Flavonoids as Signal Molecules: Targets of Flavonoid Action

  • W. A. Peer
  • A. S. Murphy


Root Exudate White Clover Auxin Transport Auxin Efflux Flavonoid Accumulation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Akiyama, K., Matsuoka, H. and Hayashi, H., 2002, Isolation and identification of a phosphate deficiency- induced C-glycosylflavonoid that stimulates arbuscular mycorrhiza formation in melon roots, MPMI 15: 334–340.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Ale-Agha, N., Stahl, W. and Siss, H., 2002, (-)-Epicatechin effects in rat liver epithelial cells: stimulation of gap junctional communication and counteraction of its loss due to the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, Biochem Pharmacol 63: 2145–2149.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Aligiannis, N., Mitaku, S., Mitrocotsa, D. and Leclerc, S., 2001, Flavonoids as cycline-dependent kinase inhibitors: Inhibition of cdc 25 phosphatase activity by flavonoids belonging to the quercetin and kaempferol series, Planta Medica 67: 468–470.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Almela, M. J., Irurzun, A. and Carrasaco, L., 1994, Orobol—An inhibitor of vesicular stomatitis-virus that blocks the synthesis of viral nucleic-acids and the glycosylation of G-protein, Antiviral Chem Chemo 5: 99–104.Google Scholar
  5. Anthony, R. G., Henriques, R., Helfer, A., Meszaros, T., Rios, G., Testerink, C., Munnik, T., Deak, M., Koncz, C. and Bogre, L., 2004, A protein kinase target of a PDK1 signalling pathway is involved in root hair growth in Arabidopsis, EMBO J 23: 572–581.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Arcas, M., Botia, J., Ortuno, A. and del Rio, J., 2000, UV irradiation alters the levels of flavonoids involved in the defence mechanism of Citrus aurantium fruits against Penicillium digitatum, Euro J Plant Path 106: 617–622.Google Scholar
  7. Arimura, G., Tashiro, K., Kuhara, S., Nishioka, T., Ozawa, R. T. and Akabayashi, J., 2000, Gene responses in bean leaves induced by herbivory and by herbivore-induced volatiles. Biochem Biophys Res Comm 277: 305–310.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bai, F., Watson, J. C., Walling, J., Weeden, N., Santner, A. A. and DeMason, D., 2005, Molecular characterization and expression of PsPK2, a PINOID-like gene from pea (Pisum sativum), Plant Sci 168: 1281–1291.Google Scholar
  9. Bais, H. P., Vepachedu, R., Gilroy, S., Callaway, R. M. and Vivanco, J. M., 2003a, Allelopathy and exotic plant invasion: From molecules and genes to species interactions, Science 301, 1377–1380.Google Scholar
  10. Bais, H. P., Walker, T. S., Kennan, A. J., Stermitz, F. R. and Vivanco, J. M., 2003b, Structure-dependent phytotoxicity of catechins and other flavonoids: Flavonoid conversions by cell-free protein extracts of Centaurea maculosa (spotted knapweed) roots, J Agric Food Chem 51: 897–901.Google Scholar
  11. Baldridge, G. D., O'Neill, N. R. and Samac, D. A., 1998, Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) resistance to the root-lesion nematode, Pratylenchus penetrans: defense-response gene mRNA and isoflavonoid phytoalexin levels in roots, Plant Mol Biol 38: 999–1010.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bandy, B. and Bechara, E. J. H, 2001, Bioflavonoid rescue of ascorbate at a membrane interface, J Bioenerg Biomem 33: 269–277.Google Scholar
  13. Baxter, I. R., Young, J. C., Armstrong, G., Foster, N., Bogenschutz, N., Cordova, T., Peer, W. A., Hazen, S.P., Murphy, A.S. and Harper, J., 2005, A plasma membrane H+-ATPase is required for the formation of proanthocyanidins in the seed coat endothelium of Arabidopsis thaliana, PNAS 102: 2649–2654.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Beninger, C. W. and Hall, J., 2005, Allelopathic activity of luteolin 7-O-beta-glucuronide isolated from Chrysanthemum morifolium L, Biochem Sys Ecol, 33: 103–111.Google Scholar
  15. Beniston, R. G. and Campo, M., 2005, HPV-18 transformed cells fail to arrest in G1 in response to quercetin treatment, Virus Res 109: 203–209.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Benjamins, R., Ampudia, C. S. G., Hooykaas, P. J. J. and Offringa, R., 2003, PINOID-mediated signalling involves calcium-binding proteins, Plant Physiol 132: 1623–1630.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Benjamins, R., Quint, A., Weijers, D., Hooykaas, P. and Offringa, R., 2001, The PINOID protein kinase regulates organ development in Arabidopsis by enhancing polar auxin transport, Develop 128: 4057–4067.Google Scholar
  18. Benkova, E., Michniewicz, M., Sauer, M., Teichmann, T., Seifertova, D., Jurgens, G. and Friml, J., 2003, Local efflux-dependent auxin gradients as a common module for plant organ formation, Cell 115: 591–602.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Bernasconi, P., 1996, Effect of synthetic and natural protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors on auxin efflux in zucchini (Cucurbita pepo) hypocotyls, Physiol Plant 96: 205–210.Google Scholar
  20. Blilou, I., Xu, J., Wildwater, M., Willemsen, V., Paponov I., Friml J., Heidstra R., Aida M., Palme K. and Scheres B, 2005, The PIN auxin efflux facilitator network controls growth and patterning in Arabidopsis roots. Nature 433: 39–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Boege, F., Straub, T., Kehr, A., Boesenberg, C., Christiansen, K., Andersen, A., Jakob, F. and Kohrle, J., 1996, Selected novel flavones inhibit the DNA binding or the DNA religation step of eukaryotic topoisomerase I, J Biol Chem 271: 2262–2270.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Bonello, P. and Blodgett, J., 2003, Pinus nigra-Sphaeropsis sapinea as a model pathosystem to investigate local and systemic effects of fungal infection of pines, Physiol Mol Plant Path 63: 249-261.Google Scholar
  23. Brown, D. E., Rashotte, A. M., Murphy, A. S., Normanly, J., Tague, B. W., Peer, W. A., Taiz, L. and Muday, G. K., 2001, Flavonoids act as negative regulators of auxin transport in vivo in Arabidopsis, Plant Physiol 126: 524–535.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Brown, J. E., Khodr, H., Hider, R. C. and Rice-Evans, C.A., 1998, Structural dependence of flavonoid interactions with Cu2+ ions: implications for their antioxidant properties, Biochem J 330: 1173–1178.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Buer, C. S. and Muday, G. K., 2004, The transparent testa4 mutation prevents flavonoid synthesis and alters auxin transport and the response of Arabidopsis roots to gravity and light, Plant Cell 16: 1191-1205.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Burbulis, I. E., Iacobucci, M. and Shirley, B. W., 1996, A null mutation in the first enzyme of flavonoid biosynthesis does not affect male fertility in Arabidopsis, Plant Cell 8: 1013–1025.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Castro, A., Horton, J., Vanoye, C. and Altenberg, G., 1999, Mechanism of inhibition of P-glycoprotein- mediated drug transport by protein kinase C blockers, Biochem Pharm 58: 1723–1733.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Chaumontet, C., Bex, V., Gaillardsanchez, I., Seillanheberden, C., Suschetet, M. and Martel, P., 1994, Apigenin and tangeretin enhance gap junctional intercellular communication in rat-liver epithelial- cells, Carcinogen 15: 2325–2330.Google Scholar
  29. Chaumontet, C., Droumaguet, C., Bex, V., Heberden, C., Gaillard-Sanchez, I. and Martel, P., 1997, Flavonoids (apigenin, tangeretin) counteract tumor promoter-induced inhibition of intercellular communication of rat liver epithelial cells, Cancer Lett 114: 207–210.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Chen, C. C., Chow, M. P., Huang, W. C., Lin, Y. C. and Chang, Y. J., 2004, Flavonoids inhibit tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced up-regulation of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in respiratory epithelial cells through activator protein-1 and nuclear factor-kappa B: Structure-activity relationships, Mol Pharm 66: 683–693.Google Scholar
  31. Cheong, Y. H., Chang, H. S., Gupta, R., Wang, X., Zhu, T. and Luan, S., 2002, Transcriptional profiling reveals novel interactions between wounding, pathogen, abiotic stress, and hormonal responses in Arabidopsis, Plant Physiol 129: 661–677.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Christensen, S, K., Dagenais, N., Chory, J. and Weigel, D., 2000, Regulation of auxin response by the protein kinase PINOID, Cell 100: 469–478.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Ciolino, H. P., Daschner. P. J. and Yeh, G. C., 1999, Dietary flavonols quercetin and kaempferol are ligands of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor that affect CYP1A1 transcription differentially, Biochem J 340: 715–722.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Clegg, M. T. and Durbin, M. L., 2000, Flower color variation: A model for the experimental study of evolution, PNAS 97: 7016–7023.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Constantinou, A., Mehta, R., Runyan, C., Rao, K., Vaughan, A. and Moon, R., 1995, Flavonoids as DNA topoisomerase antagonists and poisons-structure-activity-relationships, J Nat Prod-L 58: 217–225.Google Scholar
  36. Debeaujon, I., Leon-Kloosterzeil, K.M., and Koornneef, M., 2000, Influence of the testa on seed dormancy, germination, and longevity in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol 122 :403–413.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Debeaujon, I., Leon-Kloosterziel, K.M., Koornneef, M., 2003a, Influence of the testa on seed dormancy, germination and longevity in Arabidopsis, Plant Physiol 122: 403–413.Google Scholar
  38. Debeaujon, I., Nesi, N., Perez, P., Devic, M., Grandjean, O., Caboche, M., Lepiniec, L., 2003b, Proanthocyanidin-accumulating cells in Arabidopsis testa: Regulation of differentiation and role in seed development, Plant Cell 15: 2514–2531.Google Scholar
  39. del Rio, J., Gomez, P., Baidez, A., Arcas, M., Botia, J. and Ortuno, A., 2004, Changes in the levels of polymethoxyflavones and flavanones as part of the defense mechanism of Citrus sinensis (cv. Valencia Late) fruits against Phytophthora citrophthora, J Agric Food Chem 52: 1913–1917.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. DeLong, A., Mockaitis, K. and Christensen, S., 2002, Protein phosphorylation in the delivery of and response to auxin signals, Plant Mol Biol 49: 285–303.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Deruere, J., Jackson, K., Garbers, C., Soll, D. and DeLong, A., 1999, The RCN1-encoded A subunit of protein phosphatase 2A increases phosphatase activity in vivo, Plant J 20: 389–399.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. De Vincenzo, R., Ferlini, C., Distefano, M., Gaggini, C., Riva, A., Bombardelli, E., Morazzoni, P., Valenti, P., Belluti, F., Ranelletti, F. O., Mancuso, S. and Scambia, G., 2000, In vitro evaluation of newly developed chalcone analogues in human cancer cells, Cancer Chemother Pharm 46: 305–312.Google Scholar
  43. Dixon, R. and Paiva, N., 1995, Stress-Induced Phenylpropanoid Metabolism, Plant Cell 7: 1085–1097.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Dixon, R.A., Achnine, L., Kota, P., Liu, C. J., Reddy, M. S. S. and Wang, L. J., 2002, The phenylpropanoid pathway and plant defence - a genomics perspective, Mol Plant Path 3: 371–390.Google Scholar
  45. Djordjevic, M. A., Mathesius, U., Arioli, T., Weinman, J. J. and Gartner, E., 1997, Chalcone synthase gene expression in transgenic subterranean clover correlates with localised accumulation of flavonoids, Aus J Plant Physiol 24: 119–132.Google Scholar
  46. Downie, A. B., Zhang, D., Dirk, L. M. A., Thacker, R. R., Pfeiffer, J. A., Drake, J. L., Levy, A. A., Butterfield, D. A., Buxton, J. W. and Snyder, J. C., 2003, Communication between the maternal testa and the embryo and/or endosperm affect testa attributes in tomato, Plant Physiol 133: 145–160.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Erlejman, A. G., Verstraeten, S. V., Fraga, C. G. and Oteiza, P. I., 2004, The interaction of flavonoids with membranes: Potential determinant of flavonoid antioxidant effects, Free Radical Res 38: 1311–1320.Google Scholar
  48. Fang, J., Xia, C., Cao, Z. X., Zheng, J. Z., Reed, E. and Jiang, B. H., 2005, Apigenin inhibits VEGF and HIF-1 expression via P13K/AKT/p70S6K1 and HDM2/p53 pathways, FASEB J 19: 342–353.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Felle, H. H., Kondorosi, E., Kondorosi, A. and Schultze, M., 2000, How alfalfa root hairs discriminate between Nod factors and oligochitin elicitors, Plant Physiol 124: 1373–1380.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Ferte, J., Kuhnel, J., Chapuis, G., Rolland, Y., Lewin, G. and Schwaller, M., 1999, Flavonoid-related modulators of multidrug resistance: Synthesis, pharmacological activity, and structure-activity relationships, J Med Chem 42: 478–489.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Feucht, W., Dithmar, H. and Polster, J., 2004a, Nuclei of tea flowers as targets for flavanols, Plant Biol 6: 696–701.Google Scholar
  52. Feucht, W., Treutter, D. and Polster, J., 2004b, Flavanol binding of nuclei from tree species, Plant Cell Rep 22: 430–436.Google Scholar
  53. Fofana, B., Benhamou, N., McNally, D. J., Labbé, C., Séguin, A. and Bélanger, R. R., 2005, Suppression of induced resistance in cucumber through disruption of the flavonoid pathway, Phytopath 95: 114-123.Google Scholar
  54. Foreman, J., Demidchik, V., Bothwell, J. H. F., Mylona, P., Miedema, H., Torres, M. A., Linstead, P., Costa, S., Brownlee, C., Jones, J. D. G., Davies, J. M. and Dolan, L., 2003, Reactive oxygen species produced by NADPH oxidase regulate plant cell growth, Nature 422: 442–446.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Freeman, J. L., Persans, M. W., Nieman, K., Albrecht, C., Peer, W., Pickering, I. J. and Salt D. E., 2004, Increased glutathione biosynthesis plays a role in nickel tolerance in thlaspi nickel hyperaccumulators, Plant Cell 16: 2176–2191.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Furusawa, M., Tsuchiya, H., Nagayama, M., Tanaka, T., Nakaya, K. and Iinuma, M., 2003, Anti-platelet and membrane-rigidifying flavonoids in brownish scale of onion, J Health Sci 49: 475–480.Google Scholar
  57. Garai, J. and Adlercreutz, H., 2004, Estrogen-inducible uterine flavonoid binding sites: is it time to reconsider? J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 88: 377–381.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Garbers, C., DeLong, A., Deruere, J., Bernasconi, P. and Soll, D., 1996, A mutation in protein phosphatase 2A regulatory subunit A affects auxin transport in Arabidopsis, EMBO J 15: 2115–2124.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Geisler, M., Blakeslee, J. J., Bouchard, R., Lee, O. R., Vincenzetti, V., Bandyopadhyay, A., Peer, W. A., Bailly, A., Richards, E. L., Edjendal, K. F., Smith, A. P., Baroux, C., Grossniklaus, U., Muller, A., Hrycyna, C. A., Dudler, R., Murphy, A. S. and Martinoia, E, 2005, Cellular export of auxin by MDR- type ATP-binding cassette transporters of Arabidopsis thaliana, Plant J in press.Google Scholar
  60. Geisler, M., Kolukisaoglu, H. U., Bouchard, R., Billion, K., Berger, J., Saal, B., Frangne, N., Koncz- Kalman, Z., Koncz, C., Dudler, R., Blakeslee, J. J., Murphy, A. S., Martinoia, E. and Schulz, B., 2003, TWISTED DWARF1, a unique plasma membrane-anchored immunophilin-like protein, interacts with Arabidopsis multidrug resistance-like transporters AtPGP1 and AtPGP19, Mol Biol Cell 14: 4238–4249.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Geldner, N., Friml, J., Stierhof, Y. D., Jurgens, G. and Palme, K., 2001, Auxin transport inhibitors block PIN1 cycling and vesicle trafficking, Nature 413: 425–428.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Goutman, J. D., Waxemberg, M. D., Donate-Oliver, F., Pomata, P. E. and Calvo, D.J., 2003, Flavonoid modulation of ionic currents mediated by GABA(A) and GABA(C) receptors. Eur J Pharm 461: 79-87.Google Scholar
  63. Grandmaison, J. and Ibrahim, R., 1996, Evidence for nuclear protein binding of flavonol sulfate esters in Flaveria chloraefolia, J Plant Physiol 147: 653–660.Google Scholar
  64. Graziani, Y. and Chayoth, R., 1977, Quercetin—inhibitor of phosphodiesterase activity in Ehrlich ascites tumor-cells, Israel J Med Sc 13: 969.Google Scholar
  65. Graziani, Y. and Chayoth, R., 1979, Regulation of cyclic-amp level and synthesis of DNA, RNA and protein by quercetin in Ehrlich Ascites tumor-cells, Biochem Pharm 28: 397–403.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Graziani, Y., Chayoth, R., Karny, N., Feldman, B. and Levy, J., 1982, Regulation of protein-kinases activity by quercetin in Ehrlich Ascites tumor-cells, Bioch et Biophys Acta 714: 415–421.Google Scholar
  67. Graziani, Y., Erikson, E. and Erickson, R. I., 1983, The effect of quercetin on the phosphorylation activity of the rous-sarcoma virus transforming gene-product in vitro and in vivo, Eur J Biochem 135: 583-589.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Gschwendt, M., Horn, F., Kittstein, W. and Marks, F, 1983, Inhibition of the calcium-dependent and phospholipid-dependent protein-kinase activity from mouse-brain cytosol by quercetin, Biochem Biophys Res Comm 117: 444–447.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Gupta, R., Ting, J. T. L., Sokolov, L. N., Johnson, S. A. and Luan, S., 2002, A tumor suppressor homolog, AtPTEN1, is essential for pollen development in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 14: 2495–2507.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Guyon, V. N., Astwood, J. D., Garner, E. C., Dunker, A. K. and Taylor, L. P., 2000, Isolation and characterization of cDNAs expressed in the early stages of flavonol-induced pollen germination in Petunia, Plant Physiol 123: 699–710.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Hale, K. L., McGrath, S. P., Lombi, E., Stack, S. M., Terry, N., Pickering, I. J., George, G. N. and Pilon-Smits, E. A., 2001, Molybdenum sequestration in Brassica species. A role for anthocyanins? Plant Physiol 126: 1391–1402.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Hale, K. L., Tufan, H. A., Pickering, I. J., George, G. N., Terry, N., Pilon, M. and and Pilon-Smits, E. A., 2002, Anthocyanins facilitate tungsten accumulation in Brassica, Physiol Plant 116: 351–358.Google Scholar
  73. Hayashi, M., Takahashi, H., Tamura, K., Huang, J., Yu, L. H., Kawai-Yamada, M., Tezuka, T. and Hirofumi, U., 2005, Enhanced dihydroflavonol-4-reductase activity and NAD homeostasis leading to cell death tolerance in transgenic rice, PNAS 102: 7020–7025.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. He, G., Tarui, Y. and Iino, M., 2005, A novel receptor kinase involved in jasmonate-mediated wound and phytochrome signalling in maize coleoptiles, Plant Cell Physiol doi: 10.1093/pcp/pci092.Google Scholar
  75. Hennig, L., Gruissem, W., Grossniklaus, U. and Kohler, C., 2004, Transcriptional programs of early reproductive stages in Arabidopsis, Plant Physiol 135: 1765–1775.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Hirsch, A., 2004, Plant-microbe symbioses: A continuum from commensalism to parasitism. Symbiosis 37: 345–363.Google Scholar
  77. Hu, H. L., Liu, S. T., Yang, Y., Chang, W. Z. and Hong, G. F., 2000, In Rhizobium leguminosarum, NodD represses its own transcription by competing with RNA polymerase for binding sites, Nuc Acids Res 28: 2784–2793.Google Scholar
  78. Huang, Y. T., Kuo, M. L., Liu, J. Y., Huang, S. Y. and Lin, J. K., 1996, Inhibitions of protein kinase C and proto-oncogene expressions in NIH 3T3 cells by apigenin, Eur J Cancer 32A: 146–151.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Hungria, M., Jospeh, C. and Phillips, D., 1991, Anthocyanidins and flavonols, major nod gene inducers from seeds of a black-seeded common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L), Plant Physiol 97: 751–758.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Hunter, D. S. Hodges, L. C., Vonier, P. M., Fuchs-Young, R., Gottardis, M. M. and Walker, C. L., 1999, Estrogen receptor activation via activation function 2 predicts agonism of xenoestrogens in normal and neoplastic cells of the uterine myometrium. Cancer Res 59: 3090–3099.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Hutangura, P., Mathesius, U., Jones, M. G. K. and Rolfe, B. G., 1999, Auxin induction is a trigger for root gall formation caused by root-knot nematodes in white clover and is associated with the activation of the flavonoid pathway, Aus J Plant Physiol 26: 221–231.Google Scholar
  82. Ito, T., Warnken, S. P. and May, W. S., 1999, Protein synthesis inhibition by flavonoids: Roles of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha kinases, Biochem Biophys Res Comm 265: 589–594.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Jacobs, M. and Rubery, P. H, 1988, Naturally-occurring auxin transport regulators, Science 241: 346–349.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Jones, K. N. and Reithel, J. S,, 2001, Pollinator-mediated selection on a flower color polymorphism in experimental populations of Antirrhinum (Scrophulariaceae), Am J Bot 88: 447–454.Google Scholar
  85. Joo, J. H., Bae, Y. S. and Lee, J. S, 2001, Role of auxin-induced reactive oxygen species in root gravitropism, Plant Physiol 126: 1055–1060.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Kajiya, K., Hojo, H., Suzuki, M., Nanjo, F., Kumazawa, S. and Nakayama, T., 2004, Relationship between antibacterial activity of (+)-catechin derivatives and their interaction with a model membrane, J Agric Food Chem 52: 1514–1519.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Katekar, G. F. and Geissler, A. E., 1979, Evidence of a common-mode of action for a class of auxin transport inhibitors, Plant Physiol 63: 22.Google Scholar
  88. Katekar, G. F. and Geissler A. E., 1980, Auxin transport inhibitors. 4. Evidence of a common-mode of action for a proposed class of auxin transport inhibitors - the phytotropins, Plant Physiol 66: 1190-1195.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Kavvadias, D., Sand, P., Youdim, K. A., Qaiser, M. Z., Rice-Evans, C., Baur, R., Sigel, E., Rausch, W. D., Riederer, P. and Schrerer, P., 2004, The flavone hispidulin, a benzodiazepine receptor ligand with positive allosteric properties, traverses the blood-brain barrier and exhibits anticonvulsive effects, Brit J Pharm 142: 811–820.Google Scholar
  90. Kim, A. R., Cho, J. Y., Zou, Y., Choi, J. S. and Ching, H. Y., 2005, Flavonoids differentially modulate nitric oxide production pathways in lipopolysaccharide-activated RAW264.7 cells, Arch Pharm Res 28: 297–304.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Klampfer, L. Huang, J., Sasazuki, T., Shirasawa, S. and Augenlicht, L, 2004, Oncogenic Ras promotes butyrate-induced apoptosis through inhibition of gelsolin expression, J Biol Chem 279: 36680–36688.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Kong, C. H., Xu, X. H., Zhou, B., Hu, F., Zhang, C. X. and Zhang, M. X., 2004, Two compounds from allelopathic rice accession and their inhibitory activity on weeds and fungal pathogens, Phytochem 65: 1123–1128.Google Scholar
  93. Kosslak, R., Bookland, R., Barkei, J., Paaren, H. and Appelbaum, E., 1987, Induction of Bradyrhizobium japonicaum common nod genes by isoflavones isolated from Glycine max, PNAS 84: 7428–7432.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Kousidou, O. C., Mitropoulou, T. N., Roussidis, A. E., Kletsas, D., Theocharis, A. D. and Karamanos, N. K., 2005, Genistein suppresses the invasive potential of human breast cancer cells through transcriptional regulation of metalloproteinases and their tissue inhibitors, Int J Oncol 26: 1101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Kuo, M. L. and Yang, N. C., 1995, Reversion of v-H-ras-trasformed NIH 3T3 cells by apigenin through inhibiting mitogen-activated protein-kinase and its downstream oncogenes, Biochem Biophys Res Com 212: 767–775.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Kuras, M., Stefanowska-Wronka, M., Lynch, J. M. and Zobel, A. M., 1999, Cytochemical localization of phenolic compounds in columella cells of the root cap in seeds of Brassica napus - Changes in the localization of phenolic compounds during germination. Annal Bot 84: 135–143.Google Scholar
  97. Kusaba, M., Dwyer, K., Hendershot, J., Vrebalov, J., Nasrallah, J. and Nasrallah, M., 2001, Self- incompatibility in the genus Arabidopsis: characterization of the S locus in the outcrossing A. lyrata and its autogamous relative A. thaliana, Plant Cell 13: 627–643.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Labieniec, M. and Gabryelak, T., 2003, Effects of tannins on Chinese hamster cell line B14, Mut Res- Fund Molr Mech Mutagen 539: 127–135.Google Scholar
  99. Lahtinen, M., Salminen, J., Kapari, L., Lempa, K., Ossipov, V., Sinkkonen, J., Valkama, E., Haukioja, E. and Pihlaja, K., 2004, Defensive effect of surface flavonoid aglycones of Betula pubescens leaves against first instar Epirrita autumnata larvae, J of Chem Ecol 30: 2257–2268.Google Scholar
  100. Lawson, C. G. R., Rolfe, B. G. and Djordjevic, M. A., 1996, Rhizobium inoculation induces condition-dependent changes in the flavonoid composition of root exudates from Trifolium subterraneum, Aus J Plant Physiol 23: 93–101.Google Scholar
  101. Lee, E. H., Meissner, G. and Kim, D. H., 2002, Effects of quercetin on single Ca2+ release channel behavior of skeletal muscle, Biophys J 82: 1266–1277.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Lee, G. S., Choi, K. C., Kim, H. J. and Jeung, E. B., 2004, Effect of genistein as a selective estrogen receptor beta agonist on the expression of Calbindin-D-9k in the uterus of immature rats, Toxicol Sci 82: 451–457.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Levizou, E., Karageorgou, P., Petropoulou, Y., Grammatikopoulos, G. and Manetas, Y., 2004, Induction of ageotropic response in lettuce radicle growth by epicuticular flavonoid aglycons of Dittrichia viscose, Biol Plant 48: 305–307.Google Scholar
  104. Levy, J., Teuerstein, I., Marbach, M., Radian, S. and Sharoni, Y., 1984, Tyrosine protein-kinase activity in the DMBA-induced rat mammary-tumor - inhibition by quercetin. Biochem Biophys Res Com 123: 1227–1233.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Liang, Y. C., Huang, Y. T., Tsai, S. H., Lin-Shiau, S. Y., Chen, C. F. and Lin, J. K., 1999, Suppression of inducible cyclooxygenase and inducible nitric oxide synthase by apigenin and related flavonoids in mouse macrophages Carcinogen 20: 1945–1952.Google Scholar
  106. Lim, M., McKenzie, K., Floyd, A. D., Kwon, E. and Zeitlin, P. L., 2004, Modulation of Delta F508 cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator trafficking and function with 4-phenylbutyrate and flavonoids, Am J Resp Cell Mol Biol 31: 351–357.Google Scholar
  107. Limtrakul, P., Khantamat, O. and Pintha, K., 2005, Inhibition of P-glycoprotein function and expression by kaempferol and quercetin, J Chemother 17: 86–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Lin, H. C., Cheng, T. H., Chen, Y. C. and Juan, S.H., 2004, Mechanism of heme oxygenase-1 gene induction by quercetin in rat aortic smooth muscle cells, Pharmocology 71: 107–112.Google Scholar
  109. Lindemann, P., Koch, A., Degenhardt, B., Hause, G., Grimm, B. and Papadopoulos, V., 2004, A novel Arabidopsis thaliana protein is a functional peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor, Plant Cell Physiol 45: 723–733.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Liu-Gitz, L., Britz, S. J. and Wergin, W. P., 2000, Blue light inhibits stomatal development in soybean isolines containing kaempferol-3-O-2(G)-glycosyl-gentiobioside (K9), a unique flavonoid glycoside, Plant Cell Environ 23: 883–891.Google Scholar
  111. Ljung, K., Hull, A., Kowalczyk, M., Marchant, A., Celenza, J., Cohen, J. D. and Sandberg, G., 2002, Biosynthesis, conjugation, catabolism, and homeostasis of indole-3-acetic acid in Arabidopsis thaliana, Plant Mol Biol 49: 249–272.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Ljung, K., Hull, A. K., Celenza, J., Yamada, M., Estelle, M., Normanly, J. and Sandberg, G., 2005, Sites and regulation of auxin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis roots, Plant Cell 17: 1090–1104.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Lo, C., Coolbaugh, R. and Nicholson, R. L., 2002, Molecular characterization and in silico expression analysis of a chalcone synthase gene family in Sorghum bicolor, Physiol Mol Plant Path 61: 179–188.Google Scholar
  114. Lomax, T. L., Mehlhorn, R. J. and Briggs, W. R, 1985, Active auxin uptake by zucchini membrane- vesicles - Quantitation using electron-spin-resonance volume and delta-pH determinations, PNAS 82: 6541–6545.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Malinowski, D. P., Zuo, H., Belesky, D. P. and Alloush, G. A., 2004, Evidence for copper binding by extracellular root exudates of tall fescue but not perennial ryegrass infected with Neotyphodium spp. endophytes, Plant Soil 267: 1–12.Google Scholar
  116. Marko, D., Puppel, N., Tjaden, Z., Jakobs, S. and Pahlke, G., 2004, The substitution pattern of anthocyanidins affects different cellular signalling cascades regulating cell proliferation, Mol Nutr Food Res 48: 318–325.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Mathesius, U., 2001, Flavonoids induced in cells undergoing nodule organogenesis in white clover are regulators of auxin breakdown by peroxidase, J Exper Bot 52: 419–426.Google Scholar
  118. Mathesius, U., Bayliss, C., Weinman, J. J., Schlaman, H. R. M., Spaink, H. P., Rolfe, B. G., McCully, M. E. and Djordjevic, M. A., 1998a, Flavonoids synthesized in cortical cells during nodule initiation are early developmental markers in white clover, Mol Plant-Microbe Interact 11: 1223–1232.Google Scholar
  119. Mathesius, U., Schlaman, H. R. M., Spaink, H. P., Sautter, C., Rolfe, B. G. and Djordjevic, M.A., 1998b, Auxin transport inhibition precedes root nodule formation in white clover roots and is regulated by flavonoids and derivatives of chitin oligosaccharides, Plant J 14: 23–34.Google Scholar
  120. McNally, D. J., Wurms, K. V., Labbe, C. and Belanger, R. R., 2003, Synthesis of C-glycosyl flavonoid phytoalexins as a site-specific response to fungal penetration in cucumber, Physiol Mol Plant Path 63: 293–303.Google Scholar
  121. Mizushina, Y., Ishidoh, T., Kamisuki, S., Nakazawa, S., Takemura, M., Sugawara, F., Yoshida, H. S. and Sakaguchi, K., 2003, Flavonoid glycoside: a new inhibitor of eukaryotic DNA polymerase alpha and a new carrier for inhibitor-affinity chromatography, Biochem Biophys Res Com 301: 480–487.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Montero, M., Lobaton, C.D., Hernandez-Sanmiguel, E., Santodomingo, J., Vay, L., Moreno, A. and Alverez, J., 2004, Direct activation of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter by natural plant flavonoids, Biochem J 384: 19–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Muday, G. K. and Murphy, A. S, 2002, An emerging model of auxin transport regulation, Plant Cell 14: 293–299.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Muday, G. K., Peer, W. A. and Murphy, A. S., 2003, Vesicular cycling mechanisms that control auxin transport polarity, TIPS 8: 301–304.Google Scholar
  125. Murphy, A. S., Peer, W. A. and Taiz, L., 2000, Regulation of auxin transport by aminopeptidases and endogenous flavonoids, Planta 211: 315–324.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Murphy, A. S., Bandyopadhyay, A., Holstein, S. E. and Peer, W. A, 2005, Endocytotic cycling of PM proteins, Ann Rev Plant Biol 56: 221–251.Google Scholar
  127. Murphy, A. S., Hoogner, K. R., Peer, W. A. and Taiz, L., 2002, Identification, purification, and molecular cloning of N-1-naphthylphthalmic acid-binding plasma membrane-associated aminopeptidases from Arabidopsis, Plant Physiol 128: 935–950.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Mustafa, K. A., Perry, N. B. and Weavers, R. T., 2003, 2-Hydroxyflavanones from Leptospermum polygalifolium subsp polygalifolium - Equilibrating sets of hemiacetal isomers, Phytochem 64: 1285-1293.Google Scholar
  129. Nakamura, Y., Chang, C. C., Mori, T., Sato, K., Ohtsuki, B., Upham, L. and Trosko, J.E., 2005, Augmentation of differentiation and gap junction function by kaempferol in partially differentiated colon cancer cells, Carcinogen 26: 665–671.Google Scholar
  130. Napoli, C. A., Fahy, D., Wang, H. Y. and Taylor, L.P., 1999, White anther: A petunia mutant that abolishes pollen flavonol accumulation, induces male sterility, and is complemented by a chalcone synthase transgene, Plant Physiol 120: 615–622.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Noh, B. and Spalding, E., 1998, Anion channels and the stimulation of anthocyanin accumulation by blue light in Arabidopsis seedlings, Plant Physiol 116: 503–509.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Noh, B., Murphy, A. S. and Spalding, E. P., 2001, Multidrug resistance-like genes of Arabidopsis required for auxin transport and auxin-mediated development, Plant Cell 13: 2441–2454.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Notoya, M., Tsukamoto, Y., Nishimura, H., Woo, J. T. Nagai, K., Lee, I. S. and Hagiwara, H., 2004, Quercetin, a flavonoid, inhibits the proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization of osteoblasts in vitro, Eur J Pharm 485: 89–96.Google Scholar
  134. Novak, K., Chovanec, P., Skrdleta, V., Kropacova, M., Lisa, L. and Nemcova, M., 2002, Effect of exogenous flavonoids on nodulation of pea (Pisum sativum L.), J Exp Bot 53: 1735–1745.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. O'Leary, K. A., de Pascual-Tereasa, S., Needs, P. W., Bao, Y. P., O'Brien, N. M. and Wiliiamson, G., 2004, Effect of flavonoids and Vitamin E on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, transcription, Mut Res-Fund Mol Mech Mutagen 551: 245–254.Google Scholar
  136. Okada, K., Ueda, J., Komaki, M., Bell, C. and Shimura, Y., 1991, Requirement of the auxin polar transport-system in early stages of Arabidopsis floral bud formation, Plant Cell 3: 677–684.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Orgambide, G. G., Phillip-Hollingsworth, S., Hollingsworth, R. I. and Dazzo, F. B., 1994, Flavone- enhanced accumulation and symbiosis-related biological-activity of a diglycosyl diacylglycerol membrane glycolipid from Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar. trifolii, J Bacteriol 176: 4338–4347.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Pan, M.H., Chen, W.-J., Lin-Shiau, S.-Y., Ho, C.-T. and Lin, J.-K., 2002, Tangeretin induces cell-cycle G1 arrest through inhibiting cyclin-dependent kinases 2 and 4 activities as well as elevating Cdk inhibitors p21 and p27 in human colorectal carcinoma cells, Carcinogen 23: 1677–1684.Google Scholar
  139. Park, E. K., Kim, M. S., Lee, S. H., Kim, K. H., Park, J. Y., Kim, T. H., Lee, I. S., Woo, J. T., Jung, J. C., Shin, H. I., Choi, J. Y. and Kim, S. Y., 2004, Furosin, an ellagitannin, suppresses RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation and function through inhibition of MAP kinase activation and actin ring formation, Biochem Biophys Res Com 325: 1475–1480.Google Scholar
  140. Parvez, M. M., Tomita-Yokotani, K., Fujii, Y., Konishi, T. and Iwahina, T., 2004, Effects of quercetin and its seven derivatives on the growth of Arabidopsis thaliana and Neurospora crassa, Biol System Ecol 32: 631–635.Google Scholar
  141. Peer, W. A., Bandyopadhyay, A., Blakeslee, J. J., Makam, S. N., Chen, R., Mason, P. and Murphy, A., 2004, Variation in expression and protein localization of the PIN family of auxin efflux facilitator proteins in flavonoid mutants with altered auxin transport in Arabidopsis thaliana, Plant Cell 16: 1898–1911.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Peer, W. A., Brown, D. E., Tague, B. W., Muday, G. K., Taiz, L. and Murphy, A. S., 2001, Flavonoid accumulation patterns of transparent testa mutants of Arabidopsis, Plant Physiol 126: 536–548.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Pelletier, M. K., Burbulis, I. E. and Winkel-Shirley, B., 1999, Disruption of specific flavonoid genes enhances the accumulation of flavonoid enzymes and end-products in Arabidopsis seedlings, Plant Mol Biol 40: 45–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Perandones, C., Costanzo, R. V., Kowaljow, V., Pivetta, O. H., Carminatti, H. and Radrizzani, M., 2004, Correlation between synaptogenesis and the PTEN phosphatase expression in dendrites during postnatal brain development, Brain Res Mol Brain Res 128: 8–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Peters, D. and Constabel, C., 2002, Molecular analysis of herbivore-induced condensed tannin synthesis: cloning and expression of dihydroflavonol reductase from trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides), Plant J 32: 701–712.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Polster, J., Dithmar, H. and Feucht, W., 2003, Are histones the targets for flavan-3-ols (catechins) in nuclei? Biol Chem 384: 997–1006.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Ponce, M. A., Scervino, J. M., Erra-Balsells, R., Ocampo, J. A. and Godeas, A. M., 2004, Flavonoids from shoots and roots of Trifolium repens (white clover) grown in presence or absence of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices, Phytochem 65: 1925–1930.Google Scholar
  148. Preston, J., Wheeler, J., Heazlewood, J., Li, S. F. and Parish, R. W., 2004, AtMYB32 is required for normal pollen development in Arabidopsis thaliana, Plant J 40: 979–995.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Ramadass, P., Meerarani, P., Toborek, M., Robertson, L. W. and Hennig, B., 2003, Dietary flavonoids modulate pcb-induced oxidative stress, CYP1A1 induction, and AhR-DNA binding activity in vascular endothelial cells, Toxicol Sci 76: 212–219.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Richard, S., Lapointe, G., Rutledge, R. G. and Seguin, A., 2000, Induction of chalcone synthase expression in white spruce by wounding and jasmonate, Plant Cell Physiol 41: 982–987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Robbins, T. P., Harbord, R. M., Sonneveld, T. and Clarke, K., 2000, The molecular genetics of self- incompatibility in Petunia hybrida, Ann Bot 85: 105–112.Google Scholar
  152. Rojo, E., Titarenko, E., Leon, J., Berger, S., Vancanneyt, G. and Sanchez-Serrano, J. J., 1998, Reversible protein phosphorylation regulates jasmonic acid-dependent and -independent wound signal transduction pathways in Arabidopsis thaliana, Plant J 13: 153–165.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Roshchina, V., 2001, Molecular-cellular mechanisms in pollen allelopathy, Allelopathy J, 8: 11–28.Google Scholar
  154. Ryder, T. B., Hedrick, S. A., Bell, J. N., Liang, X., Clouse, S. D., and Lamb, C. J., 1987, Organization and differential activation of a gene family encoding the plant defense enzyme chalcone synthase in Phaseolus vulgaris, Mol Gen Genet 210: 219–233.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Sasaki, K. and Takahashi, T., 2002, A flavonoid from Brassica rapa flower as the UV-absorbing nectar guide, Phytochem 61: 339–343.Google Scholar
  156. Saslowsky, D. E., Warek, U. and Winkel, B. S. J., 2005, Nuclear localization of flavonoid enzymes in Arabidopsis, J Biol Chem, in press.Google Scholar
  157. Sato, F., Matsukawa, Y., Matsumoto, K., Nishino, H. and Sakai, T., 1994, Apigenin induces morphological-differentiation and G2-M arrest in rat neuronal cells, Biochem Biophys Res Com 204: 578–584.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Scambia, G., Ranelletti, F. O., Panici, P. B., de Vincenzo, R., Bonanno, G., Ferrandina, G., Piantelli, M., Bussa, S., Rumi, C., Cianfriglia, M. and Mancuso, S., 1994, Quercetin potentiates the effect of Adriamycin in a multidrug-resistant mcf-7 human breast-cancer cell-line - P-glycoprotein as a possible target, Cancer Chemother Pharm 34: 459–464.Google Scholar
  159. Scheidt, H. A., Pampel, A., Nissler, L., Gebhardt, R. and Huster, D., 2004, Investigation of the membrane localization and distribution of flavonoids by high-resolution magic angle spinning NMR spectroscopy, Bioch Biophys Acta - Biomembranes 1663: 97–107.Google Scholar
  160. Schopfer, P., Liszkay, A., Bechtold, M., Frahry, G. and Wagner, A., 2002, Evidence that hydroxyl radicals mediate auxin-induced extension growth, Planta 214: 821–828.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Seo, S., Sano, H. and Ohashi, Y., 1999, Jasmonate-based wound signal transduction requires activation of WIPK, a tobacco mitogen-activated protein kinase, Plant Cell 11: 289–298.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Sidler, M., Hassa, P., Hasan, S., Ringli, C. and Dudler, R., 1998, Involvement of an ABC transporter in a developmental pathway regulating hypocotyl cell elongation in the light, Plant Cell 10: 1623–1636.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Skorzynska-Polit, E., Drazkiewicz, M., Wianowska, D., Maksymiec, W., Dawidowicz, A. L. and Tukiendorf, A., 2004, The influence of heavy metal stress on the level of some flavonols in the primary leaves of Phaseolus coccineus, Acta Physiol Plant 26: 247–254.Google Scholar
  164. Sloley, B. D., Urichuk, L. J., Morley, P., Durkin, J., Shan, J. J., Pang, P. K. T. and Coutts, R. T., 2000, Identification of kaempferol as a monoamine oxidase inhibitor and potential neuroprotectant in extracts of Ginkgo biloba leaves, J Pharm Pharmacol 52: 451–459.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Smith, A. P., Nourizadeh, S. D., Peer, W. A., Xu, J. H., Bandyopadhyay, A., Murphy, A. S. and Goldsbrough, P. B., 2003, Arabidopsis AtGSTF2 is regulated by ethylene and auxin, and encodes a glutathione S-transferase that interacts with flavonoids, Plant J 36: 433–442.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Soriano, I. R., Asenstorfer, R. E., Schmidt, O. and Riley, I. T., 2004, Inducible flavone in oats (Avena sativa) is a novel defense against plant-parasitic nematodes, Phytopath 94: 1207–1214.Google Scholar
  167. Spencer, J. P. E., Rice-Evans, C. and Williams, R. J., 2003, Modulation of pro-survival Akt/protein kinase B and ERK1/2 signalling cascades by quercetin and its in vivo metabolites underlie their action on neuronal viability, J Biol Chem 278: 34783–34793.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Stefanowska, M., Zobel, A. M. and Kuras, M., 2003, Cytochemical localization of phenolic compounds in columella cells of the root cap during maturation of seeds of Brassica napus L, Plant Biol 5: 378–382.Google Scholar
  169. Stpiczynska, M., Davies, K. L. and Gregg, A., 2004, Nectary structure and nectar secretion in Maxillaria coccinea (Jacq.) L.O. Williams ex Hodge (Orchidaceae), Ann Bot 93: 87–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Strobel, P., Allard, C., Perez-Acle, T., Calderon, R., Aldunate, R. and Leighton, F., 2005, Myricetin, quercetin and catechin-gallate inhibit glucose uptake in isolated rat adipocytes, Biochem J 386: 471-478.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Sztein, A. E., Ilic, N., Cohen, J. D. and Cooke, T. J., 2002, Indole-3-acetic acid biosynthesis in isolated axes from germinating bean seeds: The effect of wounding on the biosynthetic pathway, Plant Growth Regulat 36: 201–207.Google Scholar
  172. Tammela, P., Ekokoski, E., Garcia-Horsman, A., Talman, V., Finel, M., Tuominen, R. and Vuorela, P., 2004, Screening of natural compounds and their derivatives as potential protein kinase C inhibitors, Drug Dev Res 63: 76–87.Google Scholar
  173. Thimann, K, 1965, Toward an endocrinology of higher plants, Recent Prog Horm Res 21: 579–596.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Thompson, W. R., Meinwald, J., Aneshansley, D. and Eisner, T., 1972, Flavonols: pigments responsible for ultraviolet absorption in nectar guide of flower, Science 177: 528–530.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Trompier, D., Baubichon-Cortay, H., Chang, X. B., Maitrejean, M., Barron, D., Riordon, J. R. and Di Pietro, A., 2003, Multiple flavonoid-binding sites within multidrug resistance protein MRP1, Cell Mol Life Sci 60: 2164–2177.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Tsuchiya, H., Nagayama, M., Tanaka, T, Furusawa, M., Kashimata, M. and Takeuchi, H., 2002, Membrane-rigidifying effects of anti-cancer dietary factors, Biofactors 16: 45–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Turck, F., Zilbermann, F., Kozma, S. C., Thomas, G. and Nagy, F., 2004, Phytohormones participate in an S6 kinase signal transduction pathway in Arabidopsis, Plant Physiol 134: 1527–1155.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. van Eldik, G J., Reijnen, W. H., Ruiter, R. K., van Herpen, M. M., Schrauwen, J. A. and Wullems, G. J., 1997, Regulation of flavonol biosynthesis during anther and pistil development, and during pollen tube growth in Solanum tuberosum, Plant J 11: 105–113.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Verstraeten, S. V., Keen, C. L., Schmitz, H. H., Fraga, C. G. and Oteiza, P. I., 2003, Flavan-3-ols and procyanidins protect liposomes against lipid oxidation and disruption of the bilayer structure, Free Radical Biol Med 34: 84–92.Google Scholar
  180. Virgili, F., Acconcia, F., Ambra, R., Rinna, A., Totta, P. and Marino, M., 2004, Nutritional flavonoids modulate estrogen receptor alpha signaling, IUBMB Life 56: 145–151.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Vogt, T., Pollak, P., Tarlyn, N. and Taylor, L. P, 1994, Pollination-Induced or wound-induced kaempferol accumulation in petunia stigmas enhances seed production, Plant Cell 6: 11–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Wadsworth, T. L., McDonald, T. L. and Koop, D. R., 2001, Effects of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) and quercetin on lipopolysaccharide-induced signalling pathways involved in the release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha Biocheml Pharmacol 62: 963–974.Google Scholar
  183. Waite, K. A., Sinden, M. R. and Charis, E., 2005, Phytoestrogen exposure elevates PTEN levels, Human Mol Genet 14: 1457–1463.Google Scholar
  184. Wasowski, C., Marder, M., Viola, H., Medina, J. H. and Paladini, A. C., 2002, Isolation and identification of 6-methylapigenin, a competitive ligand for the brain GABA(A) receptors, from Valeriana wallichii, Planta Med 68: 934–936.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Wheeler, M., Frankin-Tong, V. and Fanklin, F., 2001, The molecular and genetic basis of pollen-pistal interactions, New Phyt 151: 565–584.Google Scholar
  186. Williams, R. J., Spencer, J. P. E. and Rice-Evans, C., 2004, Flavonoids: Antioxidants or signalling molecules? Free Radical Biol Med 36: 838–849.Google Scholar
  187. Wingender, R., Rohrig, H., Horicke, C., Wing, D. and Schell, J., 1989, Differential regulation of soybean chalcone synthase genes in plant defence, symbiosis and upon environmental stimuli, Mol Gen Genet 218: 315–322.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Woo, H., Jeong, B. and Hawes, M., 2005, Flavonoids: from cell cycle regulation to biotechnology Biotechnol Lett 27: 365–374.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Woo, H. H., Faull, K. F., Hirsch, A. M. and Hawes, M C., 2003, Altered life cycle in arabidopsis plants expressing PsUGT1, a UDP-glucuronosyltransferase-encoding gene from pea, Plant Physiol 133: 538–548.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Woo, H. H., Orbach, M. J., Hirsch, A. M. and Hawes, M. C., 1999, Meristem-localized inducible expression of a UDP-glycosyltransferase gene is essential for growth and development in pea and alfalfa, Plant Cell 11: 2303–2315.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Woo, J. T., Nakagawa, H., Notoya, M., Yonezawa, T., Udagawa, N., Lee, I. S., Ohnishi, M., Hagiwara, H. and Nagai, K., 2004, Quercetin suppresses bone resorption by inhibiting the differentiation and activation of osteoclasts, Biol Pharmacol Bull 27: 504–509.Google Scholar
  192. Wrzaczek, M. and Hirt, H., 2001, Plant MAP kinase pathways: how many and what for? Biol Cell 93: 81–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. Xi, Q. R., Cuesta, R. and Schneider, R. J., 2005, Regulation of translation by ribosome shunting through phosphotyrosine-dependent coupling of adenovirus protein 100k to viral mRNAs, J Virol 79: 5676–5683.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Xie, Z. P., Staehelin, C., Vierheilig, H., Wiemken, A., Jabbouri, S., Broughton, W. J., Vogeli-Lange, R. and Boller, T., 1995, Rhizobial nodulation factors stimulate mycorrhizal colonization of nodulating and nonnodulating soybeans, Plant Physiol 108: 1519–1525.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. Yadava, R. N. and Verma, V., 2003, A new biologically active flavone glycoside from the seeds of Cassia fistula (Linn.), Asian Nat Prod Res 5: 57–61.Google Scholar
  196. Ye, R. Q., Goodarzi, A. A., Kurz, E. U., Saito, S., Higashimoto, Y., Lavin, M. F., Appella, E., Anderson, C. W. and Lees-Miller, S. P., 2004, The isoflavonoids genistein and quercetin activate different stress signalling pathways as shown by analysis of site-specific phosphorylation of ATM, p53 and histone H2AX, DNA Repair 3: 235–244.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. Yeh, K., Peck, M. and Long, S., 2002, Luteolin and GroESL modulate in vitro activity of NodD, J Bacteriol 184: 525–530.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Ylstra, B., Muskens, M. and van Tunen, A. J., 1996, Flavonols are not essential for fertilization in Arabidopsis thaliana, Plant Mol Biol 32: 1155–1158.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. Zhao, J. and Sakai, K., 2002, Multiple signalling pathways mediate fungal elicitor-induced ß-thujaplicin biosynthesis in Cupressus lusitanica cell cultures. J Exper Bot 54: 647–656.Google Scholar
  200. Zhou H.W., Nussbaumer C., Chao Y., DeLong A., 2004, Disparate roles for the regulatory A subunit isoforms in Arabidopsis protein phosphatase 2A . Plant Cell 16:709–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. Zitron E., Scholz E., Owen R.W., Luck S., Kiesecker C., Thomas D., Kathofer S., Niroomand F., Kiehn J., Kreye V.A., Katus H.A., Schoels W., Karle C.A., 2005, QTc prolongation by grapefruit juice and its potential pharmacological basis: HERG channel blockade by flavonoids. Circulation 111:835–838.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. A. Peer
    • 1
  • A. S. Murphy
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of HorticulturePurdue UniversityWest LafayetteUSA

Personalised recommendations