Advertisement

Mindful Awareness and ADHD

Chapter

One of our most important faculties is attention. It is a doorway into our experience and a foundational quality of our awareness. Where and how we place our attention or where and how other things grab our attention determines our daily experiences, relationships with ourselves and others, and the quality of our lives. This connection between the ability to regulate attention and well-being is profoundly exemplified in mindfulness or mindful awareness, and a neuropsychiatric condition called attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In both, the role of attention is thought to be crucial to the self-regulation of cognition, emotion, and behavior, and while ADHD may be considered a disorder characterized by difficulties in self-regulation, mindful awareness training maybe considered a tool of enhancing self-regulation.

Keywords

Emotional Regulation ADHD Symptom Mindfulness Training Mindfulness Practice ADHD Adult 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. ADDA. (2002). The Attention Deficit Disorder Association Guiding Principles for Coaching Individuals with Attention Deficit Disorder. September 17, 2007, from http://www.add.org/articles/coachingguide.html
  2. Adler, L. A. (2004). Clinical presentations of adult patients with ADHD. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 65 Suppl 3, 8–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. APA. (1994). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth ed.). Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  4. Arch, J. J., & Craske, M. G. (2006). Mechanisms of mindfulness: Emotion regulation following a focused breathing induction. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 44 (12), 1849–1858.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Arnold, L. E. (2001). Alternative treatments for adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 931, 310–341.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baer, R. A. (2003). Mindfulness training as a clinical intervention: a conceptual and empirical review. Clinical Psychology Science and Practice, 10, 125–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Barkley, R. A. (1997). Behavioral inhibition, sustained attention, and executive functions: constructing a unifying theory of ADHD. Psychological Bulletin, 121(1), 65–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Beauregard, M., & Levesque, J. (2006). Functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation of the effects of neurofeedback training on the neural bases of selective attention and response inhibition in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 31(1), 3–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Benson, H. (1997). The relaxation response: therapeutic effect. Science, 278(5344), 1694–1695.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Berger, A., Kofman, O., Livneh, U., & Henik, A. (2007). Multidisciplinary perspectives on attention and the development of self-regulation. Progress in Neurobiology, 82(5), 256–286.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Biederman, J., Monuteaux, M. C., Doyle, A. E., Seidman, L. J., Wilens, T. E., Ferrero, F., et al. (2004). Impact of executive function deficits and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on academic outcomes in children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 72(5), 757–766.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bishop, S. R., Lau, M., Shapiro, S., Carlson, L., Anderson, N. D., Carmody, J., et al. (2004). Mindfulness: A proposed operational definition. Clinical Psychology Science and Practice, 11(3), 230–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Blomqvist, M., Holmberg, K., Lindblad, F., Fernell, E., Ek, U., & Dahllof, G. (2007). Salivary cortisol levels and dental anxiety in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. European Journal of Oral Sciences, 115(1), 1–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bohus, M., Haaf, B., Simms, T., Limberger, M. F., Schmahl, C., Unckel, C., et al. (2004). Effectiveness of inpatient dialectical behavioral therapy for borderline personality disorder: a controlled trial. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 42(5), 487–499.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Braaten, E. B., & Rosen, L. A. (2000). Self-regulation of affect in attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and non-ADHD boys: Differences in empathic responding. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68(2), 313–321.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Broderick, P. C. (2005). Mindfulness and coping with dysphoric mood: Contrasts with rumination and distraction. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 29, 501–510.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Brown, K. W., & Ryan, R. M. (2003). The benefits of being present: mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(4), 822–848.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Brown, K. W., Ryan, R. M., & Creswell, J. D. (2007). Mindfulness: theoretical foundations and evidence for its salutary effects. Psychological Inquiry, 18, 211–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bush, G., Valera, E. M., & Seidman, L. J. (2005). Functional neuroimaging of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A review and suggested future directions. Biological Psychiatry, 57(11), 1273–1284.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cahn, B. R., & Polich, J. (2006). Meditation states and traits: EEG, ERP, and neuroimaging studies. Psychological Bulletin, 132(2), 180–211.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cantwell, D. P. (1996). Attention deficit disorder: a review of the past 10 years. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 35(8), 978–987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cardinal, R. N., Winstanley, C. A., Robbins, T. W., & Everitt, B. J. (2004). Limbic corticostriatal systems and delayed reinforcement. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1021, 33–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Clark, T., Feehan, C., Tinline, C., & Vostanis, P. (1999). Autistic symptoms in children with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 8(1), 50–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Creswell, J. D., Way, B. M., Eisenberger, N. I., & Lieberman, M. D. (2007). Neural correlates of dispositional mindfulness during affect labeling. Psychosomatic Medicine, 69(6), 560–565.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Davidson, M. C., Amso, D., Anderson, L. C., & Diamond, A. (2006). Development of cognitive control and executive functions from 4 to 13 years: evidence from manipulations of memory, inhibition, and task switching. Neuropsychologia, 44(11), 2037–2078.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Diamond, A. (2002). Normal development of prefrontal cortex from birth to young adulthood: Cognitive functions, anatomy, and biochemistry. London, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Dodson, W. W. (2005). Pharmacotherapy of adult ADHD. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 61(5), 589–606.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Draganski, B., Gaser, C., Busch, V., Schuierer, G., Bogdahn, U., & May, A. (2004). Neuroplasticity: Changes in grey matter induced by training. Nature, 427(6972), 311–312.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Draganski, B., Gaser, C., Kempermann, G., Kuhn, H. G., Winkler, J., Buchel, C., et al. (2006). Temporal and spatial dynamics of brain structure changes during extensive learning. Journal of Neuroscience, 26(23), 6314–6317.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Escobar, R., Soutullo, C. A., Hervas, A., Gastaminza, X., Polavieja, P., & Gilaberte, I. (2005). Worse quality of life for children with newly diagnosed attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, compared with asthmatic and healthy children. Pediatrics, 116(3), e364–369.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Fan, J., McCandliss, B. D., Sommer, T., Raz, A., & Posner, M. I. (2002). Testing the efficiency and independence of attentional networks. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 14(3), 340–347.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Faraone, S. V., Biederman, J., & Mick, E. (2006). The age-dependent decline of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a meta-analysis of follow-up studies. Psychological Medicine, 36(2), 159–165.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Faraone, S. V., Perlis, R. H., Doyle, A. E., Smoller, J. W., Goralnick, J. J., Holmgren, M. A., et al. (2005). Molecular genetics of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 57(11), 1313–1323.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Graybiel, A. M. (1998). The basal ganglia and chunking of action repertoires. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 70(1–2), 119–136.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hariri, A. R., Bookheimer, S. Y., & Mazziotta, J. C. (2000). Modulating emotional responses: Effects of a neocortical network on the limbic system. Neuroreport, 11(1), 43–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hayes, S. C., Follette, V. M., & Linehan, M. M. (2004). Mindfulness and acceptance: Expanding the cognitive-behavioral tradition. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  37. Hayes, S. C., & Shenk, C. (2004). Operationalizing mindfulness without unnecessary attachments. Clinical Psychology Science and Practice, 11(3), 249–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hesslinger, B., Tebartz van Elst, L., Nyberg, E., Dykierek, P., Richter, H., Berner, M., et al. (2002). Psychotherapy of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults – a pilot study using a structured skills training program. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 252(4), 177–184.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. James W., Principles of Psychology, Volume I page 424 of original 1890 edition (page 401 of Harvard University Press edition, ISBN 0-674-70625-0)Google Scholar
