Advertisement

Ethnopolitical Conflict and Separatist Violence

  • Ted Robert Gurr
  • Anne Pitsch

Abstract

The pursuit of political autonomy was the central issue of a great many of the world’ s most intense and protracted conflicts during the 1980s and 1990s. The protagonists in these conflicts were, on the one side, politically organized ethnic groups seeking greater autonomy or independence, and on the other, governments seeking to maintain their states’ central authority and territorial integrity. Some of these conflicts have had appalling human costs, for example two million civilian deaths in Sudan between 1983 and 1999 and more than 140,000 in Bosnia.1 Every heterogenous state with regionally concentrated minorities is at risk of separatist conflicts. The conflicts are not inherently violent, however. Many culturally distinct groups pursue separatist objectives by nonviolent political means, for example the Tatars of the Russian Federation and the First Nations of Canada. The 16 successor states of the USSR gained independence with virtually no violence, similarly the Czech and Slovak republics divorced peacefully in 1993. Even when organized violence has occurred in separatist conflicts, they are susceptible to negotiated settlement, as has happened in the Palestinian—Israeli conflict and the 20-year war between the Chakma peoples of the Chittagong Hills and the government of Bangladesh.

Keywords

Indigenous People Ethnic Identity Political Strategy National People National Minority 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ayres, r. william. (2000). A World Flying Apart? Violent Nationalist Conflict and the End of the Cold War. Journal of Peace Research, 37(1), 105–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Brass, Paul. (19911. Ethnicity and Nationaliscm Newhury Park: Sage Puhlications Google Scholar
  3. Brysk, Alison. (1994). Acting Globally: Indian Rights and International Politics in Latin America. In Donna Lee Van Cott (Ed.), Indigenous Peoples and Democracy in Latin America. Basingstoke: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  4. Burr, Millard. (1993). Quantifying Genocide in the Southern Sudan 1983–1993. Washington: U.S. Committee for Refugees Issue Paper.Google Scholar
  5. Burr, Millard. (1999). Quantifying Genocide in the Southern Sudan 1983–1998. Washington: U.S. Committee for Refugees Issue Paper.Google Scholar
  6. Carment, David, & Patrick James. (1997). Wars in the Midst of Peace: The International Politics of Ethnic Conflicts. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.Google Scholar
  7. Carment, David, & Patrick James (Eds.) (1998). Peace in the Midst of Wars: Preventing and Managing International Ethnic Conflicts. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press.Google Scholar
  8. Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict. (1997). Preventing Deadly Conflict: Final Report. Washington: Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict.Google Scholar
  9. Connor, Walker. (1994). Ethno-Nationalism: The Questfor Understanding. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Crocker, Chester, Fen Olser Hampson, & Pamela Aall (Eds.) (1999). Herding Cats: Multiparty Mediation in a Complex World. Washington: United States Institute of Peace Press.Google Scholar
  11. Daalder, Ivo. (1996). Fear and Loathing in the Former Yugoslavia. In Michael E. Brown (Ed.), The International Dimensions of Ethnic Conflict (pp. 35–67). Cambridge/London: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
  12. Dudley, Ryan, & Ross A. Miller. (1998). Group Rebellion in the 1980s. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 42, 77–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Escobar, Arturo, & Sonia E. Alvarez (Eds.) (1992). The Making of Social Movements in Latin America. Boulder: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  14. Esty, Daniel C., Jack A. Goldstone, Ted Robert Gurr, Barbara Harff, Marc Levy, Geoffrey D. Dabelko, Pamela T. Surko, & Alan N. Unger. (1999). State Failure Task Force Report: Phase II Findings. Environmental Change and Security Project Report, 5, 49–72.Google Scholar
  15. Fearon, James D. (1998). Commitment Problems and the Spread of Ethnic Conflict. In David A. Lake & Donald Rothchild (Eds.), The International Spread of Ethnic Conflict: Fear, Diffusion, and Escalation (pp. 107–126). Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Fearon, James D., & David D. Laitin. (1999). Weak States, Rough Terrain, and Large-scale Ethnic Violence since 1945. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Atlanta.Google Scholar
  17. Geertz, Clifford. ed. (1963). Old Societies and New States. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  18. Gellner, Ernest. (1983). Nations and Nationalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  19. Greenfeld, Liah. (1992). Nationalism: Five Roads to Modernity. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Gurr, Ted Robert. (1993). Minorities at Risk: A Global View of Ethnopolitical Conflicts. Washington: United States Institute of Peace Press.Google Scholar
  21. Gurr, Ted Robert. (2000). Peoples versus States: Minorities at Risk in the New Century. Washington: United States Institute of Peace Press.Google Scholar
  22. Gurr, Ted Robert, & Will H. Moore. (1997). Ethnopolitical Rebellion: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the 1980s with Risk Assessments for the 1990s. American Journal of Political Science, 41(4), 1079–1103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Harff, Barbara. (1992). Recognizing Genocides and Politicides. In Helen Fein (Ed.), Genocide Watch (pp. 27–41). New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Hechter, Michael. (1975). Internal Colonialism: The Celtic Fringe in British National Development, 1536–1966. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  25. Herd, Graeme P. (1999). Russia: Systemic Transformation or Federal Collapse? Journal of Peace Research, 36, 259–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hopmann, Philip Terrence. (1999). Building Security in Post-Cold War Eurasia: The OSCE and U.S. Foreign Policy. Washington: United States Institute of Peace Press.Google Scholar
  27. Horowitz, Donald L. (1985). Ethnic Groups in Conflict. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  28. Jentleson, Bruce W. (Ed.) (2000). Opportunities Missed, Opportunities Seized. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield.Google Scholar
  29. Kaplan, Cynthia S. (1998). Ethnicity and Sovereignty: Insights from Russian Negotiations with Estonia and Tatarstan. In David A. Lake & Donald Rothchild (Eds.), The International Spread of Ethnic Conflict: Fear, Diffusion and Escalation (pp. 251–274). Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  30. Kelley, Judith. (2000). When Can International Institutions Change State Behavior? The Case of European Integration and Ethnic Politics in Latvia and Estonia. Paper presented to the Annual Meeting of the International Studies Association, Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  31. Khosla, Deepa. (1999). Third World States as Intervenors in Ethnic Conflicts: Implications for Regional and International Security. Third World Quarterly, 20(6), 1143–1156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Laitin, David D. (1998). Identity in Formation: The Russian-Speaking Populations in the Near Abroad. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Marshall, Monty G. (2001). Assessing the Impact of Societal and Systematic Warfare. In David Malone & Fan Osler Hampson (Eds.), From Reaction to Prevention: Opportunities for the UN System in the New Millennium. Boulder: Lynne Rienner.Google Scholar
  34. McKay, James. (1982). An Exploratory Synthesis of Primordial and Mobilizationist Approaches to Ethnic Phenomena. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 5, 395–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Peck, Connie. (1998). Sustainable Peace: The Role of the UN and Regional Organizations in Preventing Conflict. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield.Google Scholar
  36. Posen, Barry R. (1993). The Security Dilemma and Ethnic Conflict. Survival, 35(1), 27–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Roeder, Philip G. (1999). Peoples and States after 1989: The Political Costs of Incomplete National Revolutions. Slavic Review, 58(4), 854–882.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Roeder, Philip G. (2000). When Ethnopoliticians Become Nationalists: Primordial Constraints on Instrumental Choices. University of California, San Diego. Prepublication paper.Google Scholar
  39. Scott, George M., Jr. (1990). A Resynthesis of the Primordial and Circumstantial Approaches to Ethnic Group Solidarity: Towards an Explanatory Model. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 13, 147–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Smith, Anthony D. (1986). The Ethnic Origins of Nations. Cambridge, UK: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  41. Smith, Anthony D. (1998). Nationalism and Modernism: A Critical Survey of Recent Theories of Nations and Nationalism. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  42. Stack, John F., Jr. (Ed.) (1986). The Primordial Challenge: Ethnicity in the Contemporary World. New York: Greenwood Press.Google Scholar
  43. Tilley, Virginia Q. (1998). State Identity Politics and the Domestic Political Arena. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the International Studies Association. Minneapolis.Google Scholar
  44. Tiryakian, Edward A., & Ronald Rogowski. (1985). New Nationalisms of the Developed West: Toward Explanation. Boston: Allen and Unwin.Google Scholar
  45. Tishkov, Valery. (1997). Ethnicity, Nationalism, and Conflict in and after the Soviet Union: The Mind Aflame. London: Sage Publications for the International Peace Research Institute, Oslo.Google Scholar
  46. Treisman, Daniel S. (1999). After the Deluge: Regional Crises and Political Consolidation in Russia. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
  47. Van den Berghe, Pierre L. (1981). The Ethnic Phenomenon. New York: Elsevier North Holland.Google Scholar
  48. Wallensteen, Peter (Ed.) (1998). Preventing Violent Conflicts: Past Record and Future Challenges. Stockholm: Elanders Gotab for the Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala University.Google Scholar
  49. Wallensteen, Peter, & Margareta Sollenberg. (1999). Armed Conflict, 1989–98. Journal of Peace Research, 36(5), 593–606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Walter, Barbara F., & Jack Snyder (Eds.) (1999). Civil Wars, Insecurity, and Intervention. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  51. Wilmer, Franke. (1993). The Indigenous Voice in World Politics: Since Time Immemorial. Newbury Park: Sage.Google Scholar
  52. Wood, Brian, & Johan Peleman. (1999). The Arms Fixers: Controlling the Brokers and Shipping Agents. Oslo: International Peace Research Institute, Basic Research Report 99.3.Google Scholar
  53. Zartman, William. (1989). Ripe for Resolution: Conflict and Intervention in Africa. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ted Robert Gurr
  • Anne Pitsch

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations