Advertisement

The Impact of Environmental Chemicals on Wildlife Vertebrates

  • Julia Bernanke
  • Heinz-R. Köhler*
Chapter
Part of the Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology book series (RECT, volume 198)

1 Introduction

Since early history, humans have interfered with their environment. Early hominids appeared about 6 million years ago. Although the earliest humans were only able to partially control their environment, they had an impact on nature from their hunting activities. The more severe impact on the environment began later, after the birth of agriculture and particularly after the industrial revolution began.

The tremendous growth of the chemical industry over the last century is a phenomenon of the twentieth and, now the twenty-first century. The increasing production and use of chemicals have reached enormous global dimensions. Some environmentally released chemicals are by-products of manufacturing processes; others are developed for particular applications and are intentionally released to the environment, e.g., pesticide use in agriculture. Occasionally, large quantities of chemicals are released as a result of accidents. Public awareness of risks posed by man made...

Keywords

Population Decline Polar Bear Early Life Stage Endocrine Disruption Wood Frog 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Abbott D (2000) (SMV Science Page, Sharks) http://www.ms-starship.com/sciencenew/sharks.htmPosted June 2000. (Viewed Feb 11, 2008).
  2. Adkins EK (1979) Effect of embryonic treatment with estradiol or testosterone on sexual differentiation of the quail brain: Critical period and dose-response relationships. Neuroendocrinology 29:178–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Adkins-Regan E, Mansukhani V, Seiwert C, Thompson R (1994) Sexual differentiation of brain and behavior in the Zebra Finch: Critical periods for effects of early estrogen treatment. J Neurobiol 25:865–877.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Agler BA, Kendall SJ, Irons DB, Klosiewski SP (1999) Declines in marine bird populations in Prince William Sound, Alaska coincident with a climatic regime shift. Water Birds 22:98–103.Google Scholar
  5. Allen Y, Scott AP, Matthiessen P, Haworth S, Thain JE, Feist S (1999) Survey of estrogenic activity in United Kingdom estuarine and coastal waters and its effects on gonadal development of the flounder Platichthys flesus. Environ Toxicol Chem 18:1791–1800.Google Scholar
  6. Alquezar R, Markich SJ, Booth DJ (2006) Effects of metals on condition and reproductive output of the smooth toadfish in Sydney estuaries, south-eastern Australia. Environ Pollut 142:116–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Andersson T, Förlin L, Härdig J, Larsson A (1988) Biochemical and physiological disturbances in fish inhabiting coastal waters polluted with bleached kraft mill effluents. Mar Environ Res 24:233–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ankley GT, Giesy J (1998) Overview of a workshop on screening methods for detecting potential (anti-) estrogenic/androgenic chemicals in wildlife. Environ Toxicol Chem 17:68–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ankley GT, Johnson RD, Toth G, Folmar LC, Detenbeck NE, Bradbury SP (1997) Development of a research strategy for assessing the ecological risk of endocrine disruptors. Rev Toxicol 1:71–106.Google Scholar
  10. Barnthouse LW (1993) Population-level effects. In: Suter GW (ed) Ecological risk assessment. Lewis, Boca Raton, FL, USA, pp. 247–274.Google Scholar
  11. Barrett CJ, Vainio H, Peakall D, Goldstein, BD (1997) 12th Meeting of the Scientific Group on Methodologies for the Safety Evaluation of Chemicals: Susceptibility to Environmental Hazards. Environ Health Perspect 105:(Suppl 4)699–737.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Barron MG, Galbraith H, Beltman D (1995) Comparative reproductive and developmental toxicology of PCBs in birds. Comp Biochem Physiol C 112:1–14.Google Scholar
  13. Barton HA, Andersen RE (1998) Endocrine active compounds: From biology to dose response assessment. Crit Rev Toxicol 28:363–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Batty J, Levitt RA, Biondi N, Polin D (1990) An ecotoxicological study of the white footed mouse (Peromyscus leucomus.) inhabiting a polychlorinated biphenyls-contaminated area Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 19:283–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Beebee TJR, Griffiths RA (2005) The amphibian decline crisis: A watershed for conservation biology? Biol Conserv 125:271–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Benirschke K (1981) Hermaphrodites, freemartins, mosaics, and chirnacras in animals. In: Austin CR, Edwards RG (eds) Mechanisms of Sex Differentiation in Animals and Man, Academic Press, London, pp. 421–463.Google Scholar
  17. Bennett RS, Williams BA, Schmedding DW, Bennett JK (1991) Effects of dietary exposure to methyl parathion on egg laying and incubation in mallards. Environ Toxicol Chem 10:501–507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bergman A (1999a) Health condition of the Baltic grey seal (Halichoerus grypus.) during two decades, gynaecological health improvement but increased prevalence of colonic ulcers Acta Pathol Microbiol Immunol Scand 107:270–282.Google Scholar
  19. Bergman A (1999b) Prevalence of lesions associated with a disease complex in the Baltic grey seal (Halichoerus grypus:) during 1977–1996. InO’Shea TJ, Reeves RR, Long AK (eds) Marine Mammals and Persistent Ocean Contaminants: Proceedings of the Marine Mammal Commission Workshop, Keystone, Colorado, pp. 139–143.Google Scholar
  20. Bergman A, Olsson M (1985) Pathology of Baltic grey seal and ringed seal females with special reference to adrenocortical hyperplasia: Is environmental pollution the cause of a widely distributed disease syndrome? Finnish Game Res 44: 47–62.Google Scholar
  21. Bergman A, Bergstrand A, Bignert A (2001) Renal lesions in Baltic grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) and ringed seals (Phoca hispida botnica.) Ambio 30:397–409.Google Scholar
  22. Bernhoft A, Wiig O, Skaare JU (1997) Organochlorines in polar bears (Ursus maritimus.) at Svalbard Environ Pollut 95:159–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Berrill M, Bertram S, Wilson A, Louis S, Brigham D, Stromberg C (1993) Lethal and sublethal impacts of pyrethroid insecticides on amphibian embryos and tadpoles. Environ Toxicol Chem 12:525–539.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Berrill M, Bertra S, McGillivray L, Kolohon M, Pauli B (1994) Effects of low concentrations of forest-use pesticides on frog embryos and tadpoles. Environ Toxicol Chem 13:657–664.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Berrill M, Coulson D, McGillivray L, Pauli B (1998) Toxicity of endosulfan to aquatic stages of anuran amphibians. Environ Toxicol Chem 17:1738–1744.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Bignert A, Olsson M, de Wit C, Litzen K, Rappe C, Reutergardh L (1994) Biological variation—an important factor to consider in ecotoxicological studies based on environmental samples. Fresenius J Anal Chem 348:76–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Bigsby R, Chapin RE, Daston GP, Davis BJ, Gorski J, Gray LE, Howdeshell KL, Zoeller RT, Vom Saal FS (1999) Evaluating the effects of endocrine disrupters on endocrine function during development. Environ Health Perspect 107:613–618.Google Scholar
  28. Bishop CA, Gendron AD (1998) Reptiles and amphibians: The shy and sensitive vertebrates of the Great Lakes basin and St. Lawrence River. Environ Monit Assess 53:225–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Bishop CA, Brooks RJ, Carey JH, Ng P, Norstrom RJ, Lean DR (1991) The case for a cause-effect linkage between environmental contamination and development in eggs of the common snapping turtle (Chelydra s. serpentina) from Ontario. Can J Toxicol Environ Health33:(4)521–547.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Bishop CA, Ng P, Pettit KE, Kennedy SW, Stegeman JJ, Norstrom RJ, Brooks RJ (1998) Environmental contamination and developmental abnormalities in eggs and hatchlings of the common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina serpentina.) from the Great Lakes St.-Lawrence River basin (1989–91) Environ Pollut 101:143–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Boone MD, Semlitsch RD (2001) Interactions of an insecticide with larval density and predation in experimental amphibian communities. Conserv Biol 15:228–238.Google Scholar
  32. Boss WR, Witschi E (1947) The permanent effects of early stilbestrol injections on the sex organs of the herring gull (Larus argentatus.) J Exp Biol 105:61–77.Google Scholar
  33. Bowler JK (1977) Longevity of reptiles and amphibians in North American collections. Society for the study of amphibians and reptiles, Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies 37:212–221.Google Scholar
  34. Bridges CM (1997) Tadpole swimming performance and activity affected by acute exposure to sublethal levels of carbaryl. Environ Toxicol Chem 16:1935–1939.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Bridges CM (1999) Predator-prey interactions between two amphibian species: Effects of insecticide exposure. Aquat Ecol 33:205–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Bridges CM (2000) Long-term effects of pesticide exposure at various life stages of the southern leopard frog (Rana sphenocephala.) Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 39:91–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Bridges CM, Semlitsch RD (2000) Variation in pesticide tolerance of tadpoles among and within species of ranidae and patterns of amphibian decline. Conserv Biol 14:1490–1499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Brunström B, Olsson M, Roos A (1998) 2,3,7,8-TCDD equivalent concentrations in livers from Swedish otters determined with a bioassay. Organohalogen Compd 39:149–151.Google Scholar
  39. Brunström B, Lund B-O, Bergman A, Asplund L, Athanassiadis I, Athanassiadou M, Jensen S, Örberg J (2001) Reproductive toxicity in mink (Mustela vison.) chronically exposed to environmentally relevant polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations Environ Toxicol Chem 20:2318–2327.Google Scholar
  40. Burkhardt-Holm P, Peter A, Segner H (2002) Decline of fish catch in Switzerland. Project fishnet: A balance between analysis and synthesis. Aquat Sci 64:36–54.Google Scholar
  41. Burn Doroff AM DM, (2005) Decline in sea otter (Enhydra lutris.) populations along the Alaska Peninsula, 1986–2001 Fishery Bull 103:270–279.Google Scholar
  42. Campana SE, Marks L, Joyce W, Kohler NE (2006) Effects of recreational and commercial fishing on blue sharks (Prionace glauca.) in Atlantic Canada, with inferences on the North Atlantic population Can J Fisheries Aquat Sci 63:670–682.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Carls MG, Marty GD, Hose JE (2002) Synthesis of the toxicological impacts of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi.) in Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA Can J Fisheries Aquat Sci 59:153–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Carson R L (1962) Silent Spring, Houghton Mifflin, Wilmington, MA, USA.Google Scholar
  45. Casillas E, Misitano D, Johnson LL, Rhodes LD, Collier TK, Stein JE, McCain BB, Varanasi U (1991) Inducibility of spawning and reproductive success of female English sole (Parophrys vetulus.) from urban and nonurban areas of Puget Sound, Washington Mar Environ Res 31:99–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Castelege I, Hemery G, Roux N, D’Elbeee J, Lalanne Y, D’Amico F, Mouches C (2004) Changes in abundance and at-sea distribution of seabirds in the Bay of Biscay prior to, and following the “Erika” oil spill. Aquat Living Res 17:361–367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Cattet M (1988) Abnormal sex differentiation in black bears (Ursus americanus.) and brown bears (Ursus arctos) J Mammal 69:849–852.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Cobb GP, Wood PD (1997) PCB concentrations in eggs and chorioallantoic membranes of loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta.) from the Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge Chemosphere 34:539–549.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Congdon JD, Tinkle DW, Breitenbach GW, van Loben Sels RC (1983) Nesting ecology and hatching success in the turtle Emydoidea blandingii. Herpetologica 39:417–429.Google Scholar
  50. Conover MR, Hunt GL Jr. (1984a) Experimental evidence that female-female pairs in gulls result from a shortage of breeding males. Condor 86:472–476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Conover MR, Hunt GL Jr. (1984b) Female-female pairing and sex ratios in gulls: An historical perspective. Wilson Bull 96:619–625.Google Scholar
  52. Conover MR, Miller DE, Hunt GL Jr. (1979) Female-female pairs and other unusual reproductive associations in ring-billed and California gulls. The Auk 96:6–9.Google Scholar
  53. Couture P, Rajotte JW (2003) Morphometric and metabolic indicators of metal stress in wild yellow perch (Perca flavescens) from Sudbury, Ontario, A review. J Environ Monit 5:216–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Crain DA, Guillette LJ Jr. (1998) Reptiles as models of contaminant-induced endocrine disruption. Anim Reprod Sci 53:77–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Crews D, Bergeron JM, McLachlan JA (1995) The role of estrogen in turtle sex determination and the effect of PCBs. Environ Health Perspect 103:(Suppl 7)73–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Davidson C (2004) Declining downwind: Amphibian population declines in California and historical pesticide use. Ecol Appl 14:1892–1902.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Davidson C, Shaffer HB, Jennings MR (2001) Declines of the California red-legged frog: Climate, UV-B, habitat, and pesticides hypotheses. Ecol Appl 11:464–479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. De Guise S, Lagace A, Beland P (1994) True hermaphroditism in a St. Lawrence beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas ). J Wildl Dis30:287–290.Google Scholar
  59. De Lafontaine Y, Gilbert NL, Dumouchel F, Brochu C, Moore S, Pelletier E, Dumont P, Branchaud A (2002) Is chemical contamination responsible for the decline of the copper redhorse (Moxostoma hubbsi), an endangered fish species, in Canada? Sci Tot Environ298:25–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. De Swart RL, Ross PS, Vedder LJ, Timmerman HH, Heisterkamp SH, Van Loveren H, Vos JG, Reijnders PJH, Osterhaus ADME (1994) Impairment of immune functions in harbour seals (Phoca vitulina.), feeding on fish from polluted costal waters Ambio 23:155–159.Google Scholar
  61. De Swart RL, Harder TC, Ross PS, Vos HW, Osterhaus ADME (1995) Morbilliviruses and morbillivirus diseases of marine mammals. Infect Agents Dis 4:125–130.Google Scholar
  62. Dean TA, Bodkin JL, Jewett SC, Monson DH, Jung D (2000) Changes in sea urchins and kelp following a reduction in sea otter density as a result of the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 199:281–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. DeLong RL, Gilmartin WG, Simpson JG (1973) Premature births in Californian sealions: Association with high organochlorine pollutant residue levels. Science 181:1168–1170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Dietz R, Heide-Jorgensen MP, Härkönen T (1989) Mass deaths of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina.) in Europe Ambio 18:258–264.Google Scholar
  65. Dwivedi J, Trombetta LD (2006) Acute toxicity and bioaccumulation of tributyltin in tissues of Urolophus jamaicensis. (yellow stingray) J Toxicol Environ Health A 69:1311–1323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Elliott JE, Norstrom RJ, Keith JA (1988) Organochlorines and eggshell thinning in northern gannets (Sula bassanus.) from eastern Canada Environ Pollut 52:81–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Engelhart A, Behnisch P, Hagenmaier H, Apfelbach R (2001) PCBs and their putative effects on polecat (Mustela putorius.) populations in Central Europe Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 48:178–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Esler D, Bowman TD, Trust KA, Ballachey BE, Dean TA, Jewett SC, O’Clair CE (2002) Harlequin duck population recovery following the ‘Exxon Valdez’ oil spill: Progress, process and constraints. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 241:271–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Evans DO, Warren GJ, Cairns VW (1990) Assessment and management of fish community health in the Great Lakes: Synthesis and recommendations. J Great Lakes Res 16:639–669.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Facemire CF, Gross TS, Guillette LJJ (1995) Reproductive impairment in the Florida panther: Nature or nurture? Environ Health Perspect 103:79–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Fair PA, Becker PR (2000) Review of stress in marine mammals. J Aquat Ecosyst Stress Recov 7:335–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Fent K (2003) Ökotoxikologie, 2. Auflage. Georg Thieme, Stuttgart, Germany.Google Scholar
  73. Fentress JA, Steele SL, Bart HL, Jr. Cheek AO (2006) Reproductive disruption in wild longear sunfish (Lepomis megalotis.) exposed to kraft mill effluent Environ Health Perspect 114:40–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Fitch MA, Shugart GW (1983) Comparative biology and behaviour of monogamous pairs and one male-two female trios of herring gulls. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 14:1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Folmar LC, Denslow ND, Rao V, Chow M, Crain DA, Enblom J, Marcino J, Guillette LJ (1996) Vitellogenin induction and reduced serum testosterone concentrations in feral male carp (Cyprinus carpio.) captured near a major metropolitan sewage treatment plant Environ Health Perspect 104:1096–1101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Fox G, Gilman A, Peakall D, Anderka F (1978) Behavioral abnormalities of nesting Lake Ontario herring gulls. J Wild Manag 42:477–483.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Fox GA (1991) Practical causal inference for ecoepidemiologists. J Toxicol Environ Health 33:359–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Fox GA (1992) Epidemiological and pathobiological evidence of contaminant-induced alterations in sexual development in free-living wildlife. In: Colborn T, Clement C (eds) Chemically-Induced Alterations in Sexual and Functional Development: The Wildlife/Human Connection. Princeton Scientific Publishing Co., Princeton, NJ, USA, pp. 147–158.Google Scholar
  79. Fox GA (1993) What have biomarkers told us about the effects of contaminants on the health of fish-eating birds in the Great Lakes? The theory and literature review. J Great Lakes Res 19:722–736.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Fox GA, MacCluskie MC, Brook RW (2005) Are current contaminant concentrations in eggs and breeding female Lesser Scaup of concern? Condor 107:50–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Freeman JL, Beccue N, Rayburn AL (2005) Differential metamorphosis alters the endocrine response in anuran larvae exposed to T3. and atrazine Aquat Toxicol 75:263–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Frost KJ, Lowry LF, Ver Hoef JM (1999) Monitoring the trend of harbor seals in Prince William Sound, Alaska, after the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Marine Mammal Sci 15:494–506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Fry DM (1995) Reproductive effects in birds exposed to pesticides and industrial chemicals. Environ Health Perspect 103:165–171.Google Scholar
  84. Fry DM, Toone CK (1981) DDT-induced feminization of gull embryos. Science 213:922–924.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Fry DM, Toone CK, Speich SM, Peard RJ (1987) Sex ratio skew and breeding patterns of gulls: Demographic and toxicological considerations. Stud Avian Biol 10:26–43.Google Scholar
  86. Gagnon MM, Bussieres D, Dodson JJ, Hodson PV (1995) White sucker (Catostomus commersoni.) growth and sexual maturation in pulp mill-contaminated and reference rivers Environ Toxicol Chem 14:317–327.Google Scholar
  87. Garshelis DL, Johnson CB (2001) Sea otter population dynamics and the Exxon Valdez oil spill: Disentangling the confounding effects. J Appl Ecol 38:19–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Gelsleichter J, Manire CA, Szabo NJ, Cortes E, Carlson J, Lombardi-Carlson L (2005) Organochlorine concentrations in bonnethead sharks (Sphyrna tiburo.) from four Florida estuaries Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 48:474–483.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Gibbons JW, Semlitsch RD (1982) Survivorship and longevity of a long-lived vertebrate species: How long do turtles live? J Anim Ecol 51:523–527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Giesy JP, Ludwig JP, Tillitt DE (1994a) Dioxins, dibenzofurans, PCBs and colonial, fish-eating water birds. In: Schecter A (ed) Dioxin and Health. Plenum Press, New York, USA, pp. 254–307.Google Scholar
  91. Giesy JP, Ludwig JP, Tillitt DE (1994b) Deformities in birds of the Great Lakes region. Environ Sci Technol 28:128–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Gilbertson M (1983) Etiology of chick edema disease in herring gulls in the lower Great Lakes. Chemosphere 12:357–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Gilbertson M, Fox G, (1977) Pollutant-associated embryonic mortality of Great Lakes herring gulls. Environ Pollut 12:211–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Gilbertson M, Kubiak TJ, Ludwig JP, Fox G (1991) Great Lakes embryo mortality, edema, and deformities syndrome (GLEMEDS) in colonial fish-eating birds: Similarity to chick edema disease. J Toxicol Environ Health 33:455–520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Gill AB, Kimber JA (2005) The potential for cooperative management of elasmobranchs and offshore renewable energy development in UK waters. J Mar Biol Assoc UK 85:1075–1081.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Gill ME, Spiropoulos J, Moss C (2002) Testicular structure and sperm production in flounders from a polluted estuary: A preliminary study. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 281:41–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Gilman A, Peakall D, Hallett D, Fox G, Norstrom R (1979) Herring gulls (Larus argentatus.) as monitors of contamination in the Great Lakes. In: Animals as Monitors of Environmental Pollution. Symposium on Pathobiology of Environmental PollutantsNational Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., pp. 280–289.Google Scholar
  98. Gilmartin WG, DeLong RL, Smith AW, Sweeney JC, De Lappe BW, Risebrough RW, Griner LA, Dailey MD, Peakall DB (1976) Premature parturition in the Californian sea lion. J Wildl Dis 12:104–115.Google Scholar
  99. Grannis P (2008) (New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, P. Grannis, Commissioner) http://www.dec.state.ny.us/(Viewed Feb 11, 2008).
  100. Grasman K, Scanlon P, Fox G (1998) Reproductive and physiological effects of environmental contaminants in fish-eating birds of the Great Lakes: A review of historical trends. Environ Monit Assess 53:117–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Guillette LJ, Jr. Edwards TM (2005) Is nitrate an ecologically relevant endocrine disruptor in vertebrates? Integrat Comp Biol 45:19–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Guillette LJ, Jr.Gross TS, Masson GR, Matter JM, Percival HF, Woodward AR (1994) Developmental abnormalities of the gonad and abnormal sex hormone concentrations in juvenile alligators from contaminated and control lakes in Florida. Environ Health Perspect 102:680–688.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Guillette LJ, Jr. Brock JW, Rooney AA, Woodward AR (1999) Serum concentrations of various environmental contaminants and their relationship to sex steroid concentrations and phallus size in juvenile American alligators. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 36:447–455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Gutleb AC, Appelman J, Bronkhorst MC, Van Den Berg JHJ, Spenkelink A, Brouwer A, Murk AJ (1999) Delayed effects of pre- and early-life time exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls on tadpoles of two amphibian species (Xenopus laevis. and Rana temporaria) Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 8:1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Hall RJ, Henry PFP (1992) Assessing effects of pesticides on amphibians and reptiles: status and needs. Herpetol J 2:65–71.Google Scholar
  106. Hansen JA, Lipton J, Welsh PG (2002) Relative sensitivity of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus.) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to acute copper toxicity Environ Toxicol Chem 21:633–639.Google Scholar
  107. Hansen P-D, von Westernhagen H, Rosenthal H (1985) Chlorinated hydrocarbons and hatching success in Baltic herring spring spawners. Mar Environ Res 15:59–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Harries JE, Sheahan DA, Jobling S, Matthiessen P, Neall P, Routledge E, Rycroft R, Sumpter JP, Tylor T (1996) A survey of estrogenic activity in United Kingdom inland waters. Environ Toxicol Chem 15:1993–2002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Harries JE, Sheahan DA, Jobling S, Matthiessen P, Neall P, Sumpter JP, Tylor T, Zaman N (1997) Estrogenic activity in five United Kingdom rivers detected by measurement of vitellogenesis in caged male trout. Environ Toxicol Chem 16:534–542.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Hashimoto S, Bessho H, Hara A, Nakamura M, Iguchi T, Fujita K (2000) Elevated serum vitellogenin levels and gonadal abnormalities in wild male flounder (Pleuronectes yokohamae.) from Tokyo Bay, Japan Mar Environ Res 49:37–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Hayes TB, Collins A, Lee M, Mendoza M, Noriega N, Stuart AA, Vonk A (2002) Hermaphroditic, demasculinized frogs after exposure to the herbicide atrazine at low ecologically relevant doses. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 99:5476–5480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Hecnar S J (1995) Acute and chronic toxicity of ammonium nitrate fertilizer to amphibians from southern Ontario. Environ Toxicol Chem 14:2131–2137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Henny CJ, Grove RA, Hedstrom OR (1996) A field evaluation of mink and otter on the lower Columbia River and the influence of environmental contaminants, Final Report to the Lower Columbia River Bi-State Water Quality Program (Portland, OR). National Biological Service, Forest and Rangeland Ecosystem Science Center, Corvalis, OR.Google Scholar
  114. Henny CJ, Beal KF, Bury RB, Goggans R (2003) Organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, trace elements and metals in western pond turtle eggs from Oregon. Northwest Sci 77:46–53.Google Scholar
  115. Hilborn R, Eggers D (2000) A review of the hatchery programs for pink salmon in Prince William Sound and Kodiak Island, Alaska. Transact Am Fisheries Soc 129:333–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Hodson PV, McWhirter M, Ralph K, Gray B, Thiverge D, Carey J, Van Der Kraak GJ, McWhittle D, Levesque M, (1992) Effects of bleached kraft mill effluent on fish in the St. Maurice River, Quebec. Environ Toxicol Chem 11:1635–1651.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Houlihan JE, Fidlay CS, Schmidt BR, Meyer AH, Kuzmin SL (2000) Quantitative evidence for global amphibian population declines. Nature (Lond) 404:752–755.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Hunt GL, Jr. Wingfield JC, Newman A, Farner DS (1980) Sex ratio of Western Gulls on Santa Barbara Island, California. The Auk 97:473–479.Google Scholar
  119. ICES (1992) Report of the Study Group on Seals and Small Cetaceans in Northern European Seas, International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) CM 1993/N:3.Google Scholar
  120. Irons DB, Kendall SJ, Erickson WP, McDonald LL, Lance BK (2000) Nine years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill: Effects on marine bird populations in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Condor 102:723–737.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Jobling S, Tyler CR (2003) Endocrine disruption in wild freshwater fish. Pure Appl Chem 75:2219–2234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Jobling S, Sheahan DA, Osborne JA, Matthiessen P, Sumpter JP (1996) Inhibition of testicular growth in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss.) exposed to estrogenic alkylphenolic chemicals Environ Toxicol Chem 15:194–202.Google Scholar
  123. Jobling S, Nolan M, Tyler CR, Brighty G, Sumpter JP (1998a) Widespread sexual disruption in wild fish. Environ Sci Technol 32:2498–2506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Jobling S, Tyler CR, Nolan M, Sumpter JP (1998b) The identification of oestrogenic effects in wild fish. Environment Agency, London, UK R and D Technical Report W119.Google Scholar
  125. Johnson LL, Stein JE, Collier TK, Casillas E, McCain B, Varanasi U (1992) Bioindicators of contaminant exposure, liver pathology, and reproductive development in prespawning female winter flounder (Pleuronectes americanus.) from urban and nonurban estuaries on the northeast Atlantic coastU.S., Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFSNWFSC-1, Washington, D.C., 76 pp.Google Scholar
  126. Johnson LL, Sol SY, Ylitalo GM, Hom T, French B, Olson OP, Collier TK (1997) Precocious sexual maturation and other reproductive anomalies in English sole from an urban waterway, International Council for the Exploration of the Sea, Copenhagen, ICES CM 1997/U:07, 15 pp.Google Scholar
  127. Johnson LL, Misitano D, Sol SY, Nelson GM, French B, Ylitalo GM, Hom T (1998) Contaminant effects on ovarian development and spawning success in rock sole from Puget Sound, Washington. Transact Am Fisheries Soc 127:375–392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Johnstone R, Court G, Fesser A, Bradley D, Oliphant L, MacNeil J (1996) Long-term trends and sources of organochlorine contamination in Canadian tundra peregrine falcons, Falco peregrinus tundrius. Environ Pollut 93:109–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Kihlström JE, Olsson M, Jensen S, Johansson A, Ahlbom J, Bergman A (1992) Effects of PCB and different fractions of PCB on the reproduction of the mink (Mustela vison.) Ambio 21:563–569.Google Scholar
  130. Kime DE (1998) Endocrine Disruption in Fish. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, USA.Google Scholar
  131. Kime DE, Nash JP, Scott AP (1999) Vitellogenesis as a biomarker of reproductive disruption by xenobiotics. Aquaculture 177:345–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Kloas W (2002) Amphibians as a model for the study of endocrine disruptors. Int Rev Cyt 216:1–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Kostamo A, Hyvärinen H, Pellinen J, Kukkonen JVK (2002) Organochlorine concentrations in the Saimaa ringed seal (Phoca hispida saimensis.) from Lake Haukivesi, Finland, 1981 to 2000, and in its diet today Environ Toxicol Chem 21:1368–1376.Google Scholar
  134. Kovacs TG, Gibbons JS, Tremblay LA, O’Connor BI, Martel PH, Voss RI (1995) The effect of a secondary-treated bleached kraft pulpmill effluent on aquatic organisms as assessed by short-term and long-term laboratory tests. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 31:7–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Lamb T, Bickham JW, Lyne TB, Gibbons JW (1995) The slider turtle as an environmental sentinel: Multiple tissue assays using flow cytometric analysis. Ecotoxicology 4:(1)5–13.Google Scholar
  136. Lance VA (1994) Introduction: Environmental sex determination in reptiles: Patterns and processes. J Exp Zool 270:1–2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Leonards PEG (1997) PCBs in mustelids: Analysis, food chain transfer and critical levels. Ph.D. Thesis, Free University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  138. Linzey AV, Grant DM (1994) Characteristics of a white footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus.) population inhabiting polychlorinated biphenyls contaminated site Arch Environ Contamin Toxicol 27:521–526.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Ludwig JP (1984) Decline, resurgence and population dynamics of Michigan and Great Lakes double-crested cormorants. Jack-Pine Warbler 62:91–102.Google Scholar
  140. Ludwig JP, Giesy JP, Summer CL, Bowerman WW, Aulerich R, Bursian S, Auman HJ, Jones PD, Williams LL, Tillitt DE, Gilbertson M (1993) A comparison of water quality criteria for the Great Lakes based on human and wildlife health. J Great Lakes Res 19:789–807.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Lund B-O (1994) In vitro. adrenal bioactivation and effects on steroid metabolism of DDT, PCBs and their metabolites in the grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) Environ Toxicol Chem 13:911–917.Google Scholar
  142. Lye CM, Frid CJJ, Gill ME, McCormick D (1997) Abnormalities in the reproductive health of flounder Platichthys flesus. exposed to effluent from a sewage treatment works Mar Pollut Bull 34:34–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Lye CM, Frid CLJ, Gill ME (1998) Seasonal reproductive health of flounder Platichthys flesus. exposed to sewage effluent Mar Ecol Prog Ser 170:249–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Lye CM, Frid CLJ, Gill ME, Cooper DW, Jones DM (1999) Estrogenic alkylphenols in fish tissues, sediments and waters from the U.K. Tyne and Tees estuaries. Environ Sci Technol 33:1009–1014.Google Scholar
  145. Mac MJ, Schwartz TR, Edsall CC, Frank AM (1993) Polychlorinated biphenyls in Great Lakes trout and their eggs: Relations to survival and congener composition 1979–1988. J Great Lakes Res 19:752–765.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Maki AW, Brannon EJ, Gilbertson LG, Moulton LL, Skalski JR (1995) An assessment of oil-spill effects on pink salmon populations following the Exxon Valdez oil spill—Part 2: Adults and escapement. In: Wells PG, Butler JN, Hughes JS (eds) Exxon Valdez Oil Spill: Fate and Effects in Alaskan Waters ASTM Special Technical Publication # 1219, American Society for Testing and Materials, Phildaelphia, PA, USA, pp. 585–625.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Maltby L (1999) Studying stress: The importance of organism-level responses. Ecol Appl 9:431–440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Marco A, Quilchano C, Blaustein AR (1999) Sensitivity to nitrate and nitrite in pond-breeding amphibians from the Pacific Northwest, USA. Environ Toxicol Chem 18:2836–2839.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Martineau D, De Guise S, Fournier M, Shugart L, Girard C, Lagace A, Beland P (1994) Pathology and toxicology of beluga whales from the St. Lawrence Estuary, Québec, Canada, Past, present and future. Sci Tot Environ 154:201–215.Google Scholar
  150. Matthiessen P, Gibbs PE (1998) Effects on fish of estrogenic substances in English rivers. In: Kendall R, Dickerson J, Giesy J, Suk W (eds) Principles and Processes for Evaluating Endocrine Disruption in Wildlife, SETAC Press, Pensacola, FL, USA, pp. 239–247.Google Scholar
  151. McArthur MLB, Fox GA, Peakall DB, Philogene BJR (1983) Ecological significance of behavioral and hormonal abnormalities in breeding Ring Doves fed an organochlorine chemical mixture. Arch Environ Contamin Toxicol 12:343–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Mellanen P, Soimasuo M, Holmbom B, Oikari A, Santti R (1999) Expression of the vitellogenin gene in the liver of juvenile whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus. L. s.l.) exposed to effluents from pulp and paper mills Ecotox Environ Saf 43:133–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Mikkelsen M, Jenssen BM (2006) Polychlorinated biphenyls, sex steroid hormones and liver retinoids in adult male European common frogs Rana temporaria. Chemosphere 63:707–715.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Milnes MR, Allen D, Bryan TA, Sedacca CD, Guillette LJ Jr. (2004) Developmental effects of embryonic exposure to toxaphene in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis.) Comp Biochem Physiol C 138:81–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Minier C, Levy F, Rabel D, Bocquene G, Godefroy D, Burgeot T, Leboulenger F (2000) Flounder health status in the Seine Bay, a multibiomarker study. Mar Environ Res 50:373–377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Monod G (1985) Egg mortality of Lake Geneva charr (Salvelinus alpinus. L.) contaminated with PCB and DDT derivatives Bull Environ Contamin Toxicol 35:531–536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Munkittrick KR, Portt CB, Van Der Kraak GJ, Smith IR, Rokosh DA (1991) Impact of bleached kraft mill effluent on population characteristics, liver MFO activity, and serum steroid levels of a Lake Superior white sucker (Catastomus commersoni.) population Can J Fisheries Aquat Sci 48:1371–1380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Munkittrick KR, Van Der Kraak GJ, McMaster ME, Portt CB (1992a) Response of hepatic MFO activity and plasma sex steroids to secondary treatment of bleached kraft pulp mill effluent and mill shutdown. Environ Toxicol Chem 11:1427–1439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Munkittrick KR, Van Der Kraak G, McMaster M, Portt C (1992b) Reproductive dysfunction and MFO activity in three species of fish exposed to bleached kraft mill effluent at Jackfish Bay, Lake Superior. Wat Pol Res J Can 27:439–446.Google Scholar
  160. Munkittrick KR, McMaster, ME, McCarthy L, Servos M, Van Der Kraak G (1998) An overview of recent studies on the potential of pulp-mill effluents to alter reproductive parameters in fish. J Toxicol Environ Health B 1:347–371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Nichols J, Bradbury S, Swartout J (1999) Derivation of wildlife values for mercury. J Toxicol Environ Health B 2:325–355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Nisbet ICT, Fiy DM, Hateh JJ, Lynn B (1996) Feminization of male common tern embryos is not correlated with exposure to specific PCB congeners. Bull Environ Contamin Toxicol 57:895–901.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. NRC (1999) Hormonally Active Agents in the Environment. Washington, D.C., National Research Council (USA), National Academy Press, 414 pp.Google Scholar
  164. Oaks JL, Gilbert M, Virani MZ, Watson RT, Meteyer CU, Rideout BA, Shivaprasad HL, Ahmed S, Chaudhry MJI, Arshad M, Mahmood S, Ali A, Khan AA (2004) Diclofenac residues as the cause of vulture population decline in Pakistan. Nature (Lond) 427:630–633.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Olafsson PG, Bryan AM, Bush B, Stone W (1983) Snapping turtles: A biological screen for PCBs. Chemosphere 12:1525–1523.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Oskam IC, Ropstad E, Dahl E, Lie E, Derocher AE, Wiig Ø, Larsen S, Wiger R, Skaare JU (2003) Organochlorines affect the major androgenic hormone, testosterone, in male polar bears (Ursus maritimus.) at Svalbard J Toxicol Environ Health A 66:2119–2139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Palmer BD, Guillette LJ Jr. (1988) Histology and functional morphology of the female reproductive tract of the tortoise Gopherus polyphemus. Am J Anat183:200–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Palmer BD, Guillette LJ Jr. (1990) Morphological changes in the oviductal endometrium during the reproductive cycle of the tortoise, Gopherus polyphemus. J Morphol 204:323–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Palmer BD, Guillette LJ Jr. (1992) Alligators provide evidence for the evolution of an archosaurian mode of oviparity. Biol Reprod 46:39–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Palmer BD, Perkins MJ, Massie K, Simon MS, Uribe UCA (1997) Reproductive anatomy and physiology of reptiles: Evolutionary and ecological perspectives. In: Ackerman L (ed) The Biology, Husbandry and Health Care of Reptiles and Amphibians, T.F.H. Publications, Neptune City, NJ, USA, pp. 54–87.Vol. III.Google Scholar
  171. Peakall DB (1986) Accumulation and effects on birds. In: Waid JS (ed) PCBs in the Environment, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA, pp. 31–47.Vol. IIGoogle Scholar
  172. Peakall DB (1988) Known effects of pollutants on fish-eating birds in the Great Lakes of North America. In: Schmidtke NW (ed) Toxic Contamination in Large Lakes, Vol. II. Chronic Effects of Toxic Contaminants in Large Lakes, Lewis Publishers, Chelsea, MI, USA, pp. 39–54.Google Scholar
  173. Peakall DB, Peakall ML (1973) Effect of a polychlorinated biphenyl on the reproduction of artificially and naturally incubated dove eggs. J Appl Ecol 10:863–868.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Pechmann JHK, Scott DE, Semlitsch RD, Caldwell JP, Vitt LJ, Gibbons JW (1991) Declining amphibian populations: The problem of separating human impacts from natural fluctuations. Science 253:892–895.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Pechmann, JHK, Wilbur HM (1994) Putting declining amphibian populations in perspective: Natural fluctuations and human impacts. Herpetologica 50:65–84.Google Scholar
  176. Petersen GI, Gerup J, Nilsson L, Larsen JR, Schneider R (1997) Body burdens of lipophilic xenobiotics and reproductive success in Baltic cod (Gadus morhua L.). International Council for the Exploration of the Sea, Copenhagen, ICES CM 1997/U, 10, 22 pp.Google Scholar
  177. Pierotti R (1981) Male and female parental roles in the western gull under different environmental conditions. The Auk 98:532–549.Google Scholar
  178. Pomeroy SE, Barrett GW (1975) Dynamics of enclosed small mammal populations in relation to an experimental pesticide application. Am Midl Nat 93:91–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Portelli MJ, De Solla SR, Brooks RJ, Bishop CA (1999) Effect of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane on sex determination of the common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina serpentina.) Ecotox Environ Saf 43:284–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Pough FH, Janis CM, Heiser JB (2004) Vertebrate Life, 7th ed. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA.Google Scholar
  181. Price IM, Weseloh DV (1986) Increased numbers and productivity of double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus.) on Lake Ontario Can Field Nat 100:474–482.Google Scholar
  182. Purdom CE, Hardiman PA, Bye VJ, Eno NC, Tyler CR, Sumpter JP (1994) Estrogenic effects of effluents from sewage treatment works. Chem Ecol 8:275–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Reeder AL, Ruiz MO, Pessier A, Brown LE, Levengood JM, Phillips CA, Wheeler MB, Warner R, Beasley VR (2005) Intersexuality and the cricket frog decline: Historic and geographic trends. Environ Health Perspect 113:261–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Reijnders PJH (1980) Organochlorine and heavy metal residues in harbour seals from the Wadden Sea and their possible effects on reproduction. Neth J Sea Response 14:30–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Reijnders PJH (1986) Reproductive failure in common seals feeding on fish from polluted coastal waters. Nature (Lond) 324:456–457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Reijnders PJH (1990) Progesterone and oestradiol-17β-concentration profiles throughout the reproductive cycle in harbour seals (Phoca vitulina.) J Reprod Fertil 90:403–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Reijnders PJH (1999) Reproductive and developmental effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals on marine mammals. In: O’Shea TJ, Reeves RR, Long KA (eds) Marine mammals and Persistent Ocean Contaminants: Proceedings of the Marine Mammal Commission Workshop. Keystone, Colorado, pp. 139–143.12–15 October 1998Google Scholar
  188. Relyea RA (2004) Synergistic impacts of malathion and predatory stress on six species of North American tadpoles. Environ Toxicol Chem 23:1080–1084.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Relyea RA, Mills N (2001) Predator-induced stress makes the pesticide carbaryl more deadly to gray treefrog tadpoles (Hyla versicolor.) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98:2491–2496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Rijnsdorp AD, Vethaak AD (1997) Changes in reproductive parameters of North Sea plaice and sole between 1960 and 1995. International Council for the Exploration of the Sea, Copenhagen, ICES C.M. 1997/U, 14, 9 pp.Google Scholar
  191. Robinson RD, Carey JH, Solomon KR, Smith IR, Servos MR, Munkittrick KR (1994) Survey of receiving-water environmental impacts associated with discharges from pulp mills. 1. Mill characteristics, receiving-water chemical profiles and lab toxicity tests. Environ Toxicol Chem 13:1075–1088.Google Scholar
  192. Rogan WJ, Gladen BC, Hung KL, Koong SL, Shih LY, Taylor JS, Wu YC, Yang D, Ragan NB, Hsu CC (1988) Congenital poisoning by polychlorinated biphenyls and their contaminants in Taiwan. Science 241:334–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Rohr JR, Palmer BD (2005) Aquatic herbicide exposure increases salamander desiccation risk eight months later in a terrestrial environment. Environ Toxicol Chem 24:1253–1258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Roos A, Bergman A, Greyerz E, Olsson M (1998) Time trend studies on DDT and PCB in juvenile grey seals (Halichoerus grypus.), fish and guillemot eggs from the Baltic Sea Organochlorine Compd 39:109–112.Google Scholar
  195. Roos A, Greyerz E, Olsson M, Sandegren F (2001) The otter (Lutra lutra.) in Sweden—Population trends in relation to DDT and total PCB concentrations during 1968–1998 Environ Pollut 111:457–469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Rowley MH, Christian JJ, Basu DK, Pawlikowski MA, Paigen B (1983) Use of small mammals (voles) to assess a hazardous waste site at Love Canal, Niagara Falls, New York. Arch Environ Contamin Toxicol 12:383–397.Google Scholar
  197. Russell RW, Hecnar SJ, Haffner GD (1995) Organochlorine pesticide residues in southern Ontario spring peepers. Environ Toxicol Chem 14:815–817.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Russell RW, Gillan KA, Haffner GD (1997) Polychlorinated biphenyls and chlorinated pesticides in southern Ontario, Canada, green frogs. Environ Toxicol Chem 16:2258–2263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Sandström O, Neuman E, Karas P (1988) Effects of a bleached pulp mill effluent on growth and gonad function in Baltic coastal fish. Water Sci Technol 20:107–118.Google Scholar
  200. Schmidt CW (1997) Amphibian deformities continue to puzzle researchers. Environ Sci Technol 31:324A–326A.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Shugart GW (1980) Frequency and distribution of polygamy in Great Lakes herring gulls in 1978. Condor 82:426–429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Storelli MM, Storelli A, Marcotrigiano GO (2005) Concentrations and hazard assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in shark liver from the Mediterranean Sea. Mar Pollut Bull 50:850–855.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Storrs SI, Kiesecker JM (2004) Survivorship patterns of larval amphibians exposed to low concentrations of atrazine. Environ Health Perspect 112:1054–1057.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Stott GG, Haensly WE, Neff JM, Sharp JR (1983) Histopathologic survey of ovaries of plaice, Pleuronectes platessa. L., from Aber Wrach and Aber Benoit, Brittany, France: Long-term effects of the Amoco Cadiz crude oil spill J Fish Dis 6:429–437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Struger J, Weseloh DV (1985) Great Lakes Caspian terns: Egg contaminants and biological implications. Colonial Water Birds 8:142–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Struger J, Weseloh DV, Hallett DJ, Mineau P (1985) Organochlorine contaminants in herring gull eggs from the Detroit and Niagara Rivers and Saginaw Bay (1978–1982): Contaminant discriminants. J Great Lakes Res 11:223–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Talent LG, Dumont JN, Bantle JA, Janz DM, Talent SG (2002) Evaluation of western fence lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis.) and eastern fence lizards (Sceloporus undulatus) as laboratory reptile models for toxicological investigations Environ Toxicol Chem 21:899–905.Google Scholar
  208. Tanabe S, Watanabe S, Kan H, Tatsukawa R (1988) Capacity and mode of PCB metabolism in small cetaceans. Mar Mammal Sci 4:103–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Theodorakis CW, Rinchard J, Carr JA, Park J-W, Mcdaniel L, Liu F, Wages M (2006) Thyroid endocrine disruption in stonerollers and cricket frogs from perchlorate-contaminated streams in east-central Texas. Ecotoxicology 15:31–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Thorne RE (2004) Acoustic surveying of pelagic fish in shallow water. International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS) Wiley-IEEE Press, Hoboken, NJ, USA. 2:1426–1429. Google Scholar
  211. Tillitt DE, Ankley GT, Giesy JP, Ludwig JP, Kurita-Matsuba H, Weseloh DV, Ross PS, Bishop CA, Sileo L, Stromborg KL, Larson J, Kubiak TJ (1992) Polychlorinated biphenyl residues and egg mortality in double-crested cormorants from the the Great Lakes. Environ Toxicol Chem 11:1281–1288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Tori GM, Peterle TJ (1983) Effects of PCBs on mourning dove courtship behaviour. Bull Environ Contamin Toxicol 30:44–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Triebskorn R, Köhler H-R (eds) (2001) Double special issue: VALIMAR—VALIdation of biomarkers for the assessment of small stream pollution. J Aquat Ecosyst Stress Recov 8 (Nos. 3–4).Google Scholar
  214. Triebskorn R, Böhmer J, Braunbeck T, Honnen W, Köhler H-R, Lehmann R, Oberemm A, Schwaiger J, Segner H, Schüürmann G, Traunspurger W (2001) The project VALIMAR (Validation of biomarkers for the assessment of small stream pollution): Objectives, experimental design, summary of results, and recommendations for the application of biomarkers in risk assessment. J Aquat Ecosyst Stress Recov 8:161–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Triebskorn R, Adam S, Behrens A, Beier S, Böhmer J, Braunbeck T, Casper H, Dietze U, Gernhöfer M, Honnen W, Köhler H-R, Körner W, Konradt J, Lehmann R, Luckenbach T, Oberemm A, Schwaiger J, Segner H, Strmac M, Schüürmann G, Siligato S, Traunspurger W (2003) Establishing causality between pollution and effects at different levels of biological organization: The VALIMAR project. Hum Ecol Risk Assess 9:171–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Troisi GM, Mason CF (1998) PCB-associated alteration of hepatic steroid metabolism in harbor seals (Phoca vitulina.) J Toxicol Environ Health A 61:649–655.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Tyler CR, Routledge EJ (1998) Oestrogenic effects in fish in English rivers with evidence of their causation. Pure Appl Chem 70:1795–1804.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Van Der Kraak G, Hewitt M, Lister A, McMaster ME, Munkittrick KR (2001) Endocrine toxicants and reproductive success in fish. Hum Ecol Risk Assess 7:1017–1025.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Vaughan T, Ryan J, Czaplewski N (2000) Mammalogy, 4th ed., Harcourt College Publishers, Orlando, FL, USA.Google Scholar
  220. Velando A (2005) Population trends and reproductive success of the European shag Phalacrocorax aristotelis. on the Iberian Peninsula following the Prestige oil spill J Ornithol 146:116–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Von Westernhagen H, Rosenthal H, Dethlefsen V, Ernst W, Harms U, Hansen PD (1981) Bioaccumulating substances and reproductive success in Baltic flounder, Platichthys flesus. Aquat Toxicol 1:85–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Vos JG, Dybing E, Greim HA, Ladefoged O, Lambre C, Tarazona JV, Brandt I, Vethaak AD (2000) Health effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals on wildlife, with special reference to the European situation. Crit Rev Toxicol 30:71–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. Weseloh DVC, Ewins PJ (1994) Characteristics of a rapidly increasing colony of double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus.) in Lake Ontario: Population size, reproductive parameters and band recoveries J Great Lakes Res 20:443–456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Weseloh DV, Teeple SM, Gilbertson M (1983) Double-crested cormorants of the Great Lakes: Egg-laying parameters, reproductive failure and contaminant residues in eggs, Lake Huron 1972–1973. Can J Zool 61:427–436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. Wibbels T, Cowan J, Le Boeuf R (1998) Temperature-dependent sex determination in the red-eared slider turtle, Trachemys scripta. J Exp Zool 281:409–416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. Wiig Ø, Derocher AE, Cronin MM, Skaare JU (1998) Female pseudohermaphrodite polar bears at Svalbard. J Wildl Dis 34:792–796.Google Scholar
  227. Willingham E (2001) Embryonic exposure to low-dose pesticides: Effects on growth rate in the hatchling red-eared slider turtle. J Toxicol Environ Health A 64:257–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. Willingham EJ (2005) The effects of atrazine and temperature on turtle hatchling size and sex ratios. Front Ecol Environ 3:309–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. Worldwatch Institute (2003) (Worldwatch Paper #165). http://www.worldwatch.org/node/1763.Posted March 10, 2003. (Viewed Feb 11, 2008).
  230. Wren CD (1991) Cause-effect linkages between chemicals and populations of mink (Mustela vison.) and otter (Lutra canadensis) in the Great Lakes basin J Toxicol Environ Health 33:549–585.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. Wu TH, Canas JE, Rainwater TR, Platt SG, McMurry ST, Anderson TA (2000) Organochlorine contaminants in Morelet’s crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii.) eggs from Belize Chemosphere 40:671–678.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Julia Bernanke
    • 1
  • Heinz-R. Köhler*
    • 1
  1. 1.Animal Physiological EcologyUniversity of TübingenGermany

Personalised recommendations