  40. Jensen, P. S., Arnold, L. E., Swanson, J. M., Vitiello, B., Abikoff, H. B., Greenhill, L. L., et al. (2007). 3-year follow-up of the NIMH MTA study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 46(8), 989–1002.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Jensen, P. S., Mrazek, D., Knapp, P. K., Steinberg, L., Pfeffer, C., Schowalter, J., et al. (1997). Evolution and revolution in child psychiatry: ADHD as a disorder of adaptation. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36(12), 1672–1679; discussion 1679–1681.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Jha, A. P., Krompinger, J., & Baime, M. J. (2007). Mindfulness training modifies subsystems of attention. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 7(2), 109–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kabat-Zinn, J. (1990). Full catastrophe living: Using the wisdom of your body and mind to face stress, pain, and illness. New York: Delacorte Press.Google Scholar
  44. Kaneko, M., Hoshino, Y., Hashimoto, S., Okano, T., & Kumashiro, H. (1993). Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 23(1), 59–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kessler, R. C., Adler, L., Barkley, R., Biederman, J., Conners, C. K., Demler, O., et al. (2006). The prevalence and correlates of adult ADHD in the United States: results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163(4), 716–723.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kessler, R. C., Adler, L. A., Barkley, R., Biederman, J., Conners, C. K., Faraone, S. V., et al. (2005). Patterns and predictors of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder persistence into adulthood: results from the national comorbidity survey replication. Biological Psychiatry, 57(11), 1442–1451.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. King, J. A., Barkley, R. A., & Barrett, S. (1998). Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and the stress response. Biological Psychiatry, 44(1), 72–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Klingberg, T., Fernell, E., Olesen, P. J., Johnson, M., Gustafsson, P., Dahlstrom, K., et al. (2005). Computerized training of working memory in children with ADHD – a randomized, controlled trial. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 44(2), 177–186.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Konrad, K., Neufang, S., Hanisch, C., Fink, G. R., & Herpertz-Dahlmann, B. (2006). Dysfunctional attentional networks in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: evidence from an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Biological Psychiatry, 59(7), 643–651.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kratter, J. (1983). The use of meditation in the treatment of attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity. Dissertation Abstracts International, 44 (1965).Google Scholar
  51. Lazar, S. W., Kerr, C. E., Wasserman, R. H., Gray, J. R., Greve, D. N., Treadway, M. T., et al. (2005). Meditation experience is associated with increased cortical thickness. Neuroreport, 16(17), 1893–1897.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Leary, M. R., Tate, E. B., Adams, C. E., Allen, A. B., & Hancock, J. (2007a). Self-compassion and reactions to unpleasant self-relevant events: the implications of treating oneself kindly. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92(5), 887–904.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Leary, M. R., Tate, E. B., Adams, C. E., Allen, A. B., & Hancock, J. (2007b). Self-compassion and reactions to unpleasant self-relevant events: the implications of treating oneself kindly. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92(5), 887–904.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Lieberman, M. D., Eisenberger, N. I., Crockett, M. J., Tom, S. M., Pfeifer, J. H., & Way, B. M. (2007). Putting feelings into words: affect labeling disrupts amygdala activity in response to affective stimuli. Psychological Science, 18(5), 421–428.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Loo, S. K., Humphrey, L. A., Tapio, T., Moilanen, I. K., McGough, J. J., McCracken, J. T., et al. (2008). Executive Functioning Among Finnish Adolescents With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 46 (12), 1594–1604.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Lu, A. T., Ogdie, M. N., Jarvelin, M. R., Moilenan, I. K., Loo, S. K., McCracken, J., et al. (2008). Association of the cannabinoid receptor gene (CNR1) with ADHD and post-traumatic stess disorder. AM J Hum Genet: Part B Neuropsychiatric Genet.Google Scholar
