Advertisement

Prejudice and Discrimination as Social Stressors

  • Ilan H. Meyer

Abstract

Lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals (LGBs) vary in sociodemographic characteristics such as cultural, ethnic or racial identity, age, education, income, and place of residence as well as in the degree to which their LGB identities are central to their self-definition, their level of affiliation with other LGB people, and their rejection or acceptance of societal stereotypes about and prejudice against homosexuality. In that diversity, it is difficult to describe many common themes. Despite the many differences that separate them, LGB people share remarkably similar experiences related to prejudice, stigma, discrimination, rejection, and violence directed toward them across cultures and locales (Espin, 1993; Fullilove & Fullilove, 1999; Herek, 2000; Diaz et al., 2001). Even after a historic U.S. Supreme Court ruling that the criminalization of homosexuality is unconstitutional, gay men and lesbians continue to be subjected to legal discrimination in housing, employment, and basic civil rights—most prominent in recent years are discrimination related to family law, including marriage and adoption.

Keywords

Sexual Orientation Stereotype Threat Minority Stress Sexual Prejudice Minority Identity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adam, B.D. (1987) The rise of a gay and lesbian movement. Twayne Publishers, Boston.Google Scholar
  2. Allen, L.A., Woolfolk, R.L., Gara, M., and Apter, J.T. (1999) Possible selves in major depression. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 184:739–745.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Allison, K.W. (1998) Stress and oppressed social category membership. In: Swim, J.K., and Stangor, C. (eds) Prejudice: the target’s perspective. Academic Press, San Diego, pp. 145–170.Google Scholar
  4. Allport, G.W. (1954) The nature of prejudice. Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA.Google Scholar
  5. American Psychological Association. (2000) Guidelines for psychotherapy with lesbian, gay, and bisexual clients. American Psychologist 55:1440–1451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. American Public Health Association. (2003) Amicus brief filed in Lawrence v. Texas (date filed: January 16, 2003).Google Scholar
  7. Amnesty International. (2001) Crimes of hate, conspiracy of silence: torture and illtreatment based on sexual identity. Amnesty International, London.Google Scholar
  8. Antonovsky, A. (1987) Unraveling the mystery of health: how people manage stress and stay well. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco.Google Scholar
  9. Ashmore, R.D., Deaux, K., and McLaughlin-Volpe, T. (2004) An organizing framework for collective identity: articulation and significance of multidimensionality. Psychological Bulletin 130:80–114.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Badgett, L.M.V. (1995) The wage effects of sexual orientation discrimination. Industrial and Labor Relations Review 48:726–739.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Barnett, R.C., and Baruch, G.K. (1987) Social roles, gender, and psychological distress. In: Barnett, R.C., Biener, L., and Baruch, G.K. (eds) Gender and stress. Free Press, New York, pp. 122–143.Google Scholar
  12. Branscombe, N.R., and Ellemers, N. (1998) Coping with group-based discrimination: individualistic versus group-level strategies. In: Swim, J.K., and Stangor, C. (eds) Prejudice: the target’s perspective. Academic Press, San Diego, pp. 243–266.Google Scholar
  13. Branscombe, N.R., Ellemers, N., Spears, R., and Doosje, B. (1999a) The context and content of social identity threats. In: Ellemers, N., Spears, R., and Doosje, B. (eds) Social identity: context, commitment, and content Blackwell, Oxford, pp. 35–58.Google Scholar
  14. Branscombe, N.R., Schmitt, M.T., and Harvey, R.D. (1999b) Perceiving pervasive discrimination among African Americans: implications for group identification and well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 77:135–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Brewer, M.B. (1991) The social self: on being the same and different at the same time. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 17:475–482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Brooks, V.R. (1981) Minority stress and lesbian women. Lexington Books Lexington, MA.Google Scholar
