Advertisement

Cholera Outbreaks in India

  • Thandavarayan Ramamurthy
  • Naresh C. Sharma
Chapter
Part of the Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology book series (CT MICROBIOLOGY, volume 379)

Abstract

Cholera is a global health problem as several thousands of cases and deaths occur each year. The unique epidemiologic attribute of the disease is its propensity to occur as outbreaks that may flare-up into epidemics, if not controlled. The causative bacterial pathogen Vibrio cholerae prevails in the environment and infects humans whenever there is a breakdown in the public health component. The Indian subcontinent is vulnerable to this disease due its vast coastlines with areas of poor sanitation, unsafe drinking water, and overcrowding. Recently, it was shown that climatic conditions also play a major role in the persistence and spread of cholera. Constant change in the biotypes and serotypes of V. cholerae are also important aspects that changes virulence and survival of the pathogen. Such continuous changes increase the infection ability of the pathogen affecting the susceptible population including the children. The short-term carrier status of V. cholerae has been studied well at community level and this facet significantly contributes to the recurrence of cholera. Several molecular tools recognized altering clonality of V. cholerae in relation with the advent of a serogroup or serotype. Rapid identification systems were formulated for the timely detection of the pathogen so as to identify and control the outbreak and institute proper treatment of the patients. The antimicrobials used in the past are no longer useful in the treatment of cholera as V. cholerae has acquired several mechanisms for multiple antimicrobial resistance. This upsurge in antimicrobial resistance directly influences the management of the disease. This chapter provides an overview of cholera prevalence in India, possible sources of infection, and molecular epidemiology along with antimicrobial resistance of V. cholerae.

Keywords

Acute Diarrhea O139 Strain Cholera Outbreak Cholerae Strain Cholera Case 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Aggarwal P, Khanna KK, Kumari S (1989) Cholera gastroenteritis amongst children in Delhi. Indian J Pediatr 56:93–96PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Agarwal V, Biswas M, Chande CA, Pathak AA, Saoji AM (1994) Changing bacteriological profile of cholera in Nagpur, 1991–93. Indian J Med Res 100:93–94PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Agrawal G, Jalgaonkar SV, Jagtap PM, Kamlakar UP, Deogade NG (2003) Emergence and re-emergence of Vibrio cholerae O139: an epidemiological study during 1993–2002 at Nagpur, Central India. Indian J Med Sci 57:155–157PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Ambhore NA, Ingole KV, Fule RP (2000) Reappearance of Vibrio cholerae serogroup O139 in Yavatmal during June-August-1998. Indian J Med Sci 54:63–64PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Amin V, Patwari AK, Kumar G, Anand VK, Diwan N, Peshin S (1995) Clinical profile of cholera in young children-a hospital based report. Indian Pediatr 32:755–761PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Amita, Chowdhury SR, Thungapathra M, Ramamurthy T, Nair GB, Ghosh A (2003) Class I integrons and SXT elements in El Tor strains isolated before and after 1992 Vibrio cholerae O139 outbreak, Calcutta, India. Emerg Infect Dis 9:500–502PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bag PK, Maiti S, Sharma C et al (1998) Rapid spread of the new clone of Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor in cholera endemic areas in India. Epidemiol Infect 21:245–251Google Scholar
  8. Bajaj JK, Baradker VP, Joshi SG, Damle AS, Kayararte RP, Deshmukh AB (2001) Epidemiology of cholera-a five-year study. J Commun Dis 33:282–285PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Balaji K, Okonjo PA, Thenmozhi R, Karutha Pandian S (2013) Virulence and multidrug resistance patterns of Vibrio cholerae O1 isolates from diarrheal outbreaks of South India during 2006–2009. Microb Drug Resist 19:198–203Google Scholar
  10. Ballal M, Nandanan B, Shivananda PG (2001) Emergence of Vibrio cholerae O139 in Manipal-coastal Karnataka-South India. Indian J Pathol Microbiol 44:177PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Baranwal S, Dey K, Ramamurthy T, Nair GB, Kundu M (2002) Role of active efflux in association with target gene mutations in fluoroquinolone resistance in clinical isolates of Vibrio cholerae. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46:2676–2678PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Barua D (1992) History of cholerae. In: Barua D, Greenough WB III (eds) Cholera. Plenum Publishing, New York, pp 1–55Google Scholar
  13. Basu A, Mukhopadhyay AK, Sharma C et al (1998) Heterogeneity in the organization of the CTX genetic element in strains of Vibrio cholerae O139 Bengal isolated from Calcutta, India and Dhaka, Bangladesh and its possible link to the dissimilar incidence of O139 cholera in the two locales. Microb Pathog 24:1751–1783Google Scholar
  14. Basu A, Garg P, Datta S et al (2000a) Vibrio cholerae O139 in Calcutta, 1992–1998: incidence, antibiograms, and genotypes. Emerg Infect Dis 6:139–147PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Basu A, Mukhopadhyay AK, Garg P et al (2000b) Diversity in the arrangement of the CTX prophages in classical strains of Vibrio cholerae O1. FEMS Microbiol Lett 182:35–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Batabyal P, Mookerjee S, Palit A (2012) Occurrence of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae in accessible water sources of cholera endemic foci in India. Jpn J Infect Dis 65:358–360Google Scholar
  17. Bhadra RK, Roychoudhury S, Banerjee RK et al (1995) Cholera toxin (CTX) genetic element in Vibrio cholerae O139. Microbiol 141:1977–1983Google Scholar
  18. Bhanumathi R, Sabeena F, Isac SR, Radhakutty G, Singh DV (2002) Characterization of a toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O139 strain belonging to a new ribotype and isolated from a diarrheal patient. J Clin Microbiol 40:4779–4781PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Bhanumathi R, Sabeena F, Isac SR, Shukla BN, Singh DV (2003) Molecular characterization of Vibrio cholerae O139 Bengal isolated from water and the aquatic plant Eichhornia crassipes in the River Ganga, Varanasi, India. Appl Environ Microbiol 69:2389–2394PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Bhardwaj AK, Thakur TS, Sharma VK, Ahluwalia SK, Vaidya NK (1993) Problems and prospects of a traditional source of potable water in hilly terrains. Indian J Public Health 37:111–113PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Bhattacharya SK, Bhattacharya MK, Dutta P (1990) Double-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial of norfloxacin for cholera. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 34:939–940PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Bhattacharya SK, Datta D, Bhattacharya MK et al (1992) Cholera in young children in an endemic area. Lancet 340:1549Google Scholar
  23. Bhattacharya SK, Bhattacharya MK, Nair GB et al (1993) Clinical profile of acute diarrhoea cases infected with the new epidemic strain of Vibrio cholerae O139: designation of the disease as cholera. J Infect 27:11–15PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Bhattacharya SK, Goswami AG, Bhattacharya MK et al (1994) Epidemic of Vibrio cholerae O139 in Calcutta. Indian J Med Res 100:213–216PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Bhattacharya MK, Ghosh S, Mukhopadhyay AK, Deb A, Bhattacharya SK (2000) Outbreak of cholera caused by Vibrio cholerae O1 intermediately resistant to norfloxacin at Malda, West Bengal. J Indian Med Assoc 98:389–390PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Bhattacharya MK, Dutta D, Ramamurthy T, Sarkar D, Singharoy A, Bhattacharya SK (2003) Azithromycin in the treatment of cholera in children. Acta Paediatr 92:676–678PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Bhunia R, Ramakrishnan R, Hutin Y, Gupte MD (2009) Cholera outbreak secondary to contaminated pipe water in an urban area, West Bengal, India, 2006. Indian J Gastroenterol 28:62–64Google Scholar
  28. Bora D, Dhariwal AC, Jain DC et al (1997) V. cholerae O1 outbreak in remote villages of Shimla district, Himachal Pradesh, 1994. J Commun Dis 29:121–125PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Borkakoty B, Biswas D, Devi U, Yadav K, Mahanta J (2012) Emergence of classical ctxB genotype 1 and tetracycline resistant strains of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor in Assam, India. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 106:382–386PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Carpenter CC, Sack RB, Mondal A, Mitra PP (1964) Tetracycline therapy in cholera. J Indian Med Assoc 43:309–312PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Ceccarelli D, Spagnoletti M, Bacciu D et al (2011) ICEVchInd5 is prevalent in epidemic Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor strains isolated in India. Int J Med Microbiol 301:318–324PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Chakrabarti MK, Bhattacharya MK, Sinha AK, Chatterjee DC, Bhattacharya SK (1993) Evaluation of the efficacy of different antibiotics in inhibiting colonisation of Vibrio cholerae O1 in the rabbit intestine. Zentralbl Bakteriol 278:69–72PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Chakraborty S, Deokule JS, Garg P et al (2001) Concomitant infection of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in an outbreak of cholera caused by Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139 in Ahmedabad, India. J Clin Microbiol 39:3241–3246PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Chander J, Kaistha N, Gupta V et al (2009) Epidemiology and antibiograms of Vibrio cholerae isolates from a tertiary care hospital in Chandigarh, North India. Indian J Med Res 129:613–617PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Chatterjee S, Ghosh K, Raychoudhuri A et al (2007) Phenotypic and genotypic traits and epidemiological implication of Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139 strains in India during 2003. J Med Microbiol 56:824–832PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Chhotray GP, Pal BB, Khuntia HK et al (2002) Incidence and molecular analysis of Vibrio cholerae associated with cholera outbreak subsequent to the super cyclone in Orissa, India. Epidemiol Infect 128:131–138PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Cholera Research Center (1970) Annual ReportGoogle Scholar
  38. Cholera Research Center (1971) Annual ReportGoogle Scholar
  39. Cholera Research Center (1972) Annual ReportGoogle Scholar
  40. Cholera Research Center (1973) Annual ReportGoogle Scholar
  41. Cholera Research Center (1974) Annual ReportGoogle Scholar
  42. Cholera Research Center (1976) Annual ReportGoogle Scholar
  43. Cholera Research Center (1977) Annual ReportGoogle Scholar
  44. Cholera Research Center (1978) Annual ReportGoogle Scholar
  45. Cholera Research Center (1979) Annual ReportGoogle Scholar
  46. Constantin de Magny G, Murtugudde R, Sapiano MRP et al (2008) Environmental signatures associated with cholera epidemics. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:17676–17681Google Scholar
  47. Darbari BS, Tiwari HL, Agarwal S et al (1982) Pattern of cholera in Raipur: a twelve year appraisal. J Indian Assoc Commun Dis 5:83–87PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Das S, Gupta S (2005) Diversity of Vibrio cholerae strains isolated in Delhi, India, during 1992–2000. J Health Popul Nutr 23:44–51PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Das A, Manickam P, Hutin Y et al (2009a) Two sequential outbreaks in two villages illustrate the various modes of transmission of cholera. Epidemiol Infect 137:906–912Google Scholar
  50. Das A, Manickam P, Hutin Y et al (2009b) An outbreak of cholera associated with an unprotected well in Parbatia, Orissa, Eastern India. J Health Popul Nutr 27:646–651Google Scholar
  51. Dastidar SG, Narayanaswami A (1968) The occurrence of chitinase in vibrios. Indian J Med Res 56:654–658PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Datta KK, Bandyopadhyay S, Khanna KK, Banerjee K (1993) Epidemiological features of cholera outbreak in Delhi in 1988. J Commun Dis 25:57–61PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. De SN, Bhattacharya KK, Mondal A (1957) J Indian Med Assoc xxvii:514Google Scholar
  54. De SN (1961) Cholera Its Pathology and Pathogenesis. Oliver and Boyd, LondonGoogle Scholar
  55. De S, Sircar BK, Sasmal D, De SP, Mondal A (1974) Ibuprofen (Brufen) in cholera and other diarrhoeas. Indian J Med Res 62:756PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Deb BC, Sengupta PG, De SP, Sil J, Sikdar SN, Pal SC (1976) Effect of sulfadoxine on transmission of Vibrio cholerae infection among family contacts of cholera patients in Calcutta. Bull World Health Organ 54:171–176Google Scholar
  57. Deb BC, Sircar BK, Sengupta PG et al (1986) Studies on the interventions to prevent El Tor cholera transmission in urban slums. Bull Wld Hlth Org 64:127–131Google Scholar
  58. Dhamodaran S, Ananthan S, Kuganantham P (1995) A retrospective analysis of the Madras epidemic of non-O1 Vibrio cholerae new serogroup O139 Bengal. Indian J Med Res 101:94–97PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Dutta JK, Santhanam S, Misra BS, Ray SN (1978) Effect of trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole on vibrio clearance in cholera (El Tor): a comparative study. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 72:40–42PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Dutta D, Bhattacharya SK, Bhattacharya MK et al (1996) Efficacy of norfloxacin and doxycycline for treatment of Vibrio cholerae O139 infection. J Antimicrob Chemother 37:575–581PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Fazil MH, Bhanumathi R, Pandey HP, Singh DV (2011) Characterization of Vibrio cholerae O139 belonging to multiple ribotypes and isolated from diarrhoeal patients in Kerala, Southern India. Infect Genet Evol 11:454–459Google Scholar
  62. Fotedar R (2001) Vector potential of houseflies (Musca domestica) in the transmission of Vibrio cholerae in India. Acta Trop 78:31–44PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Fule RP, Powar RM, Menon S, Basutkar SH, Saoji AM (1990) Cholera epidemic in Solapur during July–August, 1988. Indian J Med Res 91:24–26PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Fule RP, Jalgaonkar SV, Ingole KV, Fule C (1995) Outbreak due to Vibrio cholerae E1 Tor and serotype O139 in Yavatmal (Maharashtra) during June–July, 1994. Indian J Med Res 101:62–63PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Ganguly R, Ghosh AK, Shrivastava DL (1966) Effect of chlorine on some of the biological characters of Vibrio cholerae. Indian J Med Res 54:24Google Scholar
  66. Garg P, Nandy RK, Chaudhury P et al (2000a) Emergence of Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor serotype Inaba from the prevailing O1 Ogawa serotype strains in India. J Clin Microbiol 38:4249–4253PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Garg P, Chakraborty S, Basu I et al (2000b) Expanding multiple antibiotic resistance among clinical strains of Vibrio cholerae isolated from 1992–1997 in Calcutta, India. Epidemiol Infect 124:393–399PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Garg P, Sinha S, Chakraborty R et al (2001) Emergence of fluoroquinolone-resistant strains of Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor among hospitalized patients with cholera in Calcutta, India. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 45:1605–1606PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Garg P, Aydanian A, Smith D, Glenn JM, Nair GB, Stine OC (2003) Molecular epidemiology of O139 Vibrio cholerae: mutation, lateral gene transfer, and founder flush. Emerg Infect Dis 9:810–814PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Ghosh R, Nair GB, Tang L et al (2008) Epidemiological study of Vibrio cholerae using variable number of tandem repeats. FEMS Microbiol Lett 288:196–201PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Godbole SH, Wagle PM (1970) Isolation of Vibrio cholerae from a well water during a small outbreak of cholera. Indian J Med Sci 24:484–486PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Goel AK, Jiang SC (2010) Genetic determinants of virulence, antibiogram and altered biotype among the Vibrio cholerae O1 isolates from different cholera outbreaks in India. Infect Genet Evol 10:815–819Google Scholar
  73. Goel AK, Jiang SC (2011) Association of heavy rainfall on genotypic diversity in V. cholerae isolates from an outbreak in India. Int J Microbiol 2011:230597Google Scholar
  74. Gomber S, Mathur M, Sharma PP (1995) Diarrhoeal outbreak of Vibrio cholerae O139 from north India. Acta Paediatr 84:206–207PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Guha-Mazumdar DN, Sircar BK, De SP (1974) Minocycline in the treatment of cholera: comparison with tetracycline. Indian J Med Res 62:712Google Scholar
  76. Gupta DN, Sen D, Saha MR et al (1990) Report of an outbreak of diarrhoeal disease caused by cholera followed by rotavirus in Manipur. Indian J Public Health 34:62–65PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Gupta A, Jain S, Mahawal BS (1999a) Outbreak of cholera in arid zone of Bikaner. Indian J Med Res 110:126–127Google Scholar
  78. Gupta DN, Sarkar BL, Bhattacharya MK, Sengupta PG, Bhattacharya SK (1999b) An El Tor cholera outbreak in Maldah district, West Bengal. J Commun Dis 31:49–52PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Gupta RS, Meena VR, Jain DC, Datta KK (2002) Cholera outbreak in rural areas of Southern Rajasthan. J Commun Dis 34:228–229PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Gupta DN, Mondal SK, Sarkar BL, Mukherjee S, Bhattacharya SK (2004) An El tor cholera outbreak amongst tribal population in Tripura. J Commun Dis 36:271–276PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Gupta N, Dewan S, Saini S (2005) Resurgence of Vibrio cholerae O139 in Rohtak. Indian J Med Res 121:128–130PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Hamner S, Tripathi A, Mishra RK et al (2006) The role of water use patterns and sewage pollution in incidence of water-borne/enteric diseases along the Ganges river in Varanasi. India. Int J Environ Health Res 16:113–132Google Scholar
