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Spatial Organization of Cell Wall-Anchored Proteins at the Surface of Gram-Positive Bacteria

  • Shaynoor DramsiEmail author
  • Hélène Bierne
Part of the Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology book series (CT MICROBIOLOGY, volume 404)

Abstract

Bacterial surface proteins constitute an amazing repertoire of molecules with important functions such as adherence, invasion, signalling and interaction with the host immune system or environment. In Gram-positive bacteria, many surface proteins of the “LPxTG” family are anchored to the peptidoglycan (PG) by an enzyme named sortase. While this anchoring mechanism has been clearly deciphered, less is known about the spatial organization of cell wall-anchored proteins in the bacterial envelope. Here, we review the question of the precise spatial and temporal positioning of LPxTG proteins in subcellular domains in spherical and ellipsoid bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae and Enterococcus faecalis) and in the rod-shaped bacterium Listeria monocytogenes. Deposition at specific sites of the cell wall is a dynamic process tightly connected to cell division, secretion, cell morphogenesis and levels of gene expression. Studying spatial occupancy of these cell wall-anchored proteins not only provides information on PG dynamics in responses to environmental changes, but also suggests that pathogenic bacteria control the distribution of virulence factors at specific sites of the surface, including pole, septa or lateral sites, during the infectious process.

Keywords

Bacterial Surface Teichoic Acid Streptococcus Agalactiae Division Site FtsZ Ring 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank Nienke Buddelmeijer for critical reading of the manuscript. H. Bierne acknowledges supports from the French National Research Agency (ANR 11-BSV3-0003 EPILIS) and the iXcore Foundation for Research.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Unité de Biologie des Bactéries Pathogènes à Gram-positifInstitut PasteurParisFrance
  2. 2.CNRS ERL 3526ParisFrance
  3. 3.Micalis InstituteINRA, AgroParis Tech Université Paris-SaclayJouy-en-JosasFrance

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