  57. Lynn, D. E., Lubke, G., Yang, M., McCracken, J. T., McGough, J. J., Ishii, J., et al. (2005). Temperament and character profiles and the dopamine D4 receptor gene in ADHD. American Journal of Psychiatry, 162(5), 906–913.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Maguire, E. A., Gadian, D. G., Johnsrude, I. S., Good, C. D., Ashburner, J., Frackowiak, R. S., et al. (2000). Navigation-related structural change in the hippocampi of taxi drivers. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 97(8), 4398–4403.Google Scholar
  59. Marlatt, G. A., Witkiewitz, K., Dillworth, T. M., Bowen, S. W., Parks, G. A., MacPherson, L. M., et al. (2004). Vipassana Meditation as a Treatment for Alcohol and Drug Use Disorders. In S. C. Hayes, V. M. Follette & M. M. Linehan (Eds.), Mindfulness and acceptance: Expanding the cognitive-behavioral tradition. New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  60. Mauss, I. B., Cook, C. L., Cheng, J. Y., & Gross, J. J. (2007). Individual differences in cognitive reappraisal: Experiential and physiological responses to an anger provocation. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 66 (2), 116–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. McGough, J. J., Smalley, S. L., McCracken, J. T., Yang, M., Del’Homme, M., Lynn, D. E., et al. (2005). Psychiatric comorbidity in adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: findings from multiplex families. American Journal of Psychiatry, 162(9), 1621–1627.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Mechelli, A., Crinion, J. T., Noppeney, U., O’Doherty, J., Ashburner, J., Frackowiak, R. S., et al. (2004). Neurolinguistics: structural plasticity in the bilingual brain. Nature, 431(7010), 757.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Moretti-Altuna, G. (1987). The effects of meditation versus medication in the treatment of attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity. Dissertation Abstracts International 47 (4658).Google Scholar
  64. Nigg, J. (2003). ADHD: Guides for the perplexed reflect the state of the field. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 32(2), 302–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Nigg, J. T., Blaskey, L. G., Stawicki, J. A., & Sachek, J. (2004). Evaluating the endophenotype model of ADHD neuropsychological deficit: results for parents and siblings of children with ADHD combined and inattentive subtypes. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 113(4), 614–625.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Nigg, J. T., & Casey, B. J. (2005). An integrative theory of attention-deficit/hyper-activity disorder based on the cognitive and affective neurosciences. Development and Psychopathology, 17(3), 785–806.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Nudo, R. J., Milliken, G. W., Jenkins, W. M., & Merzenich, M. M. (1996). Use-dependent alterations of movement representations in primary motor cortex of adult squirrel monkeys. Journal of Neuroscience, 16(2), 785–807.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Ochsner, K. N., & Gross, J. J. (2005). The cognitive control of emotion. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9(5), 242–249.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Olesen, P. J., Westerberg, H., & Klingberg, T. (2004). Increased prefrontal and parietal activity after training of working memory. Nature Neuroscience, 7(1), 75–79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Pagnoni, G., & Cekic, M. (2007). Age effects on gray matter volume and attentional performance in Zen meditation. Neurobiology of Aging, 28(10), 1623–1627.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Panzer, A., & Viljoen, M. (2005). Supportive neurodevelopmental evidence for ADHD as a developmental disorder. Medical Hypotheses, 64(4), 755–758.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Pelc, K., Kornreich, C., Foisy, M. L., & Dan, B. (2006). Recognition of emotional facial expressions in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Pediatric Neurology, 35(2), 93–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Plessen, K. J., Bansal, R., Zhu, H., Whiteman, R., Amat, J., Quackenbush, G. A., et al. (2006). Hippocampus and amygdala morphology in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 63(7), 795–807.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Pressman, L. J., Loo, S. K., Carpenter, E. M., Asarnow, J. R., Lynn, D., McCracken, J. T., et al. (2006). Relationship of family environment and parental psychiatric diagnosis to impairment in ADHD. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 45(3), 346–354.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Rapport, L. J., Friedman, S. R., Tzelepis, A., & Van Voorhis, A. (2002). Experienced emotion and affect recognition in adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Neuropsychology, 16(1), 102–110.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Roemer, L., & Orsillo, S. M. (2007). An open trial of an acceptance-based behavior therapy for generalized anxiety disorder. Behavior Therapy, 38(1), 72–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Rostain, A. L., & Ramsay, J. R. (2006). A combined treatment approach for adults with ADHD – results of an open study of 43 patients. Journal of Attention Disorders, 10(2), 150–159.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Safren, S. A. (2006). Cognitive-behavioral approaches to ADHD treatment in adulthood. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 67 Suppl 8, 46–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Safren, S. A., Otto, M. W., Sprich, S., Winett, C. L., Wilens, T. E., & Biederman, J. (2005). Cognitive-behavioral therapy for ADHD in medication-treated adults with continued symptoms. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 43(7), 831–842.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Schwartz, J., & Begley, S. (2002). The mind and the brain: Neuroplasticity and the power of mental force (1st ed.). New York: Regan Books.Google Scholar
  81. Schwartz, J., Gullifor, E. Z., Stier, J., & Thienemann, M. (2005a). Mindful awareness and self directed neuroplasticity: Integrating psychospiritual and biological approach to mental health with focus on obsessive compulsive disorder. Haworth Press.Google Scholar
  82. Schwartz, J. M., & Beyette, B. (1997). Brain lock: Free yourself from obsessive-compulsive behavior. New York: Harper Collins.Google Scholar
  83. Schwartz, J. M., Stapp, H. P., & Beauregard, M. (2005b). Quantum physics in neuroscience and psychology: a neurophysical model of mind-brain interaction. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences, 360(1458), 1309–1327.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Segal, Z. V., Williams, J. M. G., & Teasdale, J. D. (2002). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depression: A new approach for preventing relapse. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  85. Seidman, L. J. (2006). Neuropsychological functioning in people with ADHD across the lifespan. Clinical Psychology Review, 26(4), 466–485.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Seidman, L. J., Biederman, J., Faraone, S. V., Weber, W., & Ouellette, C. (1997). Toward defining a neuropsychology of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder: performance of children and adolescents from a large clinically referred sample. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 65(1), 150–160.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Shapiro, D. H. (1982). Clinical and physiological comparison of meditation and other self-control strategies. Am Journal Psychiatry, 139, 267–274.Google Scholar
  88. Shekim, W. O., Asarnow, R. F., Hess, E., Zaucha, K., & Wheeler, N. (1990). A clinical and demographic profile of a sample of adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, residual state. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 31(5), 416–425.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Singh, N., Lancioni, G. E., Joy, S. D. S., Winton, A. S. W., Sabaawi, M., Wahler, R. G., et al. (2007). Adolescents with Conduct Disorder Can be Mindful of Their Aggressive Behavior. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 15(1), 56–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Skounti, M., Philalithis, A., & Galanakis, E. (2007). Variations in prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder worldwide. European Journal of Pediatrics, 166(2), 117–123.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Slagter, H. A., Lutz, A., Greischar, L. L., Francis, A. D., Nieuwenhuis, S., Davis, J. M., et al. (2007). Mental Training Affects Distribution of Limited Brain Resources. PLoS Biology, 5(6), e138.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Smalley, S. L. (2008). Reframing ADHD in the Genomic Era. Psychiatric Times, 25(7).Google Scholar
  93. Smalley, S. L., McGough, J. J., Moilanen, I. K., Loo, S. K., Taanila, A., Ebeling, H., et al. (2007). Prevalence and Psychiatric Comorbidity of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Adolescent Finnish Population. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 46 (12), 1572–1583.Google Scholar
  94. Sondeijker, F. E., Ferdinand, R. F., Oldehinkel, A. J., Veenstra, R., Tiemeier, H., Ormel, J., et al. (2007). Disruptive behaviors and HPA-axis activity in young adolescent boys and girls from the general population. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 41(7), 570–578.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Stadler, C., Sterzer, P., Schmeck, K., Krebs, A., Kleinschmidt, A., Poustka, F. (2007). Reduced anterior cingulate activation in aggressive children and adolescents during affective stimulation: Association with temperament Traits. Journal of Psychiatry Research, 41(5), 410–417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Stevenson, C. S., Whitmont, S., Bornholt, L., Livesey, D., & Stevenson, R. J. (2002). A cognitive remediation programme for adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 36(5), 610–616.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Strayhorn, J. M., Jr. (2002). Self-control: toward systematic training programs. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 41(1), 17–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Swanson, J. M., Schuck, S., Mann, M., Carlson, C. L., Hartman, C. A., Sergeant, J. A., et al. (2001). Categorical and dimensional definitions and evaluations of symptoms of ADHD: The SNAP and SWAN ratings scales. Retrieved June 6, 2006., from http://adhd.net
  99. Talge, N. M., Neale, C., & Glover, V. (2007). Early Stress, Translational Research and Prevention Science Network: Fetal and Neonatal Experience on Child and Adolescent Mental Health. Journal of Child and Psychology and Psychiatry, 48(3–4), 245–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Teasdale, J. D., Scott, J., Moore, R. G., Hayhurst, H., Pope, M., & Paykel, E. S. (2001). How does cognitive therapy prevent relapse in residual depression? Evidence from a controlled trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 69(3), 347–357.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Teasdale, J. D., Segal, Z. V., Williams, J. M., Ridgeway, V. A., Soulsby, J. M., & Lau, M. A. (2000). Prevention of relapse/recurrence in major depression by mindfulness-based cognitive therapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68(4), 615–623.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Teasdale, J. D., Segal, Z. V., & Williams, J. M. G. (2003). Mindfulness training and problem formulation. Clinical Psychology Science and Practice, 10(2), 157–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Tyrka, A. R., Mello, A.F., Mello, M.F., Gagne, G.G., Grover, K.E., Anderson, G.M., Price, L.H., Carpenter, L.L. (2006). Temperament and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function in healthy adults. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 31(9), 1036–1045.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Urry, H. L., van Reekum, C. M., Johnstone, T., Kalin, N. H., Thurow, M. E., Schaefer, H. S., et al. (2006). Amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex are inversely coupled during regulation of negative affect and predict the diurnal pattern of cortisol secretion among older adults. Journal of Neuroscience, 26(16), 4415–4425.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Verte, S., Geurts, H. M., Roeyers, H., Oosterlaan, J., & Sergeant, J. A. (2006). The relationship of working memory, inhibition, and response variability in child psychopathology. Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 151(1), 5–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Wasserstein, J., & Lynn, A. (2001). Metacognitive remediation in adult ADHD. Treating executive function deficits via executive functions. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 931, 376–384.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Wender, P. H. (1998). Pharmacotherapy of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adults. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 59 Suppl 7, 76–79.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Wilens, T. E., Biederman, J., & Spencer, T. J. (2002). Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder across the lifespan. Annual Review of Medicine, 53, 113–131.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Winston, D. (2003). Wide Awake: A Buddhist Guide for Teens: Perigee Trade.Google Scholar
  110. Yuill, N., & Lyon, J. (2007). Selective difficulty in recognising facial expressions of emotion in boys with ADHD: General performance impairments or specific problems in social cognition? European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 16(6), 398–404.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Zuddas, A., Ancilletta, B., Muglia, P., & Cianchetti, C. (2000). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A neuropsychiatric disorder with childhood onset. European Journal of Paediatric Neurology, 4(2), 53–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Zylowska, L., Ackerman, D. L., Yang, M. H., Futrell, J. L., Horton, N. L., Hale, T. S., et al. (2008). Behavioral and cognitive changes in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder using a mindfulness meditation approach. Journal of Attention Disorders, 11 (6), 737–746.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Mindful Awareness Research CenterUSA

Personalised recommendations