Carbon Nanotubes as Electrical Interfaces to Neurons

  • Michele Giugliano
  • Luca Gambazzi
  • Laura Ballerini
  • Maurizio Prato
  • Stephane Campidelli
Chapter
Part of the Fundamental Biomedical Technologies book series (FBMT)

Abstract

Translating basic neuroscience research into experimental neurology applications often requires functional interfacing of the central nervous system (CNS) with artificial devices designed to monitor and/or stimulate brain electrical activity. Ideally, such interfaces should provide a high temporal and spatial resolution over a large area of tissue during stimulation and/or recording of neuronal activity, with the ultimate goal to elicit/detect the electrical excitation at the single-cell level and to observe the emerging spatiotemporal correlations within a given functional area. Activity patterns generated by CNS neurons have been typically correlated with a sensory stimulus, a motor response, or a potentially cognitive process.

Abbreviations

CNS

Central nervous system

Cm

Membrane capacitance

Ccnt

CNT equivalent capacitance

CNT

Carbon nanotube

Csh

Amplifier shunt capacitance

EK

K+ Nerst equilibrium potential

EL

Nerst equilibrium potential of leak membrane currents

ENa

Na+ Nerst equilibrium potential

FET

Field-effect transistor

gK

K+ conductance

gL

Leak conductance

gNa

Na+ conductance

MWNT

Multi-walled carbon nanotube

Ra

Axial cytoplasmic resistance

Rcnt

CNT equivalent resistance

Rin

Amplifier input resistance

Rs

Seal resistance

Rsp

Spread resistance

SWNT

Single-walled carbon nanotube

Vcnt

CNT potential

Vm

Membrane potential

Notes

Acknowledgments

Authors acknowledge financial support from the Italian Ministry of University and Research (Cofin and FIRB), from the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne EPFL, from the European Commission (NEURONANO-NMP4-CT-2006-031847), and from the “Stoicescu” grant. M.G. and L.G. are grateful to Prof. H. Markram, C. Petersen, and S. Martinoia for helpful discussions and to S. Garcia and K. Antoniello for assistance.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michele Giugliano
    • 1
    • 2
  • Luca Gambazzi
    • 1
  • Laura Ballerini
    • 3
  • Maurizio Prato
    • 4
  • Stephane Campidelli
    • 5
  1. 1.Laboratory of Neural Microcircuitry, Brain Mind InstituteÉcole Polytechnique Fédérale de LausanneLausanneSwitzerland
  2. 2.Department of Biomedical SciencesUniversity of AntwerpAntwerpBelgium
  3. 3.Life Science DepartmentB.R.A.I.N., University of TriesteTriesteItaly
  4. 4.Department of Pharmaceutical SciencesUniversity of TriesteTriesteItaly
  5. 5.Laboratoire d’Electronique MoléculaireCEA SaclayGif-sur-YvetteFrance

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