar
  31. Fordham, M. (1999). The intersection of gender and social class in disaster: Balancing resilience and vulnerability. International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters, 17(1), 15–36.Google Scholar
  32. Fothergill, A. (1996). Gender, risk, and disaster. International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters, 14(1), 33–56.Google Scholar
  33. Enarson, E., & Scanlon, J. (1999). Gender patterns in a flood evacuation: A case study of couples in Canada’s Red River Valley. Applied Behavioral Science Review, 7(2), 103–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Klinenberg, E. (2002). Heat wave: A social autopsy of disaster in Chicago. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  35. Enarson, E., Childers, C., Morrow, B.H., Thomas, D., & Wisner, B. (2003). A social vulnerability approach to disasters. Emmitsburg, MD: Emergency Management Institute, Federal Emergency Management Agency.Google Scholar
  36. Hewitt, K. (1997). Regions of risk: A geographical introduction to disasters. Reading, MA: Addison Wesley Longman.Google Scholar
  37. Tinker, I. (Ed.) (1990). Persistent inequalities: Women and world development. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  38. Halvorson, S.J. (2004). Women’s management of the household health environment: Responding to childhood diarrheal disease in the northern areas, Pakistan. Health and Place, 10, 43–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Neal, D., & Phillips, B. (1990). Female-dominated local social movement organizations in disaster-threat situations. In G. West, & R. Blumberg (Eds.), Women and social protest (pp. 243–255). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  40. Steady, F.C. (Ed.). (1993). Women and children first: Environment, poverty, and sustainable development. Rochester, VT: Schenkman Books.Google Scholar
  41. Cox, H. (1998). Women in bushfire territory. In E. Enarson & B.H. Morrow (Eds.), The gendered terrain of disaster: Through women’s eyes (pp. 133–142). Westport, CT: Praeger.Google Scholar
  42. Burawoy, M. (2005). 2004 Presidential Address: For public sociology. American Sociological Review, 70, 4–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Finlay, C. (1998). Floods, they’re a damned nuisance: Women’s flood experiences in rural Australia. In E. Enarson & B. H. Morrow (Eds.), The gendered terrain of disaster: Through women’s eyes (pp. 143–150). Westport, CT: Praeger.Google Scholar
  44. Wilson, J., Phillips, B.D., & Neal, D.M. (1998). Domestic violence after disaster. In E. Enarson & B.H. Morrow (Eds.), The gendered terrain of disaster: Through women’s eyes (pp. 115–122). Westport, CT: Praeger.Google Scholar
  45. Honeycombe, B. (1994). Special needs of women in emergency situations. Australian Journal of Emergency Management, 8(4), 28–31.Google Scholar
  46. Paolisso, M., Ritchie, A., & Ramirez, A. (2002). The significance of the gender division of labor in assessing disaster impacts: A case study of Hurricane Mitch and hillside farmers in Honduras. International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters, 20(2), 171–195.Google Scholar
  47. Bhatt, E. (1998). Women victims’ view of urban and rural vulnerability. In J. Twigg & M. Bhatt (Eds.), Understanding vulnerability: South Asian perspectives (pp. 12–26). Colombo, Sri Lanka: ITDG.Google Scholar
  48. Gibbs, S. (1990). Women’s role in the Red Cross/Red Crescent. Geneva: Henry Dunant Institute.Google Scholar
  49. Wisner, B., Blaikie, P., Cannon, T., & Davis, I. (2004). At risk: Natural hazards, people’s vulnerability, and disaster (2nd ed.). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  50. Shroeder, R.A. (1987). Gender vulnerability to drought: A case study of the Hausa social environment. Working Paper No. 58. Boulder, CO: University of Colorado, Natural Hazards Research and Applications Information Center.Google Scholar
  51. Williams, J. (1994). Responding to women in emergencies and disasters: The role of community services development. Australian Journal of Emergency Management, 8(4), 32–36.Google Scholar
  52. Enarson, E., & Morrow, B. (1997). A gendered perspective: The voices of women. In W. Peacock, B. Morrow, & H. Gladwin (Eds.), Hurricane Andrew: Ethnicity, gender and the sociology of disasters (pp. 116–140). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  53. Bari, F. (1998). Gender, disaster, and empowerment: A case study from Pakistan. In E. Enarson, & B. H. Morrow (Eds.), The gendered terrain of disaster: Through women’s eyes (pp. 125–131). Westport, CT: Praeger.Google Scholar
  54. Morrow, B.H., & Enarson, E. (1996). Hurricane Andrew through women’s eyes: Issues and recommendations. International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters, 14(1), 1–22.Google Scholar
  55. Wraith, R. (1997). Women in emergency management: Where are they? Australian Journal of Emergency Management, 12, 9–11.Google Scholar
  56. Enarson, E., & Fordham, M. (2001). From women’s needs to women’s rights in disasters. Environmental Hazards, 3, 133–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Wiest, R.E. (1998). A comparative perspective on household, gender, and kinship in relation to disaster. In E. Enarson & B.H. Morrow (Eds.), The gendered terrain of disaster: Through women’s eyes (pp. 63–80). Westport, CT: Praeger.Google Scholar
  58. Von Kotze, A., & Holloway, A. (1996). Reducing risk: Participatory learning activities for disaster mitigation in Southern Africa. Oxford: Oxfam International Federation.Google Scholar
  59. Fothergill, A. (2004). Heads above water: Gender, class, and family in the Grand Forks flood. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  60. Peacock, W.G., Morrow, B.H., & Gladwin, H. (Eds.). (1997). Hurricane Andrew: Ethnicity, gender and the sociology of disaster. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  61. Hochschild, A.R. (1989). The second shift: Working parents and the revolution at home. New York: Viking.Google Scholar
  62. Ariyabandu, M.M., & Wickramasinghe, M. (2004). Gender dimensions in disaster management: A guide for South Asia. Colombo, Sri Lanka: ITDG.Google Scholar
  63. Dufka, C. (1988). The Mexico City earthquake disaster. Social Casework: The Journal of Contemporary Social Work, 69, 162–170.Google Scholar
  64. Bateman, J., & Edwards, B. (2002). Gender and evacuation: A closer look at why women are more likely to evacuate for hurricanes. Natural Hazards Review, 3(3), 107–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Fernando, P., & Fernando, V. (1997). South Asian women facing disasters, securing life. Colombo, Sri Lanka: ITDG.Google Scholar
  66. Noel, G.E. (1998). The role of women in health-related aspects of emergency management: A Caribbean perspective. In E. Enarson & B.H. Morrow (Eds.), The gendered terrain of disaster: Through women’s eyes (pp. 213–223). Westport, CT: Praeger.Google Scholar
  67. Fothergill, A., Maestas, E.G.M., & Darlington, J. D. (1999). Race, ethnicity, and disasters in the United States: A review of the literature. Disasters, 23(2), 156–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Fordham, M. (2004). Gendering vulnerability analysis: Towards a more nuanced approach. In G. Bankoff, G. Frerks, & D. Hillhorst (Eds.), Mapping vulnerability: Disasters, development, and people (pp. 174–182). London: Earth-scan.Google Scholar
  69. Dobson, N. (1994). From under the mud-pack: Women and the Charleville floods. Australian Journal of Emergency Management, 9(2), 11–13.Google Scholar
  70. Childers, C. (1999). Elderly female-headed households in the disaster loan process. International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters, 17(1), 99–110.Google Scholar
  71. Hoffman, S.M. (1998). Eve and Adam among the embers: Gender patterns after the Oakland Berkeley firestorm. In E. Enarson & B.H. Morrow (Eds.), The gendered terrain of disaster: Through women’s eyes (pp. 55–61). Westport, CT: Praeger.Google Scholar
  72. Wenger, D.E. (1972). DRC Studies of community functioning. Proceedings of the Japan–United States disaster research seminar: Organizational and community responses to disasters. Columbus, OH: Disaster Research Center, Ohio State University.Google Scholar
  73. Wilson, J. (1999). Professionalization and gender in local emergency management. International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters, 17(1), 111–122.Google Scholar
  74. Hossain, H., Dodge, C., & Abel, H. (Eds.). (1992). From crisis to development: Coping with disasters in Bangladesh. Dhaka: University Press Limited.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elaine Enarson
    • 1
  • Alice Fothergill
    • 2
  • Lori Peek
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Applied Disaster and Emergency StudiesBrandon UniversityManitobaCanada
  2. 2.Department of SociologyUniversity of VermontBurlingtonUSA
  3. 3.Department of SociologyColorado State UniversityFort CollinsUSA

Personalised recommendations