  17. Brown, T.N., Sellers, S.L., Brown, K.T., and Jackson, J. (1999) Race, ethnicity, and culture in the sociology of mental health. In: Aneshensel, C.S., and Phelan, J.C. (eds) Handbook of the sociology of mental health. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, pp. 167–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bucci, W. (1995) The power of the narrative: a multiple code account. In: Pennebaker, J.W. (ed) Emotion, disclosure, & health. American Psychological Association, Washington, DC, pp. 93–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Burke, P. (1991) Identity processes and social stress. American Sociological Review 56:836–849.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cabaj, R.P. (1988) Homosexuality and neurosis: considerations for psychotherapy. In: Ross, M.W. (ed) The treatment of homosexuals with mental health disorders. Harrington Park Press, New York, pp. 13–23.Google Scholar
  21. Cass, V.C. (1979) Homosexual identity formation: a theoretical model. Journal of Homosexuality 4:219–235.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cass, V.C. (1984) Homosexual identity formation: testing a theoretical model. Journal of Sex Research 20:143–167.Google Scholar
  23. Clark, R., Anderson, N.B., Clark, V.R., and Williams, D.R. (1999) Racism as a stressor for African Americans: a biopsychosocial model. American Psychologist 54:805–816.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Cochran, S.D. (2001) Emerging issues in research on lesbians’ and gay men’s mental health: does sexual orientation really matter? American Psychologist 56:931–947.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cochran, S.D., and Mays, V.M. (1994) Depressive distress among homosexually active African-American men and women. American Journal of Psychiatry 151:524–529.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Cohler, B.J., and Galatzer-Levy, R.M. (2000) The course of gay and lesbian lives: social and psychoanalytic perspectives. Chicago: Chicago University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Cole, S.W., Kemeny, M.E., Taylor, S.E., and Visscher, B.R. (1996a) Elevated physical health risk among gay men who conceal their homosexual identity. Health Psychology 15:243–251.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Cole, S.W., Kemeny, M.E., Taylor, S.E., Visscher, B.R., and Fahey, J.L. (1996b) Accelerated course of human immunodeficiency virus infection in gay men who conceal their homosexual identity. Psychosomatic Medicine 58:219–231.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Coleman, E. (1982) Developmental stages of the coming out process. Journal of Homosexuality 7:31–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Crawford, I., Allison, K.W., Zamboni, B.D., and Soto, T. (2002) The influence of dual-identity development on the psychosocial functioning of African-American gay and bisexual men. Journal of Sex Research 39:179–189.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Crocker, J. (1999) Social stigma and self-esteem: situational construction of self-worth. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 35:89–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Crocker, J., and Major, B. (1989) Social stigma and self-esteem: the self-protective properties of stigma. Psychological Review 96:608–630.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Crocker, J., and Quinn, D.M. (2000) Social stigma and the self: meanings, situations, and self-esteem. In: Heatherton, T.F., Kleck, R.E., Hebl, M.R., and Hull, J.G. (eds) The social psychology of stigma. Guilford Press, New York, pp. 153–183.Google Scholar
  34. Crocker, J., Major, B., and Steele, C. (1998) Social stigma. In: Gilbert, D., Fiske, S.T., and Lindzey, G. (eds) The handbook of social psychology, 4th ed. McGraw-Hill, Boston, pp. 504–553.Google Scholar
  35. Cross, W. (1995) The psychology of nigrescence: revising the cross model. In: Ponterotto, J.G., Casa, J.M., Suzuki, L.A., and Alexander, C.M. (eds) Handbook of multicultural counseling. Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 93–122.Google Scholar
  36. Croteau, J.M. (1996) Research on the work experience of lesbian, gay, and bisexual people: an integrative review of methodology and findings. Journal of Vocational Behavior 48:195–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. D’Augelli, A.R., and Grossman, A.H. (2001) Disclosure of sexual orientation, victimization, and mental health among lesbian, gay, and bisexual older adults. Journal of Interpersonal Violence 16:1008–1027.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. D’Augelli, A.R., and Hershberger, S.L. (1993) Lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth in community settings: personal challenges and mental health problems. American Journal of Community Psychology 21:1–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Dean, L., Meyer, I.H., Sell, R.L., Sember, R., Silenzio, V., Bowen, D.J., et al. (2000) Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender health: findings and concerns. Journal of the Gay and Lesbian Medical Association 4:101–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Deaux, K. (1993) Reconstructing social identity. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 19:4–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Deaux, K., and Ethier, K. (1998) Negotiating social identity. In: Swim, J.K., and Stangor, C. (eds) Prejudice: the target’s perspective. Academic Press, San Diego, pp. 301–323.Google Scholar
  42. D’Emilio, J. (1983) Sexual politics, sexual communities: the making of a homosexual minority in the United States, 1940–1970. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  43. De Monteflores, C., and Schultz, S.J. (1978) Coming out: similarities and differences for lesbians and gay men. Journal of Social Issues 34:59–72.Google Scholar
  44. Diamond, L.M. (2000) Sexual identity, attractions, and behavior among young sexual-minority women over a 2-year period. Developmental Psychology 36:241–250.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Diaz, R.M., Ayala, G., Bein, E., Jenne, J., and Marin, B.V. (2001) The impact of homophobia, poverty and racism on the mental health of Latino gay men. American Journal of Public Health 91:927–932.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. DiPlacido, J. (1998) Minority stress among lesbians, gay men, and bisexual: a consequence of heterosexism, homophobia, and stigmatization. In: Herek, G.M. (ed) Stigma and sexual orientation: understanding prejudice against lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals, Vol. 4. Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 138–159.Google Scholar
  47. Dohrenwend, B.P. (2000) The role of adversity and stress in psychopathology: some evidence and its implications for theory and research. Journal of Health and Social Behavior 41:1–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Dupras, A. (1994) Internalized homophobia and psychosexual adjustment among gay men. Psychological Reports 75:23–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Eliason, M.J. (1996) Identity formation for lesbian, bisexual, and gay persons: beyond a “minoritizing” view. Journal of Homosexuality 30:31–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Espin, O.M. (1993) Issues of identity in the psychology of Latina lesbians. In: Garnets, L.D., and Kimmel, D.C. (eds) Psychological perspectives on lesbian and gay male experiences. Columbia University Press, New York, pp. 348–363.Google Scholar
  51. Ethier, K., and Deaux, K. (1994) Negotiating social identity when contexts change. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 67:243–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Farina, A., Allen, J.G., and Saul, B.B. (1968) The role of the stigmatized person in affecting social relationships. Journal of Personality 36:169–182.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Faulkner, A.H., and Cranston, K. (1998) Correlates of same-sex sexual behavior in a random sample of Massachusetts high school students. American Journal of Public Health 88:262–266.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Fife, B.L., and Wright, E.R. (2000) The dimensionality of stigma: a comparison of its impact on the self of persons with HIV/AIDS and cancer. Journal of Health and Social Behavior 41:50–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Frable, D.E., Wortman, C., and Joseph, J. (1997) Predicting self-esteem, wellbeing, and distress in a cohort of gay men: the importance of cultural stigma, personal visibility, community networks, and positive identity. Journal of Personality 65:599–624.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Frable, D.E.S., Platt, L., and Hoey, S. (1998) Concealable stigmas and positive self-perceptions: feeling better around similar others. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 74:909–922.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Fullilove, M.T., and Fullilove, R.E. (1999) Stigma as an obstacle to AIDS action. American Behavioral Scientist 42:1117–1129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Garnets, L.D., and Kimmel, D.C. (1991) Lesbian and gay male dimensions in the psychological study of human diversity. In: Garnets, L.D., Jones, J.M., Kimmel, D.C., Sue, S., and Tarvis, C. (eds) Psychological perspectives on human diversity in America. American Psychological Association, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  59. Garnets, L.D., Herek, G.M., and Levy, B. (1990) Violence and victimization of lesbians and gay men: mental health consequences. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 5:366–383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Garofalo, R., Wolf, R.C., Kessel, S., Palfrey, J., and DuRant, R.H. (1998) The association between health risk behaviors and sexual orientation among a school based sample of adolescents. Pediatrics 101:895–902.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Gay and Lesbian Medical Association and LGBT Health Experts. (2001) Healthy people 2010 companion document for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) health. Gay and Lesbian Medical Association, San Francisco.Google Scholar
