Writing for All, for Some, or for No One? Some Thoughts on the Applications and Evaluations of the Writing Technique

  • Luigi Solano
  • Maria Bonadies
  • Michela Di Trani


Emotional Expression Postpartum Depression Psychosomatic Medicine Untreated Control Group Expressive Writing 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bucci, F., Donati, V., & Solano, L. (2004). Elaborazione scritta dell’esperienza della gravidanza e salute pre e post-partum in 39 gestanti primipare. VI Congresso Nazionale della Societá Italiana di Psicologia della Salute, Napoli.Google Scholar
  2. Costantini, M. V. (2005). La Rivista come un diario. Rivista di Psicoanalisi, 51, 91–95.Google Scholar
  3. De Propris, F., Buttiglione, D., & De Gennaro, L. (2002). Alessitimia e aspetti quantitativi e qualitativi del ricordo dei sogni. Psicologia della Salute, 5, 33–50.Google Scholar
  4. De Moor, C., Sterner, J., Hall, M., Warneke, C., Gilani, Z., Amato, R., & Cohen, L.(2002). A pilot study of the effects of expressive writing on psychological and behavioral adjustment in patients enrolled in a phase II trial of vaccine therapy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Health Psychology, 21, 615–619.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Frisina, P. G., Borod, J. C., & Lepore, S. J. (2004). A meta-analysis of the effects of written emotional disclosure on the health outcomes of clinical populations. Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease, 192, 629–634.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Frisina, P. G., Lepore, S. J., & Borod, J. C. (2005).Written emotional disclosure and clinical populations: confirming and updating our meta-analytic findings. Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease, 193, 425–426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Gidron, Y., Peri, T., Connolly J. F., & Shalev, A. Y. (1996). Written disclosure in posttraumatic stress disorder: Is it beneficial for the patient? Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 184, 505–507.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Horowitz, M. J. (1986). Stress response syndromes (2nd ed.). Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson.Google Scholar
  9. Hrobjartsson, A., & Gøtzche P. C.(2001). Is the placebo powerless? An analysis of clinical trials comparing placebo with no treatment. New England Journal of Medicine, 344, 1594–1602.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kelley, J. E., Lumley, M. A., & Leisen, J. C. C. (1997). Health effects of emotional disclosure in rheumatoid arthritis patients. Health Psychology, 16, 331–340.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K., Cacioppo J. T., Malarkey, W. B., & Glaser, R. (1992). Acute psychological stressors and short-term immune changes: what, why, for whom, and to what extent? Psychosomatic Medicine, 54, 680–685.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. King, L. A. (2002). Gain without pain? Expressive writing and self-regulation. In S. Lepore & J. M. Smyth (Eds.), The writing cure (pp. 119–134). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  13. Kovac, S. H., & Range, L. M.(2000). Writing projects: lessening undergraduates’ unique suicidal bereavement. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 30, 50–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Lumley, M. A.(2003). Does alexithymia cause health problems? A critical examination of various pathways. In J. Denollet, I. Nyklicek, A.J.J.M. Vingerhoets (Eds.), Third International Conference on the (Non) Expression of Emotions in Health and Disease (p. 10). Tilburg, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  15. Lumley, M. A., Naoum, L., & Kelley, J. (2001). Alexithymia as a moderator of the effects of written and verbal emotional disclosure. Poster presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Psychosomatic Society, Monterey, CA.Google Scholar
  16. Lumley, M. A., Tojek, T. M., & Macklem D. J. (2002). Effects of written emotional disclosure among repressive and alexithymic people. In: M S. Lepore & J. M. Smyth (Eds.), The writing cure (pp. 75–96). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  17. Meads, C. (2003). How effective are emotional disclosure interventions? A systematic review with meta-analyses. In J. Denollet, I. Nyklicek, A.J.J.M. Vingerhoets (Eds.), Third International Conference on The (Non) Expression of Emotions in Health and Disease (p. 97). Tilburg, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  18. Neisser, U. (1989). The ecological approach to cognitive psychology: II. Imagery and memory. Comunicazioni Scientifiche di Psicologia Generale, 1, 55–66.Google Scholar
  19. Norman, S. A., Lumley, M. A., Dooley, J. A., & Diamond M. P. (2004). For whom does it work? Moderators of the effects of written emotional disclosure in a randomized trial among women with chronic pelvic pain. Psychosomatic Medicine, 66, 174–183.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Paez, D., Velasco, C., & Gonzales, J. L. (1999). Expressive writing and the role of alexithymia as a dispositional deficit in self-disclosure and psychological health. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77, 630–641.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Pennebaker, J. W., & Francis, M. (1996). Cognitive, emotional, and language processes in disclosure. Cognition and Emotion, 10, 601–626.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Pennebaker, J. W., & Chung, C. K. (2007). Expressive writing, emotional upheavals, and health. In H. Friedman & R. Silver (Eds.) Handbook of health psychology. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  23. Pennebaker, J. W., Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K., & Glaser, R. (1988). Disclosure of traumas and immune function: health implications for psychotherapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 56, 239–245.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Petrie, K. J., Fontanilla, I., Thomas, M. G., Booth, R. J., & Pennebaker, J. W. (2004). Effects of written emotional expression on immune function in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection: a randomized trial. Psychosomatic Medicine, 66, 272–275.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Rago, N., & Solano, L. (2004). Lo psicologo della salute in una comunitá terapeutica per tossicodipendenti. VI Congresso Nazionale della Societá Italiana di Psicologia della Salute, Napoli.Google Scholar
  26. Range, L. M., Kovac, S. H.., & Marion, M. S. (2000). Does writing about bereavement lessen grief following sudden, unintentional death? Death Studies, 24, 115–134.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Segal, D. L., Bogards, J. A., Becker, L. A., & Chatman, C. (1999). Effects of emotional expression on adjustment to spousal loss among older adults. Journal of Mental Health and Aging, 5, 297–310.Google Scholar
  28. Smyth, J. M., Stone, A. A., Hurewitz, A., & Kaell, A. (1999). Effects of writing about stressful experiences on symptom reduction in patients with asthma or rheumatoid arthritis. JAMA, 281, 1304–1309.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Solano, L., Donati, V., Pecci, F., Persichetti, S., & Colaci, A. (2003). Post-operative course after papilloma resection: effects of written disclosure of the experience in subjects with different alexithymia levels. Psychosomatic Medicine, 65, 477–484.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Solano, L., Pepe L., Donati, V., Persichetti, S., Laudani, G., & Colaci, A. (2007). Differential health effects of written processing of the experience of a surgical operation in high and low risk conditions. Journal of Clinical Psychology 63, 357–369.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Spera, S. P., Buhrfeind, E. D., & Pennebaker, J. W. (1994). Expressive writing and coping with job loss. Academy of Management Journal, 37, 722–733.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Stanton, A. L., Danoff-Burg, S., Sworowski, L. A., Collins, C. A., Branstetter, A. D., Rodriguez-Hanley, A., Kirk, S .B., & Austenfeld, J. L. (2002). Randomized, controlled trial of writen emotional expression and benefit finding in breast cancer patients. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 20, 4160–4168.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Stroebe, M. S., Stroebe, W., Schut, H., Zech, E., & Van den Bout, J. (2002). Does disclosure of emotions facilitate recovery from bereavement? Evidence from two prospective studies. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70, 169–178.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Tabasso, C., Pastena, R., Cirillo, D., Pepe, L., D’Alterio, G., Maida, P., Tatavitto, A., & Solano, L. (2004). Effetti sulla salute dell’elaborazione scritta delle emozioni: studio empirico su 32 soggetti con diabete di Tipo 2. VI Congresso Nazionale della Societá Italiana di Psicologia della Salute, Napoli.Google Scholar
  35. Taylor, G. J., Bagby, R. M., & Parker, J. D. A. (1997). Disorders of affect regulation: alexithymia in medical and psychiatric illness. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Taylor L. A., Wallander J. L., Anderson D., Beasley P., & Brown R. T. (2003). Improving health care utilization, health status, and adjustment in adolescents and young adults with cystic fibrosis: a preliminary report. Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings, 10, 9–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Luigi Solano
  • Maria Bonadies
  • Michela Di Trani

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations