The Impact of Environmental Chemicals on Wildlife Vertebrates

  • Julia Bernanke
  • Heinz-R. Köhler*
Part of the Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology book series (RECT, volume 198)

1 Introduction

Since early history, humans have interfered with their environment. Early hominids appeared about 6 million years ago. Although the earliest humans were only able to partially control their environment, they had an impact on nature from their hunting activities. The more severe impact on the environment began later, after the birth of agriculture and particularly after the industrial revolution began.

The tremendous growth of the chemical industry over the last century is a phenomenon of the twentieth and, now the twenty-first century. The increasing production and use of chemicals have reached enormous global dimensions. Some environmentally released chemicals are by-products of manufacturing processes; others are developed for particular applications and are intentionally released to the environment, e.g., pesticide use in agriculture. Occasionally, large quantities of chemicals are released as a result of accidents. Public awareness of risks posed by man made...


Population Decline Polar Bear Early Life Stage Endocrine Disruption Wood Frog 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Julia Bernanke
    • 1
  • Heinz-R. Köhler*
    • 1
  1. 1.Animal Physiological EcologyUniversity of TübingenGermany

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