  62. GLSEN. (1999) GLSEN’s national school climate survey: lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender students and their experiences in school. GLSEN, New York.Google Scholar
  63. GLSEN. (2004) History. http://www.glsen.org/cgi-bin/iowa/all/about/index.html.Google Scholar
  64. Goffman, E. (1963) Stigma: notes on the management of spoiled identity. Touchstone, New York.Google Scholar
  65. Gonsiorek, J.C. (1988) Mental health issues of gay and lesbian adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health Care 9:114–122.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Greenberg, J.S. (1973) Study of self-esteem and alienation of male homosexuals. Journal of Psychology 83:137–143.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Griffin, P. (1992) From hiding out to coming out: empowering lesbian and gay educators. In: Harbeck, K.M. (ed) Coming out of the classroom closet. Harrington Park Press, Binghamton, NY, pp. 167–196.Google Scholar
  68. Grossman, A.H., and Kerner, M.S. (1998) Self-esteem and supportiveness as predictors of emotional distress in gay male and lesbian youth. Journal of Homosexuality 35(2):25–39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Herdt, G., and Boxer, A. (1996) Children of horizons. Beacon Press, Boston.Google Scholar
  70. Herek, G.M. (2000) The psychology of sexual prejudice. Current Directions in Psychological Sciences 9:19–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Herek, G.M., and Berrill, K.T. (1992) Hate crimes: confronting violence against lesbian and gay men. Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA.Google Scholar
  72. Herek, G.M., Gillis, J.R., and Cogan, J.C. (1999) Psychological sequelae of hatecrime victimization among lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 67:945–951.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Hershberger, S.L., and D’Augelli, A.R. (1995) The impact of victimization on the mental health and suicidality of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth. Developmental Psychology 31:65–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Hetrick, E.S., and Martin, A.D. (1984) Ego-dystonic homosexuality: a developmental view. In: Hetrick, E.S., and Stein, T.S. (eds) Innovations in psychotherapy with homosexuals. American Psychiatric Association Press, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  75. Hetrick, E.S., and Martin, A.D. (1987) Developmental issues and their resolution for gay and lesbian adolescents. Journal of Homosexuality 14:25–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Hobfoll, S.E. (1998) The social and historical context of stress. In: Stress, culture, and community: the psychology and philosophy of stress. Plenum Press, New York, pp. 1–23.Google Scholar
  77. Hooks, B. (1993) Sisters of the yam: black woman and self-recovery. South End Press, Boston.Google Scholar
  78. Human Rights Watch. (2001) Hatred in the hallways: violence and discrimination against lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender students in U.S. schools. Human Rights Watch, New York.Google Scholar
  79. Jetten, J., Branscombe, N.R., Schmitt, M.T., and Spears, R. (2001) Rebels with a cause: group identification as a response to perceived discrimination from the mainstream. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 27:1204–1213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Jones, E.E., Farina, A., Hestrof, A.H., Markus, H., Miller, D.T., and Scott, R.A. (1984) Social stigma: the psychology of marked relationships. W.H. Freeman, New York.Google Scholar
  81. Kertzner, R.M. (1999) Self-appraisal of life experience and psychological adjustment in midlife gay men. Journal of Psychology and Human Sexuality 11:43–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Kertzner, R.M. (2001) The adult life course and homosexual identity in midlife gay men. Annual Review of Sex Research 12:75–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Kessler, R.C., Price, R.H., and Wortman, C.B. (1985) Social factors in psychopathology: stress, social support, and coping processes. Annual Review of Psychology 36:572.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Kitzinger, C. (1997) Lesbian and gay psychology: a critical analysis. In: Fox, D., and Prilleltensky, I. (eds) Critical psychology: an introduction. Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 202–216.Google Scholar
  85. Kobrynowicz, D., and Branscombe, N.R. (1997) Who considers themselves victims of discrimination? Individual difference predictors of perceived gender discrimination in women and men. Psychology of Women Quarterly 21:347–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Krieger, N. (2001) Theories for social epidemiology in the 21st century: an ecosocial perspective. International Journal of Epidemiology 30:668–677.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Krieger, N., and Sidney, S. (1997) Prevalence and health implications of antigay discrimination: a study of black and white women and men in the CARDIA cohort. International Journal of Health Services 27:157–176.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Laumann, E.O., Gagnon, J.H., Michael, R.T., and Michaels, S. (1994) The social organization of sexuality: sexual practices in the United States. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  89. Lazarus, R.S., and Folkman, S. (1984) Stress, appraisal, and coping. Springer, New York.Google Scholar
  90. Link, B.G. (1987) Understanding labeling effects in the area of mental disorders: an assessment of the effects of expectations of rejection. American Sociological Review 52:96–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Link, B.G., Struening, E.L., Rahav, M., Phelan, J.C., and Nuttbrock, L. (1997) On stigma and its consequences: evidence from a longitudinal study of men with dual diagnoses of mental illness and substance abuse. Journal of Health and Social Behavior 38:177–190.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Linville, P. (1987) Self-complexity as a cognitive buffer against stress related illness and depression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 52:663–676.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Loiacano, D.K. (1993) Gay identity among black Americans: racism, homophobia, and the need for validation. In: Garnets, L.D., and Kimmel, D.C. (eds) Psychological perspectives on lesbian and gay male experiences. Columbia University Press, New York, pp. 364–375.Google Scholar
  94. Major, B., and Gramzow, R.H. (1999) Abortion as stigma: cognitive and emotional implications of concealment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 77:735–745.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Malebranche, D.J., Peterson, J.L., Fullilove, R.E., and Stackhouse, R.W. (2004) Race and sexual identity: perceptions about medical culture and healthcare among black men who have sex with men. Journal of the National Medical Association 96:97–107.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Malyon, A.K. (1982) Psychotherapeutic implications of internalized homophobia in gay men. Journal of Homosexuality 7:59–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Massey, S., and Ouellette, S.C. (1996) Heterosexual bias in the identity selfportraits of gay men, lesbians, and bisexuals. Journal of Homosexuality 32:57–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Masten, A.S. (2001) Ordinary magic: resilience processes in development. American Psychologist 56:227–238.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Mayfield, W. (2001) The development of an internalized homonegativity inventory for gay men. Journal of Homosexuality 4:53–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Mays, V.M., and Cochran, S.D. (2001) Mental health correlates of perceived discrimination among lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults in the United States. American Journal of Public Health 91:1869–1876.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. McDevitt, J., Balboni, J., Garcia, L., and Gu, J. (2001) Consequences for victims: a comparison of bias-and non-bias-motivated assaults. American Behavioral Scientist 45:697–713.Google Scholar
  102. Meyer, I.H. (1995) Minority stress and mental health in gay men. Journal of Health and Social Behavior 36:38–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Meyer, I.H. (2003) Prejudice, social stress and mental health in lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations: conceptual issues and research evidence. Psychological Bulletin 129:674–697.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Meyer, I.H., and Dean, L. (1998) Internalized homophobia, intimacy, and sexual behavior among gay and bisexual men. In: Herek, G.M. (ed) Stigma and sexual orientation: understanding prejudice against lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals. Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 160–186.Google Scholar
  105. Miller, C.T., and Major, B. (2000) Coping with stigma and prejudice. In: Heatherton, T.F., Kleck, R.E., Hebl, M.R., and Hull, J.G. (eds) The social psychology of stigma. Guilford Press, New York, pp. 243–272.Google Scholar
  106. Miller, C.T., and Myers, A.M. (1998) Compensating for prejudice: how heavyweight people (and others) control outcomes despite prejudice. In: Swim, J.K., and Stangor, C. (eds) Prejudice: the target’s perspective. Academic Press, San Diego, pp. 191–218.Google Scholar
  107. Minkler, M. (1999) Personal responsibility for health? A review of the arguments and the evidence at century’s end. Health Education & Behavior 26:121–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Mirowsky, J., and Ross, C.E. (1989) Social causes of psychological distress. Aldine De Gruyter, Hawthorne, NY.Google Scholar
  109. Morris, J.F., Waldo, C.R., and Rothblum, E.D. (2001) A model of predictors and outcomes of outness among lesbian and bisexual women. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 71:61–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Nicholson, W.D., and Long, B.C. (1990) Self-esteem, social support, internalized homophobia, and coping strategies of HIV+ gay men. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 58:873–876.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Nungesser, L.G. (1983) Homosexual acts, actors, and identities. Praeger, New York.Google Scholar
  112. Operario, D., and Fiske, S.T. (2001) Ethnic identity moderates perceptions of prejudice: judgments of personal versus group discrimination and subtle versus blatant bias. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 27:550–561.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Ouellette, S.C. (1993) Inquiries into hardiness. In: Goldbeger, L., and Breznitz, S. (eds) Handbook of stress: theoretical and clinical aspects, 2nd ed. Free Press, New York, pp. 77–100.Google Scholar
  114. Ouellette, S.C. (1998) The value and limitations of stress models in HIV/AIDS. In: Dohrenwend, B.P. (ed) Adversity, stress, and psychopathology. Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 142–160.Google Scholar
  115. Pearlin, L.I. (1999) The stress process revisited: reflections on concepts and their interrelationships. In: Aneshensel, C.S., and Phelan, J.C. (eds) Handbook of the sociology of mental health. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, pp. 395–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Pennebaker, J.W. (1995) Emotion, disclosure, and health. American Psychological Association, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  117. Peterson, J.L., Folkman, S., and Bakeman, R. (1996) Stress, coping, HIV status, psychosocial resources, and depressive mood in African American gay, bisexual, and heterosexual men. American Journal of Community Psychology 24:461–487.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Petrie, K.J., Booth, R.J., and Davison, K.P. (1995) Repression, disclosure, and immune function: recent findings and methodological issues. In: Pennebaker, J.W. (ed) Emotion, disclosure, & health. American Psychological Association, Washington, DC, pp. 223–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Pettigrew, T.F. (1967) Social evaluation theory: convergencies and applications. In: Levine, D. (ed) Nebraska symposium on motivation, 15th ed. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, pp. 241–304.Google Scholar
  120. Pinel, E.C. (2002) Stigma consciousness in intergroup contexts: the power of conviction. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 38:178–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Postmes, T., and Branscombe, N.R. (2002) Influence of long-term racial environmental composition on subjective well-being in African Americans. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 83:735–751.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Rosario, M., Rotheram-Borus, M.J., and Reid, H. (1996) Gay-related stress and its correlates among gay and bisexual male adolescents of predominantly Black and Hispanic background. Journal of Community Psychology 24:136–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Rosenberg, S., and Gara, M. (1985) The multiplicity of personal identity. In: Shaver, P.R. (ed) Self, situations, and social behavior: review of personality and social psychology. Sage Publications, Beverly Hills, CA, pp. 87–113.Google Scholar
  124. Ross, M.W. (1985) Actual and anticipated societal reaction to homosexuality and adjustment in two societies. Journal of Sex Research 21:40–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Ross, M.W., and Rosser, S.B.R. (1996) Measurement and correlates of internalized homophobia: a factor analytic study. Journal of Clinical Psychology 52:15–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Rosser, B., Metz, M., Bockting, W., and Buroker, T. (1997) Sexual difficulties, concerns and satisfaction in homosexual men: an empirical study with i mplications for HIV prevention. The Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy 23:61–73.Google Scholar
  127. Rotheram-Borus, M.J., and Fernandez, M.I. (1995) Sexual orientation and developmental challenges experienced by gay and lesbian youths. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior 25:26–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Safe Schools Coalition of Washington. (1999) Eighty-three thousand youth: selected findings of eight population-based studies as they pertain to anti-gay harassment and the safety and well-being of sexual minority students. Safe Schools Coalition of Washington, Seattle.Google Scholar
  129. Shade, B.J. (1990) Coping with color: the anatomy of positive mental health. In: Ruiz, D.S. (ed) Handbook of mental health and mental disorder among Black Americans. Greenwood Press, New York.Google Scholar
  130. Shidlo, A. (1994) Internalized homophobia: conceptual and empirical issues in measurement. In: Greene, B., and Herek, G.M. (eds) Lesbian and gay psychology: theory, research and clinical applications, Vol. 1. Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 176–205.Google Scholar
  131. Siegel, K., and Epstein, J.A. (1996) Ethnic-racial differences in psychological stress related to gay lifestyle among HIV-positive men. Psychological Reports 79:303–312.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Smart, L., and Wegner, D.M. (2000) The hidden costs of stigma. In: Heatherton, T.F., Kleck, R.E., Hebl, M.R., and Hull, J.G. (eds) The social psychology of stigma. Guilford Press, New York, pp. 220–242.Google Scholar
  133. Smith, A.J., and Siegel, R.F. (1985) Feminist therapy: redefining power for the powerless. In: Rosewater, L.R., and Walker, L.E.A. (eds) Handbook of feminist therapy: women’s issues in psychotherapy. Springer, New York.Google Scholar
  134. Smyth, J.M., Stone, A.A., Hurewitz, A., and Kaell, A. (1999) Effects of writing about stressful experiences on symptom reduction in patients with asthma or rheumatoid arthritis. Journal of the American Medical Association 281:1304–1309.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Steele, C.M. (1997) A threat in the air: how stereotypes shape intellectual identity and performance. The American Psychologist 52:613–629.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Steele, C.M., and Aronson, J. (1995) Stereotype threat and the intellectual test performance of African Americans. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 69:797–811.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Stiles, W.B. (1995) Disclosure as a speech act: is it psychotherapeutic to disclose? In: Pennebaker, J.W. (ed) Emotion, disclosure, & health. American Psychological Association, Washington, DC, pp. 71–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Stokes, J.P., and Peterson, J.L. (1998) Homophobia, self-esteem, and risk for HIV among African American men who have sex with men. Aids Education and Prevention 10:278–292.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Swim, J.K., Hyers, L.L., Cohen, L.L., and Ferguson, M.J. (2001) Everyday sexism: evidence for its incidence, nature, and psychological impact from three daily diary studies. Journal of Social Issues 57:31–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Szymanski, D.M., and Chung, Y.B. (2001) The lesbian internalized homophobia scale: a rational/theoretical approach. Journal of Homosexuality 41:37–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Thoits, P. (1985) Self-labeling processes in mental illness: the role of emotional deviance. American Journal of Sociology 91:221–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Thoits, P. (1991) On merging identity theory and stress research. Social Psychology Quarterly 54:101–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Thoits, P. (1999) Self, identity, stress, and mental health. In: Aneshensel, C.S., and Phelan, J.C. (eds) Handbook of the sociology of mental health. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, pp. 345–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Troiden, R.R. (1989) The formation of homosexual identities. Journal of Homosexuality 17:45–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Twenge, J.M., and Crocker, J. (2002) Race and self-esteem: meta-analyses comparing Whites, Blacks, Hispanics, Asians, and American Indians and comment on Gray-Little and Hafdahl (2000). Psychological Bulletin 128:371–408.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2000) Healthy people 2010: understanding and improving health. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  147. Waldo, C.R. (1999) Working in a majority context: a structural model of heterosexism as minority stress in the workplace. Journal of Counseling Psychology 46:218–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Weinberg, M.S., and Williams, C.J. (1974) Male homosexuals: their problems and adaptations. Oxford University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  149. Williamson, I.R. (2000) Internalized homophobia and health issues affecting lesbians and gay men. Health Education Research 15:97–107.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Woolfolk, R.L., Novalany, J., Gara, M.A., Allen, L.A., and Polino, M. (1995) Selfcomplexity, self-evaluation, and depression: an examination of form and content within the self-schema. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 68:1108–1120.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ilan H. Meyer
    • 1
  1. 1.Mailman School of Public HealthColumbia UniversityNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations