Clinical Problems Associated with the Intensive Management of Performance Horses

  • R. A. Casey
Part of the Animal Welfare book series (AWNS, volume 1)


The physical as well as the behavioural requirements of the horse changed little through the process of domestication. This means that horses kept within an intensively housed environment and used for performance, physically and behaviourally are susceptible to specific clinical conditions, injuries and diseases. In this chapter, physiological and clinical problems such as those causing pain related behaviours and head shaking are discussed. The most commonly associated problems with horses kept in intensive housing conditions or used in specific competitive disciplines are highlighted. Despite the increasing amount of information about injury and disease in the horse, there is little research relating such problems to the situations performance horses have to cope with. This is particularly the case with pain, whose recognition of pain amongst professionals is still variable and often subjective and not widely recognised as a cause of behavioural change.


Painful Stimulus Fear Response Competitive Activity Domestic Horse Conditioned Fear Response 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aguikera-Tejero, E., Bas, S., Estepa, J.C., Lopez, I., Mayer-Valor, R. and Rodriguez, M. (1998) Acid-Base Balance after Exercise in Show Jumpers. Conference on Equine Sports Medicine and Science, 24-26 April 1998, Cordoba, Spain. Wageningen, Netherlands, pp. 43–45.Google Scholar
  2. Andrews, F.M., Ralston, S.L. Ralston, S.L., Sommardahl, C.S., Maykuth, P.L., Green, E.M., White, S.L., Williamson, L.H., Holmes, C.A. and Geiser, D.R. (1994) Weight, water, and cation losses in horses competing in a three-day event. J. American Veterinary Medical Association 205,5, 721–724.Google Scholar
  3. Andrews, F.M., White, S.L., Williamson, L.H., Maykuth, P.L., Geiser, D.R., Green, E.M., Ralston, S.L. and Mannsman, R.A. (1995) Effects of shortening the steeplechase phase (Phase B) of a three-day-event. Equine Veterinary J. 20, suppl., 64–72.Google Scholar
  4. Australian Senate Select Committee on Animal Welfare (1991) Equine welfare in competitive events other than racing. Recommendations and major conclusions. Australian Equine Veterinarian 9,4, 137–140.Google Scholar
  5. Azrin, N.H. (1967) Pain and aggression. Psychology Today 1,1, 26–33.Google Scholar
  6. Back, W., Schamhardt, H.C. and Barnveld, A. (1996) The influence of conformation on fore and hind limb kinematics of the trotting Dutch Warmblood horse. Pferdeheilkunde 12,4, 647–650.Google Scholar
  7. Bashir, A. (1990) Clinical and radiographic examinations of fore fetlock and pastern joints in working polo ponies. J. Veterinar Malaysia 2,2, 111–116.Google Scholar
  8. Blake-Caddel, M. (1992) Pre-ride examination of horses entered for endurance competition. Proceedings of the 37th Annual Convention of the American Association of Equine Practitioners. San Francisco, California, December 1-4, 1991. American Association of Equine Practitioners, Lexington, USA, pp. 807–809.Google Scholar
  9. Bolles, R.C. (1970) Species specific defence reactions and avoidance learning. Psychological Review 11, 32–48.Google Scholar
  10. Bowers, J.R. and Slocombe, R.F. (1999) Influence of girth strap tensions on athletic performance of racehorses. Equine Veterinary J. 30, suppl., 52–56.Google Scholar
  11. Bowers, J.R. and Slocombe, R.F. (2000) Tensions used on girths on Thoroughbred racehorses. Australian Veterinary J. 78,8, 567–569.Google Scholar
  12. Bromiley, M. (1993) Equine Injury, Therapy and Rehabilitation, Second edition. Blackwell Science Ltd, UK.Google Scholar
  13. Budras, K.D., Scheibe, K., Patan, B., Streich, W.J. and Kim, K. (2001) Laminitis in Przewalski horses kept in a semi-reserve. J. of Veterinary Science 2,1, 1–7.Google Scholar
  14. Burrell, M.H. (1985) Endoscopic and virological observations on respiratory-disease in a group of young thoroughbred horses in training. Equine Veterinary J. 17,2, 99–103.Google Scholar
  15. Carlson, G.P., Ocen, P.O. and Harrold, D. (1976) Clinicopathologic alterations in normal and exhausted endurance horses. Theriogenology 6,2/3, 93–104.Google Scholar
  16. Carlson, G.P. and Mansmann, R.A. (1974) Serum electrolytes and plasma protein alterations in horses used in endurance rides. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 165,3, 262–264.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Chambers, J.P., Livingston, A., Waterman, A.E. and Goodship, A.E. (1993) Analgesic effects of detomidine in Thoroughbred horses with chronic tendon injury. Research in Veterinary Science 54,1, 52–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Clayton, H.M. (1990) Time motion analysis in equestrian sports: the Grand Prix dressage test. Proceedings of the Annual Convention of the American Association of Equine Practitioners 35, 367–373.Google Scholar
  19. Collins, M.N., Friend, T.H., Jousan, F.D. and Chen, S.C. (2000) Effects of density on displacement, falls, injuries and orientation during horse transportation. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 67,3, 169–179.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Collober, C., Foucher, N. and Moussu, C. (2001) Causes of mortality in adult horses. Equ’Idee 40, 34–36.Google Scholar
  21. Cook, W.R. (1979a) Headshaking in horses: part 1. Equine Practice 1, 9–17.Google Scholar
  22. Cook, W.R. (1979b) Headshaking in horses: part 2. History and management. Equine Practice 1, 36–39.Google Scholar
  23. Cook, W.R. (1980a) Headshaking in horses: part 3. Diagnostic tests. Equine Practice 2, 31–40. Cook, W.R. (1980b) Headshaking in horses: part 4. Special diagnostic procedures. Equine Practice 2, 7-15.Google Scholar
  24. Cooper, J.J., McDonald, L. and Mills, D.S. (2000) The effect of increasing visual horizons on Stereo-typic weaving: implications for the social housing of stabled horses. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 69, 67–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Craig, L., Hintz, H.F., Soderholm, L.V., Shaw, K.L. and Schryver, H.F. (1985) Changes in blood constituents accompanying exercise in polo horses. Cornell Veterinarian 75,2, 297–302.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Cripps, P.J. and Eustace, R.A. (1999) Factors involved in the prognosis of equine laminitis in the UK. Equine Veterinary Journal 31,5, 433–442.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Denoix, J-M. and Pailloux, J-P. (1996) Physical Therapy and Massage for the Horse. Manson Publishing Ltd, London, UK.Google Scholar
  28. Dobson, H. and Smith, R.F. (2000) What is stress, and how does it affect reproduction? Animal Reproduction Science 60-61, 743–752.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Ecke, P. and Hodgson, D.R. (1996) Survey of the incidence of acute colitis in adult horses in Australia. Australian Equine Veterinarian 14,4, 180–181.Google Scholar
  30. Ecker, G.L. and Lindinger, M.I. (1995) Water and ion losses during the cross country phase of eventing. Equine Veterinary Journal 20, 111–119.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Fanselow, M.S. and Baaches, M.P. (1982) Conditioned fear-induced opiate analgesia on the formalin test: evidence for two aversive motivational systems. Learning and Motivation 13, 200–221.Google Scholar
  32. Ford, E.J.H. (1973) Clinical aspects of ragwort poisoning in horses. Veterinary Annual 14, 86–88.Google Scholar
  33. Fowler, M.E. (1980) Veterinary problems during endurance trail rides. Proceedings of the Annual Convention of the American Association of Equine Practitioners 25, 469–478.Google Scholar
  34. Fraser, A.F. (1992) The Behaviour of the Horse. C.A.B. International, Oxon, UK.Google Scholar
  35. Garlinghouse, S.E. and Burrill, M.J. (1999) Relationship of body condition score to completion rate during 160 km endurance rides. Equine Veterinary Journal 30, suppl., 591–595.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Gerring, E.L. and Davies, J.V. (1982) Fracture of the tibial tuberosity in a polo pony. Equine Veterinary Journal 14,2, 158–159.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Gibson, T.E. and Paterson, D.A. (eds.) (1985) The Detection and Relief of Pain in Animals. British Veterinary Association. Animal Welfare Symposium, British Veterinary Association, London, UK.Google Scholar
  38. Goodwin, D. (1999) The importance of ethology in understanding the behaviour of the horse. Equine Veterinary Journal 28, suppl., 15–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Gray, J.A. (1987) The Psychology of Fear and Stress, 2nd edition. Cambridge University Press, UK.Google Scholar
  40. Guthrie, D.M. (1980) Neuroethology: An Introduction. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, UK.Google Scholar
  41. Hall-Patch, P.K., Orton, R.G. and Sampson, J.H. (1977) Competitive trail and endurance riding in the UK. Veterinary Record 100,10, 192–194.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Harman, J.C. (1995) Practical saddle fitting. The Equine Athlete 8,2, 1, 12–13.Google Scholar
  43. Harris, P.A. (1999) Review of equine feeding and stable management practices in the UK concentrating on the last decade of the 20th century. Equine Veterinary Journal 28, suppl., 46–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Hertsch, B. (1992) The physical appearance in stress on the musculoskeletal system of dressage, jumping and military (three day event) horses. Deutsche Tierarztliche Wochenschrift 99,1, 36–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Hinchcliff, K.W., Kohn, C.W., Geor, R., McCutcheon, L.J., Foreman, J., Andrews, F.M., Allen, A.K., White, S.L., Williamson, L.H. and Maykuth, P.L. (1995) Acid-base and serum biochemistry in horses competing at a modified 1 star three-day-event. Equine Veterinary Journal 20, suppl., 105–110.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Hobo, S., Oikawa, M.A., Kuwano, A., Yoshida, K. and Yoshihara, T. (1997) Effect of transportation on the composition of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid obtained from horses. American Journal of Veterinary Research 58,5, 531–534.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Hodgson, D.R. and Rose, R.J. (1987) Effects of a nine month endurance training programme on muscle composition in the horse. Veterinary Record 121,12, 271–274.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Holliday, T.A. (1972) The nervous system. In Catcott, EJ. and Smithcors, J.F. (eds.), Equine Medicine and Surgery, Second edition. American Veterinary Publications Inc., Wheaton, Illinois, USA.Google Scholar
  49. Holmstrom, M., Fredricson, I. and Drevemo, S. (1995) Biokinematic effects of collection on the trotting gaits in the elite dressage horse. Equine Veterinary Journal 27,4, 281–287.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Houpt, K.A. and Fregin, G.F. (1992) Equine workshop. In: The Well-being of Agricultural Animals in Biomedical and Agricultural Research. Proceedings of the SCAW-sponsored conference, Agricultural Animals in Research. Scientists Center for Animal Welfare, Washington DC, USA.Google Scholar
  51. Houpt, K.A. and Feldman, J. (1993) Animal Behaviour Case of the month. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 203,9, 1279–1280.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Houpt, K.A. and Lein, D. (1980) Equine Behaviour: The sexual behaviour of stallions. Equine Practice 2,5, 8–22.Google Scholar
  53. Hughes, J.P., Stabenfeldt, G.H. and Evans, J.W. (1975) The oestrus cycle of the mare. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility 23, suppl., 161–166.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Hyland, J.H. (1993) Uses of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and its analogues for advancing the breeding season in the mare. Animal Reproduction Science 33, 195–207.Google Scholar
  55. Iggo, A. (1993) Somesthetic sensory systems. In Swenson, M.J. (ed.), Dukes Physiology of Domestic Animals, 11th edition, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, USA.Google Scholar
  56. Ito, S., Fujii, Y., Uchiyama, T. and Kaneko, M. (1992) Four cases of rhabdomyolysis in the Thoroughbred during transportation. Bulletin of Equine Research Institute 29, 1–5.Google Scholar
  57. Jeffcott, L.B. and Field, J.R. (1985) Epidemiological aspects of hyperlipaemia in ponies in South Eastern Australia. Australian Veterinary Journal 62,4, 140–141.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Jeffcott, L.B. (1979) Back problems in horses-a look at past, present and future progress. Equine Veterinary Journal 11,3, 129–136.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Jeffcott, L.B., Holmes, M.A. and Townsend, H.G.G. (1999) Validity of saddle pressure measurements using force-sensing array technology-preliminary studies. Veterinary J. 158,2, 113–119.Google Scholar
  60. Johnson, K.G., Tyrell, J., Rowe, J.B. and Pethick, D.W. (1998) Behavioural changes in stabled horses given non-therapeutic levels of virginamycin as Founderguard. Equine Veterinary J. 30,2, 139–143.Google Scholar
  61. Juarbe-Diaz, S.V., Houpt, K.A. and Kusunose, R. (1998) Prevalence and characteristics of foal rejection in Arabian mares. Equine Veterinary J. 30,5, 424–428.Google Scholar
  62. Kaplan, R.M. and Little, S.E. (2000) Controlling equine cyathostomes. Compendium on Continuing Education for the Practicing Veterinarian 22,4, 391–396.Google Scholar
  63. Kohn, C.W., Hinchcliff, K.W., McCutcheon, L.J., Geor, R., Foreman, J., Allen, A.K., White, S.L., Maykuth, P.L. and Williamson, L.H. (1995) Physiological responses of horses competing at a modified 1 star three-day-event. Equine Veterinary J. 20, suppl., 97–104.Google Scholar
  64. Lane J.G. and Mair T.S. (1987) Observations on headshaking in the horse. Equine Veterinary J. 19, 331–336.Google Scholar
  65. Langlois, B. and Blouin, C. (1996) Effect of a horse’s month of birth on its future performances. In Proceedings of the 47th Annual Meeting of the European Association for Animal Production. Hungary.Google Scholar
  66. Lauk, H.D. and Kreling, I. (1998) Surgical treatment of kissing spines syndrome-50 cases. Pferdeheilkunde 14,2, 123–130.Google Scholar
  67. Lawrence, L., Jackson, S., Kline, K., Moser, L., Powell, D. and Biel, M. (1992) Observations on body weight and condition of horses in a 150 mile endurance ride. J. Equine Veterinary Science 12,5, 320–324.Google Scholar
  68. Leblond, A., Villard, I., Leblond, L., Sabatier, P. and Sasco, A.J. (2000) A retrospective evaluation of the causes of death of 448 insured French horses in 1995. Veterinary Research Communications 24,2, 85–102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Leyland, A. (1985) Ragwort poisoning in horses. Veterinary Record 117,18, 479.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Lindner, A. and Schoneseiffen, N. (1996) Frequency of diseases of pleasure horses and dressage horses (in Germany). Pferdeheilkunde 12,4, 715–716.Google Scholar
  71. Lucke, J.N. and Hall, G.M. (1980) Long distance exercise in the horse: Golden Horseshoe Ride 1978. Veterinary Record 106,18/19/20, 405–407.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Lyon, S., Stebbings, H.C. and Coles, G.C. (2000) Prevalence of tapeworms, bots and nematodes in abattoir horses in south-west England. Veterinary Record 147,16, 456–457.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. MacLeay, J.M., Sorum, S.A., Valberg, S.J., Marsh, W.E. and Sorum, M.D. (1999) Epidemiologic analysis of factors influencing exertional rhabdomyolysis in Thoroughbreds. American J. Veterinary Research 60,12, 1562–1566.Google Scholar
  74. Madigan, J.E. (1996) Evaluation and treatment of headshaking syndrome. Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Equine Clinical Behaviour. Basel, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  75. Madigan, J.E. and Bell, S.A. (1998) Characterisation of headshaking syndrome-31 cases. Equine Veterinary J. 27, suppl., 28–29.Google Scholar
  76. Madigan, J.E., Kortz, G., Murphy, C. and Rodger, L. (1995) Photic headshaking in the horse: 7 cases. Eq. vet. J. 27, 306–311.Google Scholar
  77. Mair, T.S. and Lane, J.G. (1990) Headshaking in horses. In Practice 9, 183–186.Google Scholar
  78. Marcella, K.L. (1990) Dressage related lameness. Proceedings of the Annual Convention of the American Association of Equine Practitioners 35, 559–566.Google Scholar
  79. Marcella, K.L. (1991) Polo Pony Injuries. Proceedings of the 36th Annual Convention of the American Association of Equine Practitioners, Lexington, Kentucky, December 2-5, 36, pp. 647–660.Google Scholar
  80. Marlin, D.J., Harris, P.A., Schroter, R.C., Roberts, C.A., Scott, C.M., Orme, C.E., Dunnett, M., Dyson, S.J., Barrelet, F., Williams, B., Marr, C.M. and Casas, I. (1995) Physiological, metabolic and biochemical responses of horses competing in the speed and endurance phase of a CCI four star three-day-event. Equine Veterinary J. 20, suppl., 37–46.Google Scholar
  81. Mason, G. (1991) Stereotypics: a critical review. Animal Behaviour 41, 1015–1037.Google Scholar
  82. Mayhew, I.G. (1992) How I treat headshakers. Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference, Orlando, Florida 6, 453–454.Google Scholar
  83. McDonnell, S.M. (2000) Reproductive behaviour of stallions and mares: comparison of free-running and domestic in-hand breeding. Animal Reproduction Science 60-61, 211–219.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. McGreevy, P. (1996) Why does my horse... ? Trafalgar Square Publishing, North Pomfret, Vermont, USA.Google Scholar
  85. McLean, J.G. (1973) Equine parasitic myoglobinuria (‘azoturia’): a review. Australian Veterinary J. 49,1, 41–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Melzack, R. and Wall, P.D. (1988) The Challenge of Pain, 2nd edition. Penguin Books, London, UK.Google Scholar
  87. Mills, D.S. and Nankervis, K.J. (1999) Equine Behaviour: Principles and Practice. Blackwell Science, Oxford, UK.Google Scholar
  88. Mills, D.S., Cook, S., Jones, B. and Taylor, K. (2001a) A demographic analysis of 254 cases of equine headshaking with particular reference to their differential symptomatology. Veterinary Record (In press)Google Scholar
  89. Mills, D.S., Cook, S., Jones, B. and Taylor K. (2001b) Reported response to treatment amongst 245 cases of equine head shaking. Veterinary Record (In press)Google Scholar
  90. Morales, J.L., Manchado, M., Cano, M.R., Miro, F. and Galisteo, A.M. (1998a) Temporal and linear kinematics in elite and riding horses at the trot. J. Equine Veterinary Science 18,12, 835–839.Google Scholar
  91. Morales, J.L., Manchado, M., Vivo, J., Galisteo, A.M., Aguera, E. and Miro, F. (1998b) Angular kinematic patterns in elite and riding horses at trot. Equine Veterinary J. 30,6, 528–533.Google Scholar
  92. Moritsu, Y., Terai, A., Kimura, M. and Ichikawa, S. (1998) The effect of the month of birth on racing performance in Thoroughbred racehorses. J. Rakuno Gakuen University Natural Science 23,1, 1–4.Google Scholar
  93. Newton, S.A., Knottenbelt, D.C and Eldridge, P.R. (2000) Headshaking in horses: possible aetiopatho-genesis suggested by the results of diagnostic tests and several treatment regimes used in 20 case. Equine Veterinary J. 32, 208–216.Google Scholar
  94. Personett, L.A., McAllister, E.S. and Mansmann, R.A. (1983) Proximal suspensory desmitis. Modern Veterinary Practice 64,7, 541–545.Google Scholar
  95. Raidal, S.L., Love, D.N. and Bailey, G.D. (1995) Inflammation and increased numbers of bacteria in the lower respiratory tract of horses within 6 to 12 hours of confinement with the head elevated. Australian Veterinary J. 72,2, 45–50.Google Scholar
  96. Richardson, R.C (1994) The Horse’s Foot and Related Problems: A Practical Guide for Owners, Farriers and Vets. Greatcombe Clinic, Holne, Devon, UK.Google Scholar
  97. Rose, R.J., Ilkiw, J.E., Sampson, D. and Backhouse, J.W. (1980) Changes in blood gas, acid-base and metabolic parameters in horses during three day event competition. Research in Veterinary Science 28,3, 393–395.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Rose, R.J., Purdue, R.A. and Hensley, W. (1977) Plasma biochemistry alterations in horses during an endurance ride. Equine Veterinary J. 9,3, 122–126.Google Scholar
  99. Ross, W.A., Kaneene, J.B. and Gardiner, J.C (1998) Survival analysis and risk factors associated with the occurrence of lamenss in a Michigan horse population. American J. Veterinary Research 59,1, 23–29.Google Scholar
  100. Schatzmann, U. and Klemm, P. (1998) Health problems in polo ponies. A survey. Pferdeheilkunde 14,6, 478–484.Google Scholar
  101. Schmidt, B. and Schmidt, K.H. (1980) Effect of road transport, lunging, competition and time of day on activities of serum enzymes aspartate aminotransferase, creatinine kinase, lactate dehydroge-nase, alkaline phosphate and serum bilirubin in warm blooded horses. Berliner und Munchener Tierarztliche Wochenschrift 93,13, 244–246.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Schott, H.C., McGlade, K.S., Hines, M.T. and Petersen, A. (1996) Bodyeight, fluid and electrolyte, and hormonal changes in horses that successfully completed a 5 day, 424 kilometre endurance com-petition. Pferdeheilkunde 12,4, 438–442.Google Scholar
  103. Seligman, M.E.P. (1970) On the generality of the laws of learning. Psychological Review 77, 406–418.Google Scholar
  104. Slade, L.M. and Branscomb, J. (1989) Conformation traits of jumping horses. Proceedings, Western Section, American Society of Animal Science and Western Branch Canadian Society of Animal Science 40, 35–38.Google Scholar
  105. Smith, B.L., Jones, J.H., Carlson, G.P. and Pascoe, J.R. (1994) Body position and direction preferences in horses during road transport. Equine Veterinary J. 26,5, 374–377.Google Scholar
  106. Snow, D.H., Baxter, P. and Rose, R.J. (1981) Muscle fibre composition and glycogen depletion in horses competing in an endurance ride. Veterinary Record 108,17, 374–378.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Stull, C.L. and Rodiek, A.V. (2000) Physiological responses of horses to 24 hours of transportation using a commercial van during summer conditions. J. Animal Science 78,6, 1458–1466.Google Scholar
  108. Sweeney, C.R., Divers T.J. and Benson, C.E. (1985) Anaerobic-bacteria in 21 horses with pleurop-neumonia. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 187,7, 721–724.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Swenson, M.J. (ed.) (1993), Dukes Physiology of Domestic Animals, 11th edition. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, USA.Google Scholar
  110. Tong, J.M.J. (1994) Acute rupture of the Corpora nigra caused by a traumatic incident to the left eye of a polo pony. Equine Veterinary Education 6,3, 118–121.Google Scholar
  111. Trevillian, C., Holt, J. and Yovich, J. (1997) Evaluation of cardiac recovery index and clinicopatho-logical parameters in endurance horses. Australian Equine Veterinarian 15,2, 83–88.Google Scholar
  112. Ulmer, R.S. (1985) Hormonal control of the reproductive cycle in the mare. Southwestern Veterinarian 36,2, 101–105.Google Scholar
  113. Vatistas, N.J., Snyder, J.R., Carlson, G., Johnson, B., Arthur, R.M., Thurmond, M., Zhou, H. and Lloyd, K.L.K. (1999) Cross-sectional study of gastric ulcers of the squamous mucosa in Thoroughbred racehorses. Equine Veterinary Journal 29, suppl., 34–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Voynick, B.T. and Sweeney, C.R. (1986) Exercise induced pulmonary haemorrhage in polo and racing horses. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 188,3, 301–302.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. White, S.L., Williamson, L.H., Maykuth, P.L., Cole, S.P. and Andrews, F.M. (1995) Heart rate response and plasma lactate concentrations of horses competing in the speed and endurance phase of three-day combined training events. Equine Veterinary J. 20, suppl., 52–56.Google Scholar
  116. Whitwell, K.E., Harris, P. and Farrington, P.G. (1988) Atypical myoglobinuria: an acute myopathy in grazing horses. Equine Veterinary J. 20,5, 357–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Willms, F., Rohe, R. and Kalm, E. (1999) Genetic analysis of different traits in horse breeding by considering radiographic findings. 2: Genetic relations between conformation traits, performance traits, and bone diseases. Zuchtungskunde 71,5, 346–358.Google Scholar
  118. Woods, G.L. and Steiner, J.V. (1986) Embryo transfers from mares in athletic competition. Cornell Veterinarian 76,2, 149–155.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. A. Casey
    • 1
  1. 1.Humananimal interactions & companion animal welfare group, Department of Clinical Veterinary ScienceUniversity of BristolLangford, North SomersetUK

Personalised recommendations