  83. Hanumanthappa AR, Rajagopal V (2000) Serotypes and phage types of Vibrio cholerae in Mysore. J Commun Dis 32:313–315PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Hasan JA, Huq A, Nair GB et al (1995) Development and testing of monoclonal antibody-based rapid immunodiagnostic test kits for direct detection of Vibrio cholerae O139 synonym Bengal. J Clin Microbiol 33:2935–2939PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Hawgood BJ (2001) Sir Joseph Fayrer MD FRS (1824–1907) Indian Medical Service: snakebite and hospitalised patients with diarrhoea. J Med Microbiol 50:268–276Google Scholar
  86. Howard-Jones N (1984) Robert Koch and the cholera vibrio: a centenary. Brt Med J 288:379–381Google Scholar
  87. Ingole KV, Jalgaonkar SV, Fule C, Fule RP (1997) Changing pattern of Vibrio cholerae serotype El Tor and O139 in Yavatmal (Maharashtra, India) during 1992 to 1994. Indian J Pathol Microbiol 40:369–371PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Jain RC, Bhat BD, Basutkar SH (1992) Tetracycline resistant El Tor Vibrios in Loni area. J Assoc Physicians India 40:636PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Jain RC, Basutkar SH (1994) Endemicity of cholera among rural areas of Loni, Ahmednagar district of Maharashtra. Indian J Med Res 100:95–97PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Jalgaonkar SV, Fule RP (1994) Cholera outbreak due to Vibrio cholerae serogroup O139 in Yavatmal (Maharashtra) in March–July, 1993. Indian J Med Res 99:101–102PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Jesudason MV (2006) Change in serotype and appearance of tetracycline resistance in V. cholerae O1 in Vellore, South India. Indian J Med Microbiol 24:152–153PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Jesudason MV, John TJ (1990) Transferable trimethoprim resistance of Vibrio cholerae O1 encountered in southern India. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 84:136–137PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Jesudason MV, Samuel R, John TJ (1994) Reappearance of Vibrio cholerae O1 and concurrent prevalence of O1 and O139 in Vellore, South India. Lancet 344:335–336PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Jesudason MV, Saaya R (1997) Resistance of Vibrio cholerae O1 to nalidixic acid. Indian J Med Res 105:153–154PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Jesudason MV, Balaji V, Thomson CJ (2002) Quinolone susceptibility of Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139 isolates from Vellore. Indian J Med Res 116:96–98PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Joshi KR, Chaudhary SK, Singh R, Solanki A (1988) Cholera epidemic in Kharabera Purohitana, a village of west Rajasthan. Indian J Pathol Microbiol 31:178–181PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Kamble TK, More SR, Chavan SS, Kulkarni ND, Lodha NS, Kamble AS (2000) Clinical profile of non-O1 strain-O139 of Vibrio cholerae in the region of Ambajogai, Maharashtra. J Assoc Physicians India 48:505–506PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Kanungo S, Sah BK, Lopez AL et al (2010) Cholera in India: an analysis of reports, 1997–2006. Bull World Health Organ 88:185–191Google Scholar
  99. Kaur H, Lal M (1998) Typing and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of Vibrio cholerae during six consecutive cholera seasons in north India. Trop Gastroenterol 19:59–61PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Khanna KK, Dhanvijay A, Riley LW, Sehgal S, Kumari S (1990) Cholera outbreak in Delhi-1988. J Commun Dis 22:35–38Google Scholar
  101. Khetawat G, Bhadra RK, Kar S, Das J (1998) Vibrio cholerae O139 Bengal: combined physical and genetic map and comparative analysis with the genome of V. cholerae O1. J Bacteriol 180:4516–4522PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Khetawat G, Bhadra RK, Nandi S, Das J (1999) Resurgent Vibrio cholerae O139: rearrangement of cholera toxin genetic elements and amplification of rrn operon. Infect Immun 67:148–154PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Khuntia HK, Pal BB, Meher PK, Chhotray GP (2008) Environmental Vibrio cholerae O139 may be the progenitor of outbreak of cholera in coastal area of Orissa, eastern India, 2000: molecular evidence. Am J Trop Med Hyg 78:819–822Google Scholar
  104. Khuntia HK, Samal SK, Kar SK, Pal BB (2010) An Ogawa cholera outbreak 6 months after the Inaba cholera outbreaks in India, 2006. J Microbiol Immunol Infect 43:133–137Google Scholar
  105. Kingston JJ, Zachariah K, Tuteja U, Kumar S, Batra HV (2009) Molecular characterization of Vibrio cholerae isolates from cholera outbreaks in North India. J Microbiol 47:110–115Google Scholar
  106. Koch R (1884) Brit Med J ii:453Google Scholar
  107. Krishna BV, Patil AB, Chandrasekhar MR (2006) Fluoroquinolone-resistant Vibrio cholerae isolated during a cholera outbreak in India. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 100:224–226PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Kumar P, Peter WA, Thomas S (2010) Rapid detection of virulence-associated genes in environmental strains of Vibrio cholerae by multiplex PCR. Curr Microbiol 60:199–202Google Scholar
  109. Kumar P, Jain M, Goel AK, Kamboj DV, Kumar O (2012) Tetracycline resistant V. cholerae O1 biotype El Tor serotype Ogawa with classical ctxB from a recent cholera outbreak in Orissa, Eastern India. J Infect Public Health 5:217–219Google Scholar
  110. Lutzkerand E, Jochnowitz C (1987) Waldemar Haffkine: Pioneer of Cholera vaccine. Am Soc Microbiol News 53:366–369Google Scholar
  111. Macpherson J (1866) Cholera in its home. Churchill and Sons, LondonGoogle Scholar
  112. Macpherson J (1872) Annals of cholera from the earliest periods to the year 1817. Ranken, LondonGoogle Scholar
  113. MacNamara C (1876) A History of Asiatic Cholera. MacMillian, LondonGoogle Scholar
  114. Mandal J, Sangeetha V, Ganesan V et al (2012) Third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Vibrio cholerae India. Emerg Infect Dis 18:1326–1328PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Mehta MN, Daruwalla DR, Prabhu SV, Deodhar L (1986) An outbreak of cholera in children from Bombay slums. J Diarrhoeal Dis Res 4:94PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Mishra M, Mohammed F, Akulwar SL, Katkar VJ, Tankhiwale NS, Powar RM (2004) Re-emergence of El Tor vibrio in outbreak of cholera in and around Nagpur. Indian J Med Res 120:478–480PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Mishra A, Taneja N, Sharma RK, Kumar R, Sharma NC, Sharma M (2011) Amplified fragment length polymorphism of clinical and environmental Vibrio cholerae from a freshwater environment in a cholera-endemic area, India. BMC Infect Dis 11:249PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Mitra R, Basu A, Dutta D, Nair GB, Takeda Y (1996) Resurgence of Vibrio cholerae O139 Bengal with altered antibiogram in Calcutta, India. Lancet 348:1181PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Mohandas V, Unni J, Mathew M et al (1987) Aetiology and clinical features of acute childhood diarrhoea in an outpatient clinic in Vellore, India. Ann Trop Paediatr 7:167–172PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Mohanty S, Kapil A, Das BK (2004) Seasonality and antimicrobial resistance pattern of Vibrio cholerae in a tertiary care hospital of North India. Trop Doct 34:249–251PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Mohapatra SS, Ramachandran D, Mantri CK, Singh DV (2007) Characterization of the genetic background of Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor serotype Inaba strains isolated in Trivandrum, southern India. J Med Microbiol 56:260–265PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Mukherjee S (1964) Cholera El Tor in Calcutta. Brit Med J 2:546–548Google Scholar
  123. Mukherjee P, Ghosh S, Ramamurthy T et al (2010) Evaluation of a rapid immuno chromatographic dipstick kit for diagnosis of cholera emphasizes its outbreak utility. Jpn J Infect Dis 63:234–238Google Scholar
  124. Mukherjee R, Halder D, Saha S et al (2011) Five pond-centred outbreaks of cholera in villages of West Bengal, India: evidence for focused interventions. J Health Popul Nutr 29:421–428Google Scholar
  125. Mukhopadhyay AK, Garg S, Nair GB et al (1995) Biotype traits and antibiotic susceptibility of Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1 before, during and after the emergence of the O139 serogroup. Epidemiol Infect 115:427–434PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Mukhopadhyay AK, Garg S, Mitra R et al (1996) Temporal shifts in traits of Vibrio cholerae strains isolated from hospitalized patients in Calcutta: a 3-year (1993 to 1995) analysis. J Clin Microbiol 34:2537–2543PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Mukhopadhyay AK, Basu I, Bhattacharya SK, Bhattacharya MK, Nair GB (1998) Emergence of fluoroquinolone resistance in strains of Vibrio cholerae isolated from hospitalized patients with acute diarrhea in Calcutta, India. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 42:206–207PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Murthy GV, Goswami A, Narayanan S, Amar S (1990) Effect of educational intervention on defaecation habits in an Indian urban slum. J Trop Med Hyg 93:189–193PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Nair GB, Ramamurthy T, Bhattacharya SK et al (1994a) Spread of Vibrio cholerae O139 Bengal in India. J Infect Dis 169:1029–1034Google Scholar
  130. Nair GB, Shimada T, Kurazono H et al (1994b) Characterization of phenotypic, serological, and toxigenic traits of Vibrio cholerae O139 Bengal. J Clin Microbiol 32:2775–2779Google Scholar
  131. Nandi S, Khetawat G, Sengupta S et al (1997) Rearrangements in the genomes of Vibrio cholerae strains belonging to different serovars and biovars. Int J Syst Bacteriol 47:858–862PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Narang P, Mendiratta DK, Kannathe J, Ramnani VK, Wasekar V, Deotale V (1994) Characteristics of Vibrio cholerae O139 strains isolated in Sevagram (Maharashtra) during April-August 1993. Indian J Med Res 99:103–104PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Neogy KN, Chatterjee BD (1970) Reappearance of classical V. cholerae in Calcutta during early 1970. Bull Calcutta Sch Trop Med 18:52PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Niyogi GS, Deb BC, Sircar BK et al (1979) Studies on cholera carriers and their role in transmission of the infection: a preliminary report. Indian J Med Res 70:892–897PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Niyogi SK, Mondal S, Sarkar BL, Garg S, Banerjee D, Dey GN (1994) Outbreak of cholera due to Vibrio cholerae O1 in Orissa state. Indian J Med Res 100:217–218PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Niyogi SK, Sengupta PG, Bhattacharya SK, Garg S, Mukhapadhayay AK, Nair GB (1995) Emergence of furazolidone and cotrimoxazole resistant Vibrio cholerae O1 in eastern India. J Infect 30:265–266PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Pajni S, Sharma C, Bhasin N et al (1995) Studies on the genesis of Vibrio cholerae O139: identification of probable progenitor strains. J Med Microbiol 42:20–25Google Scholar
  138. Pal A, Saha PK, Nair GB et al (1999) Clonal analysis of non-toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 associated with an outbreak of cholera. Indian J Med Res 109:208–211PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Pal BB, Khuntia HK, Samal SK, Kar SK, Patnaik B (2010) Epidemics of severe cholera caused by El Tor Vibrio cholerae O1 Ogawa possessing the ctxB gene of the classical biotype in Orissa, India. Int J Infect Dis 14:384–389Google Scholar
  140. Pal BB, Khuntia HK, Samal S et al (2013) Large outbreak of cholera caused by El Tor variant Vibrio cholerae O1 in the eastern coast of Odisha, India during 2009. Epidemiol Infect 141:2560–2567Google Scholar
  141. Palit A, Batabyal P (2010) Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae from environmental sources associated with the cholera outbreak after ‘AILA’ cyclone in West Bengal, India. Lett Appl Microbiol 51:241–243Google Scholar
  142. Palit A, Batabyal P, Kanungo S, Sur D (2012) In-house contamination of potable water in urban slum of Kolkata, India: a possible transmission route of diarrhea. Water Sci Technol 66:299–303Google Scholar
  143. Panda S, Pati KK, Bhattacharya MK, Koley H, Pahari S, Nair GB (2011) Rapid situation and response assessment of diarrhoea outbreak in a coastal district following tropical cyclone AILA in India. Indian J Med Res 133:395–400PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Panja G, Ghosh SK (1947) Indian J Med Res xxxv:979Google Scholar
  145. Patnaik SK, Shukla P, Verma P, Dixit GC, Pal D, Sharma SN (1989) Outbreak of cholera in Berasia block of Bhopal District in Madhya Pradesh. J Commun Dis 21:123–128PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Phukan AC, Borah PK, Biswas D, Mahanta J (2004) A cholera epidemic in a rural area of northeast India. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 98:563–566PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Pollitzer R (1959) Cholera. World Health Organization, Geneva, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  148. Prabhakar H, Lal M, Kaur H (1994) Outbreak of gastroenteritis due to a new strain of non O group 1 Vibrio cholerae, in Ludhiana in May–August 1993. Indian J Med Res 99:107–108PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Prescott LM, Bhattacharjee NK (1969) Viability of El Tor vibrios in common foodstuff found in an endemic cholera area. Bull World Health Organ 40:980–982PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Radhakutty G, Sircar BK, Mondal SK et al (1997) Investigation of the outbreak of cholera in Alleppey and Palghat districts, South India. Indian J Med Res 106:455–457PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Rajendran K, Sumi A, Bhattachariya MK et al (2011) Influence of relative humidity in Vibrio cholerae infection: a time series model. Indian J Med Res 133:138–145PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Rajeshwari K, Gupta A, Dubey AP, Uppal B, Singh MM (2008) Diarrhoeal outbreak of Vibrio cholerae O1 Inaba in Delhi. Trop Doct 38:105–107PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Ramamurthy T, Pal A, Nair GB, Pal SC, Takeda T, Takeda Y (1990) Experience with a toxin bead-ELISA in a cholera outbreak. Lancet ii:375–376Google Scholar
  154. Ramamurthy T, Pal A, Bhattacharya MK et al (1992a) Serovar, biotype, phage type, toxigenicity & antibiotic susceptibility patterns of Vibrio cholerae isolated during two consecutive cholera seasons (1989–1990) in Calcutta. Indian J Med Res 95:125–129Google Scholar
  155. Ramamurthy T, Bhattacharya SK, Uesaka Y et al (1992b) Evaluation of the bead enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of cholera toxin directly from stool specimens. J Clin Microbiol 30:1783–1786Google Scholar
  156. Ramamurthy T, Pal A, Pal SC, Nair GB (1992c) Taxonomical implications of the emergence of high frequency of occurrence of 2,4-diamino-6,7-diisopropylpteridine-resistant strains of Vibrio cholerae from clinical cases of cholera in Calcutta, India. J Clin Microbiol 30:742–743Google Scholar
  157. Ramamurthy T, Garg S, Sharma R et al (1993a) Emergence of novel strain of Vibrio cholerae with epidemic potential in southern and eastern India. Lancet 341:703–704Google Scholar
  158. Ramamurthy T, Pal A, Bag PK et al (1993b) Detection of cholera toxin gene in stool specimens by polymerase chain reaction: comparison with bead enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and culture method for laboratory diagnosis of cholera. J Clin Microbiol 31:3068–3070Google Scholar
  159. Ramamurthy T, Rajendran K, Garg P et al (2000) Cluster-analysis and patterns of dissemination of multidrug resistance among clinical strains of Vibrio cholerae in Calcutta, India. Indian J Med Res 112:78–85PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Rathna K, Khairunnisa, Rajyalakshmi K, Naidu AS (1988) Epidemiological patterns and incidence of bio-, sero- and phage types of Vibrio cholerae in Hyderabad, India, during 1971–1984. Acta Microbiol Hung 35:313–322PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Raychoudhuri A, Chatterjee S, Pazhani GP et al (2007) Molecular characterization of recent Vibrio cholerae O1, El Tor, Inaba strains isolated from hospitalized patients in Kolkata, India. J Infect 55:431–438PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Rogers L (1926) Proc Roy Soc Med xix:59Google Scholar
  163. Rogers L (1957) Brit Med J ii:1193Google Scholar
  164. Roy S, Dutta B, Ghosh AR et al (2005) Molecular tracking of the lineage of strains of Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor associated with a cholera outbreak in Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. Trop Med Int Health 10:604–611Google Scholar
  165. Roy S, Parande MV, Mantur BG et al (2012) Multidrug-resistant Vibrio cholerae O1 in Belgaum, south India. J Med Microbiol 61:1574–1579PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Rudra S, Mathur M, Talwar V, Kathuria K et al (1997) Changing patterns of Vibrio cholerae isolation over three consecutive cholera seasons (1992–1994) in east Delhi. J Commun Dis 29:15–22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Russell AJH (1927) Trans Far East Assoc Trop Med ii:131Google Scholar
  168. Sabherwal U, Sikka R (1994) Emergence of Vibrio cholerae serogroup O139 in Haryana in May–June 1993. Indian J Med Res 99:105–106PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Sachdeva V, Khanna KK, Singh M, Singh J, Kumari S, Verghese T (1995) Widespread emergence of Vibrio cholerae O139 in India. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 26:342–346PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Sack RB (1992) Colonization and pathology. In: Barua D, Greenough WB (eds) Cholera. Plenum Medical Book Co., New York, pp 189–197Google Scholar
  171. Sack RB, Barua D (1964) The fluorescent antibody technique in the diagnosis of cholera. Indian J Med Res 52:848–854PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Saha A, Deb R, Shah S et al (2006) PCR-based identification of Vibrio cholerae and the closely related species Vibrio mimicus using the large chromosomal ori sequence of Vibrio cholerae. FEMS Microbiol Lett 257:84–91PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Saha PK, Koley H, Mukhopadhyay AK et al (1996) Nontoxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 serotype Inaba biotype El Tor associated with a cluster of cases of cholera in southern India. J Clin Microbiol 34:1114–1117Google Scholar
  174. Samal B, Ghosh SK, Mohanty SK, Patnaik K (2001) Epidemic of Vibrio cholerae serogroup O139 in Berhampur, Orissa. Indian J Med Res 114:10–11PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Sarkar BL, Kanungo S, Nair GB (2012) How endemic is cholera in India? Indian J Med Res 135:246–248PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Saraswathi K, Deodhar LP (1990) A study of V. cholerae strains isolated in Bombay. J Postgrad Med 36:128–130PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Sasmal D, Ganguly R (1971) Studies on intestopan resistant vibrios. Indian J Med Res 59:526PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Sehgal PN, Misra BS, Pal SC et al (1972) An epidemic of classical cholera in the south eastern districts of Madhya Pradesh in 1970. Indian J Med Res 60:7–14PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Sekar R, Amudhan M, Sivashankar M, Mythily N, Mythreyee M (2012) An outbreak of cholera among a rural population in south India: is it time to vaccinate the children in endemic areas? Indian J Med Res 135:678–679PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Sengupta PG, Sircar BK, Mandal S et al (1978) Effect of doxycyline on transmission of Vibrio cholerae infection amongst family contacts of cholera patients in Calcutta. Bull World Health Organ 56:323–326Google Scholar
  181. Sengupta PG, Sircar BK, Mandal SK et al (1995) Epidemiology of Vibrio cholerae O139 with special reference to intrafamilial transmission in Calcutta. J Infect 31:45–47PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Sengupta PG, Niyogi SK, Bhattacharya SK (2000) An outbreak of Eltor cholera in Aizwal town of Mizoram, India. J Commun Dis 32:207–211PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Sethi NK, Sethi SK (2001) Vibrio cholerae diarrhoea in a three-day-old breastfed neonate. Indian J Pediatr 68:791–792PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Shah WA, Shahina M, Ali N (2002) First report of Vibrio cholerae infection from Andaman and Nicobar, India. J Commun Dis 34:270–275PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Shah HD, Shah VP, Desai AN (2012) An epidemic outbreak of Vibrio cholerae El Tor O1 serotype Ogawa biotype in a Lalpur town, Jamnagar, India. J Postgrad Med 58:14–18PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Sharma MID (1975) Problem of Cholera in India. J Com Dis 7:79–83Google Scholar
  187. Sharma C, Ghosh A, Ghosh RK, Mukhopadhyay AK, Nair GB (1998) Molecular analysis of the cholera toxin gene and antibiotic sensitivity profile of Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139 associated with mixed infection. Indian J Med Res 107:199–203PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Sharma C, Maiti S, Mukhopadhyay AK et al (1997a) Unique organization of the CTX genetic element in Vibrio cholerae O139 strains which reemerged in Calcutta, India, in September 1996. J Clin Microbiol 35:3348–3350PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Sharma C, Nair GB, Mukhopadhyay AK, Bhattacharya SK, Ghosh RK, Ghosh A (1997b) Molecular characterization of Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor strains isolated between 1992 and 1995 in Calcutta, India: evidence for the emergence of a new clone of the El Tor biotype. J Infect Dis 175:1134–1141PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Shi L, Fujihara K, Sato T et al (2006) Distribution and characterization of integrons in various serogroups of Vibrio cholerae strains isolated from diarrhoeal patients between 1992 and 2000 in Kolkata, India. J Med Microbiol 55:575–583PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Shirai H, Nishibuchi M, Ramamurthy T, Bhattacharya SK, Pal SC, Takeda Y (1991) Polymerase chain reaction for detection of the cholera enterotoxin operon of Vibrio cholerae. J Clin Microbiol 29:2517–2521PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. Simpson WJ (1888) Cholera and its fostering conditions within the endemic area. BMJ II:416Google Scholar
  193. Singh YI, Singh TS, Devi U, Singh NB (1986) Cholera outbreak in Manipur. J Commun Dis 18:9–112Google Scholar
  194. Singh J, Khanna KK, Dhariwal AC et al (1996a) Unusual occurrence of cholera in Delhi during January 1994: epidemiological investigations. J Diarrhoeal Dis Res 14:107–109Google Scholar
  195. Singh J, Bora D, Khanna KK et al (1996b) Epidemiology and transmission of V. cholerae O1 and V. cholerae O139 infections in Delhi in 1993. J Diarrhoeal Dis Res 14:182–186Google Scholar
  196. Singh J, Bora D, Sachdeva V, Sharma RS, Verghese T (1997) Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139 in less than five years old children hospitalised for watery diarrhoea in Delhi, 1993. J Diarrhoeal Dis Res 15:3–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. Singh J, Sachdeva V, Bhatia R, Bora D, Jain DC, Sokhey J (1998) Endemic cholera in Delhi, 1995: analysis of data from a sentinel centre. J Diarrhoeal Dis Res 16:66–73PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Sinha R, Deb BC, Ghosh AK, Shrivastava DL (1969) Virulence of Vibrio cholerae strains isolated from carriers in the rabbit ileal loop. Indian J Med Res 57:1636PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. Sinha S, Chowdhury P, Chowdhury NR et al (2001) Molecular comparison of toxigenic clinical & non-toxigenic environmental strains of Vibrio cholerae O1 Ogawa isolated during an outbreak of cholera in south India. Indian J Med Res 114:83–89PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. Sinha S, Chakraborty R, De K et al (2002) Escalating association of Vibrio cholerae O139 with cholera outbreaks in India. J Clin Microbiol 40:2635–2637PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. Sinha A, Sengupta S, Ghosh S et al (2012) Evaluation of a rapid dipstick test for identifying cholera cases during the outbreak. Indian J Med Res 135:523–528PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Sircar BK, Saha MR, Deb BC, Singh PK, Pal SC (1990) Effectiveness of oral rehydration salt solution (ORS) in reduction of death during cholera epidemic. Indian J Public Health 34:68–70PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Slathia P, Bansal MP (1999) Incidence of Vibrio cholerae in different age groups and sex in Aurangabad. Province isolated during January 1994 to December 1994. Indian J Med Sci 53:349–351PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. Soni GS, Gupta BL, Gupta U, Joshi KR (1989) An outbreak of El Tor cholera in rural population of Barmer in Rajasthan State of India, Aug–Sep 1987. Indian J Public Health 33:77–78PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. Sugunan AP, Roy S, Shahina M et al (2007) Emergence of Vibrio cholerae O1 Inaba in Andaman & Nicobar Islands, India. J Public Health 29:308–309Google Scholar
  206. Sundaram SP, Revathi J, Elango V, Shanthakumari SL (1998) Aetiology of cholera in Tamil Nadu: recent observations. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 92:164–165PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Sundaram SP, Revathi J, Sarkar BL, Bhattacharya SK (2002) Bacteriological profile of cholera in Tamil Nadu (1980–2001). Indian J Med Res 116:258–263PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. Sur D, Dutta P, Nair GB, Bhattacharya SK (2000) Severe cholera outbreak following floods in a northern district of West Bengal. Indian J Med Res 112:178–182PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. Sur D, Sengupta PG, Mondal SK et al (2002) A localised outbreak of Vibrio cholerae O139 in Kolkata, West Bengal. Indian J Med Res 115:149–152PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. Sur D, Deen JL, Manna B et al (2005) The burden of cholera in the slums of Kolkata, India: data from a prospective, community based study. Arch Dis Child 90:1175–1181PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. Sur D, Kanungo S, Sah B et al (2011) Efficacy of a low-cost, inactivated whole-cell oral cholera vaccine: results from 3 years of follow-up of a randomized, controlled trial. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 5:e1289PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. Swaroop S, Pollitzer R (1955) Bull World Health Organ xii:311Google Scholar
  213. Taneja N, Kaur J, Sharma K et al (2003) A recent outbreak of cholera due to Vibrio cholerae O1 Ogawa in & around Chandigarh, North India. Indian J Med Res 117:243–246PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. Taneja N, Biswal M, Tarai B, Sharma M (2005) Emergence of Vibrio cholerae O1 Biotype El Tor Serotype Inaba in North India. Jpn J Infect Dis. 58:238–240PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. Taneja N, Sangar G, Chowdhury G et al (2012) Molecular epidemiology of Vibrio cholerae causing outbreaks & sporadic cholera in northern India. Indian J Med Res 136:656–663PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. Thakur JS, Swami HM, Dutt R, Mehta M, Gupta V (2001) Epidemiological investigation of cholera outbreak in a periurban slum colony in Chandigarh. Indian J Med Sci 55:429–433PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. Thungapathra M, Amita Sinha KK et al (2002) Occurrence of antibiotic resistance gene cassettes aac(6′)-Ib, dfrA5, dfrA12, and ereA2 in class I integrons in non-O1, non-O139 Vibrio cholerae strains in India. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46:2948–2955PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. Tilak VW, Bhalwar R, Ratti JS (1997) Epidemiological study of an outbreak of cholera in Delhi cantonment. Indian J Public Health 41:61–67PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. Uppal B, Berry N, Kakar S, Ramji S, Mathur MD (1999) Vibrio cholerae O1 serotype Ogawa in a neonate. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 33:63–64PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. Verenkar M, Savio R, Venkatesh N, Pinto MJ, Singh I (1994) Cholera epidemic in Goa. Indian J Pathol Microbiol 37:289–292PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. Verma R, Khanna P, Chawla S (2012) Cholera vaccine: new preventive tool for endemic countries. Hum Vaccin Immunother 8:682–684PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. Vijayalakshmi N, Rao RS, Sujatha S, Hamid A, Dutta TK, Das AK (1994) An outbreak of gastroenteritis due to Vibrio cholerae O139 in Pondicherry, South India. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 25:314–315PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. Vijayalakshmi N, Rao RS, Badrinath S (1997) Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of some antibiotics against Vibrio cholerae O139 isolates from Pondicherry. Epidemiol Infect 119:25–28PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. Walsh TR, Weeks J, Livermore DM, Toleman MA (2011) Dissemination of NDM-1 positive bacteria in the New Delhi environment and its implications for human health: an environmental point prevalence study. Lancet Infect Dis 11:355–362PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. Wozniak RA, Waldor MK (2010) Integrative and conjugative elements: mosaic mobile genetic elements enabling dynamic lateral gene flow. Nat Rev Microbiol 8:552–563PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National Institute of Cholera and Enteric DiseasesKolkataIndia
  2. 2.Maharishi Valmiki Infectious Diseases HospitalDelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations