Coronin Structure and Implications

  • Bernadette McArdle
  • Andreas HofmannEmail author
Part of the Subcellular Biochemistry book series (SCBI, volume 48)


Until recently, structural information about coronins was scarce and the earlier identification of five WD40 repeats gave rise to a structural prediction of a five-bladed β propeller for the N-terminal domain of these proteins. More detailed analyses revealed the presence of seven WD40 repeats and the hypothesis of a seven-bladed β propeller structure. This model has recently been validated due to structural information from crystal structures of C-terminally truncated coronin 1 (1A), as well as its C-terminal coiled coil domain. Further structural information is available only indirectly from binding and functional studies.

Phosphorylation at distinct serine and tyrosine residues seems to be a common theme for various coronins. There are indications that this modification regulates the quaternary structure of coronin 3 (1C) and thus has implications for the cellular localisation and the general link between signalling and cytoskeletal remodelling. Similarly, phosphorylation-dependent sorting sequences recently discovered on coronin 7 might prove important for the molecular mechanisms of the longer coronins.

A matter that will require further clarification is the localisation of protein binding sites on coronins. While earlier reports presented a rather diverse map of actin binding sites, more recent studies, including the crystal structure of the coronin 1 N-terminal domain, deliver more detailed information in this respect. Interaction sites for other target proteins, such as Arp2/3, remain to be identified. Also, while membrane binding is a known feature of coronins, further details as to the binding sites and molecular level events remain to be elucidated. The N-terminal WD40 repeat domain seems to be the membrane-interacting domain, but other domains might provide regulatory effects, most likely by posttranslational modification, in a fashion that is specific for each coronin.

In this chapter, we provide a structural overview of coronins 1 (1A), 2 (1B), 3 (1C) and 7 and also present results of our recent efforts to obtain structural models of coronins 3 and 7. Possible implications of these models on the function of these proteins are discussed.


Coiled Coil Coiled Coil Domain Actin Binding WD40 Repeat Propeller Blade 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Uetrecht AC, Bear JE. Coronins: the return of the crown. Trends Cell Biol 2006; 16:421–426.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Rybakin V, Clemen CS. Coronin proteins as multifunctional regulators of the cytoskeleton and membrane trafficking. BioEssays 2005; 27:625–632.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    de Hostos EL. The coronin family of actin-associated proteins. Trends Cell Biol 1999; 9:345–350.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Appleton BA, Wu P, Wiesmann C. The crystal structure of murine coronin-1: a regulator of actin cytoskeletal dynamics in lymphocytes. Structure 2006; 14:87–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Vander V, Ploegh HL. The WD-40 repeat FEBS Lett 1992; 307:131–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Smith TF, Gaitatzes C, Saxena K et al. The WD repeat: a common architecture for diverse functions. Trends Biochem Sci 1999; 24:181–185.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Neer EJ, Schmidt CJ, Nambudripad R et al. The ancient regulatory-protein family of WD-repeat proteins. Nature 1994; 371.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Wall MA, Coleman DE, Lee E et al. The structure of the G protein heterotrimer Giαlβ1γ2. Cell 1995; 83:1047–1058.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lambright DG, Sondek J, Bohm A et al. The 2.0 Angstrom crystal structure of a heterotrimeric G protein. Nature 1996; 379.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Suzuki K, Nishihata J, Arai Y et al. Molecular cloning of a novel actin-binding protein, p57, with a WD repeat and a leucine zipper motif. FEBS Lett 1995; 364.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Li D, Roberts R. WD-repeat proteins: structure characteristics, biological function and their involvement in human diseases. Cell Mol Life Sci 2001; 58:2085–2097.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Yu L, Gaitatzes C, Neer EJ et al. Thirty-plus functional families from a single motif. Protein Sci 2000; 9:2470–2476.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gatfield J, Albrecht I, Zanolari B et al. Association of the leukocyte plasma membrane with the actin cytoskeleton through coiled coil-mediated trimeric coronin 1 molecules. Mol Biol Cell 2005; 16:2786–2798.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Clemen CS, Hofmann A. Unpublished.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Rosentreter A, Hofmann A, Xavier CP et al. Coronin 3 involvement in F-actin-dependent processes at the cell cortex. Exp Cell Res 2007; 313:878–895.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kammerer RA, Kostrewa D, Progias P et al. A conserved trimerization motif controls the topology of short coiled coils. Proc Natl Acad Sci 2005; 102:13891–13896.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wolf E, Kim PS, Berger B. MultiCoil: a program for predicting two-and three-stranded coiled coils. Prot Sci 1997; 6:1179–1189.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Woolfson DN, Alber T. Predicting oligomerization states of coiled coils. Prot Sci 1995; 4:1596–1607.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Oku T, Itoh S, Ishii R et al. Homotypic dimerisation of the actin-binding protein p57/coronin-1 mediated by a leucine zipper motif in the C-terminal region. Biochem J 2005; 387:325–331.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Thal DR, Xavier C-P, Rosentreter A et al. Expression of coronin 3 in diffuse gliomas is related to malignancy. 2007; submitted.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Spoerl Z, Stumpf M, Noegel AA et al. Oligomerization, F-actin interaction and membrane association of the ubiquitous mammalian coronin 3 are mediated by its carboxyl terminus. J Biol Chem 2002; 277:48858–48867.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hasse A, Rosentreter A, Spoerl Z et al. Coronin 3 and its role in murine brain morphogenesis. Eur J Neurosci 2005; 21:1155–1168.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Xavier C-P, Rosentreter A, Hofmann A et al. Phosphorylation regulates the quaternary structure and activity of coronin 3. Manuscript in preparation 2007.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Rybakin V, Stumpf M, Schulze A et al. Coronin 7, the mammalian POD-1 homologue, localizes to the Golgi apparatus. FEBS Lett 2004; 573:161–167.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Itoh S, Suzuki K, Nishihata J et al. The role of protein kinase C in the transient association of p57, a coronin family actin-binding protein, with phagosomes. Biol Pharm Bull 2002; 25:837–844.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Cai L, Holoweckyj N, Schaller MD et al. Phosphorylation of coronin 1B by protein kinase C regulates interaction with Arp2/3 and cell motility. J Biol Chem 2005; 280:31913–31923.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Parente JA, Chen X, Zhou C et al. Isolation, cloning and characterization of a new mammalian coronin family member, coroninse, which is regulated within the protein kinase C signaling pathway. J Biol Chem 1999; 274:3017–3025.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Liu CZ, Chen Y, Sui SF. The identification of a new actin-binding region in p57. Cell Res 2006; 16:106–112.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Oku T, Itoh S, Okano M et al. Two regions responsible for the actin binding of p57, a mammalian coronin familz actin-binding protein. Biol Pharm Bull 2003; 26:409–416.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Tang JX, Janmey PA. The polyelectrolyte nature of F-actin and the mechanism of actin bundle formation. J Biol Chem 1996; 271:8556–8563.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Amann KJ, Renley BA, Ervasti JM. A cluster of basic repeats in the dystrophin rod domain binds F-actin through an electrostatic interaction. J Biol Chem 1998; 273:28419–28423.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Goode BL, Wong JJ, Butty AC et al. Coronin promotes the rapid assembly and cross-linking of actin filaments and may link the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons in yeast. J Cell Biol 1999; 144:83–98.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Cai L, Makhov AM, Bear JE. F-actin binding is essential for coronin 1B function in vivo. J Cell Sci 2007; 120:1779–1790.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Gatfield J, Pieters J. Essential role for cholesterol in entry of mycobacteria into macrophages. Science 2000; 288:1647–1650.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Machesky LM, Reeves E, Wientjes F et al. Mammalian actin-related protein 2/3 complex localises to regions of lamellipodial protrusion and is composed of evolutionarily conserved proteins. Biochem J 1997; 328:105–112.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Humphries CL, Balcer HI, D’Agostino JL et al. Direct regulation of Arp2/3 complex activity and function by the actin binding protein coronin. J Cell Biol 2002; 159:993–1004.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Rodal AA, Sokolova O, Robins DB et al. Conformational changes in the Arp2/3 complex leading to actin nucleation. Nat Struct Mol Biol 2005; 12:26–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Föger N, Rangell L, Danilenko DM et al. Requirement for coronin 1 in T-lymphocyte trafficking and cellular homeostasis. Science 2006; 313:839–842.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Cai L, Marshall TW, Uetrecht AC et al. Coronin 1B coordinates Arp2/3 complex and cofilin activities at the leading edge. Cell 2007; 128:915–929.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Rappleye CA, Paredez AR, Smith CW et al. The coronin-like protein POD-1 is required for anteriorposterior axis formation and cellular architecture in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Genes Dev 1999; 13:1838–1851.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Rothenberg ME, Rogers SL, Vale RD et al. Drosophila pod-1 crosslinks both actin and microtubules and controls the targeting of axons. Neuron 2003; 39:779–791.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Gloss A, Rivero F, Khaire N et al. Villidin, a novel WD-repeat and villin-related protein from Dictyostelium, is associated with membranes and the cytoskeleton. Mol Biol Cell 2003; 14:2716–2727.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Rybakin V, Gounko NV, Spate K et al. Crn7 interacts with AP-1 and is required for the maintenance of Golgi morphology and protein export from the Golgi. J Biol Chem 2006; 281:31070–31078.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Rybakin V, Rastetter RH, Stumpf M et al. Targeting of Crn7 to Golgi membranes requires the integrity of AP-1 complex, Src activity and presence of biosynthetic cargo. 2007; submitted.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Mohri K, Vorobiev S, Fedorov AA et al. Identification of functional residues on Caenorhabditis elegans actin-interacting protein 1 (UNC-78) for disassembly of actin depolymerizing factor/cofilin-bound actin filaments. J Biol Chem 2004; 279:31697–31707.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Hattendorf DA, Andreeva A, Gangar A et al. Structure of the yeast polarity protein Sro7 reveals a SNARE regulatory mechanism. Nature 2007; 446:567–571.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Bryson K, McGuffin LJ, Marsden RL et al. Protein structure prediction servers at University College London. Nucl Acids Res 2005; 33:W36–W38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Mohri K, Vorobiev S, Fedorov AA et al. Identification of functional residues on Caenorhabditis elegans actin-interacting protein 1 (UNC-78) for disassembly of actin depolymerising factor/cofilin-bound actin filaments. J Biol Chem 2004; 279:31697–31707.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Landes Bioscience and Springer Science+Business Media 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Structural Chemistry, Eskitis Institute for Cell and Molecular TherapiesGriffith UniversityBrisbaneAustralia

Personalised recommendations