Advertisement

Group A Streptococcal Diseases and Their Global Burden

  • Anna P. RalphEmail author
  • Jonathan R. Carapetis
Part of the Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology book series (CT MICROBIOLOGY, volume 368)

Abstract

Group A streptococcus (GAS) or Streptococcus pyogenes has been recognised as an important human pathogen since early days of modern microbiology, and it remains among the top ten causes of mortality from an infectious disease. Clinical manifestations attributable to this organism are perhaps the most diverse of any single human pathogen. These encompass invasive GAS infections, with high mortality rates despite effective antimicrobials, toxin-mediated diseases including scarlet fever and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome, the autoimmune sequelae of rheumatic fever and glomerulonephritis with potential for long-term disability, and nuisance manifestations of superficial skin and pharyngeal infection, which continue to consume a sizable proportion of healthcare resources. Although an historical perspective indicates major overall reductions in GAS infection rates in the modern era, chiefly as a result of widespread improvements in socioeconomic circumstances, this pathogen remains as a leading infectious cause of global morbidity and mortality. More than 18 million people globally are estimated to suffer from serious GAS disease. This burden disproportionally affects least affluent populations, and is a major cause of illness and death among children and young adults, including pregnant women, in low-resource settings. We review GAS transmission characteristics and prevention strategies, historical and geographical trends and report on the estimated global burden disease attributable to GAS. The lack of systematic reporting makes accurate estimation of rates difficult. This highlights the need to support improved surveillance and epidemiological research in low-resource settings, in order to enable better assessment of national and global disease burdens, target control strategies appropriately and assess the success of control interventions.

Keywords

Rheumatic Heart Disease Acute Rheumatic Fever Scarlet Fever Streptococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome Puerperal Sepsis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgment

APR is supported by National Health and Medical Research Council (Australia) Fellowship 1016567.

References

  1. Adriaanse AH, Pel M, Bleker OP (2000) Semmelweis: the combat against puerperal fever. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 90:153–158CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Andrews RM, McCarthy J, Carapetis JR, Currie BJ (2009) Skin disorders, including pyoderma, scabies, and tinea infections. Pediatr Clin North Am 56:1421–1440CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Baddour LM, Bisno AL (1982) Recurrent cellulitis after saphenous venectomy for coronary bypass surgery. Ann Intern Med 97:493–496PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Berkley JA, Lowe BS, Mwangi I, Williams T, Bauni E, Mwarumba S et al (2005) Bacteremia among children admitted to a rural hospital in Kenya. N Engl J Med 352:39–47CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bisno AL, Stevens DL (1996) Streptococcal infections of skin and soft tissues. N Engl J Med 334:240–245CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bisno AL, Stevens DL (2000) Streptococcus pyogenes (including Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome and necrotising fasciitis). In: Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R (eds) Mandell, Douglas and Bennett’s principles and practice of infectious diseases, 5th edn. Churchill Livingstone, Philadelphia, pp 2101–2117Google Scholar
  7. Bloom BR, Murray CJ (1992) Tuberculosis: commentary on a reemergent killer. Science 257:1055–1064CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Brennan RE, Patel MS (1990) Acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease in a rural central Australian aboriginal community. Med J Aust 153:335, 338–339Google Scholar
  9. Brown A, Purton L, Schaeffer G, Wheaton G (2003) Central Australian Rheumatic Heart Disease Control Program. Central Australian RHD Steering Committee. Northern Territory Disease Control Bulletin 10:1–8Google Scholar
  10. Bryant PA, Robins-Browne R, Carapetis JR, Curtis N (2009) Some of the people, some of the time: susceptibility to acute rheumatic fever. Circulation 119:742–753CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Carapetis JR (1998) Ending the heartache: the epidemiology and control of acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease in the top end of the Northern Territory, University of SydneyGoogle Scholar
  12. Carapetis JR (2008) Rheumatic heart disease in Asia. Circulation 118:2748–2753CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Carapetis JR (2009) Epidemiology of group A streptococcus in Australia. Microbiol Australia 30:171–176Google Scholar
  14. Carapetis JR, Currie BJ (1999) Mortality due to acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease in the Northern territory: a preventable cause of death in aboriginal people. Aust N Z J Public Health 23:159–163CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Carapetis JR, Walker AM, Hibble M, Sriprakash KS, Currie BJ (1999) Clinical and epidemiological features of group A streptococcal bacteraemia in a region with hyperendemic superficial streptococcal infection. Epidemiol Infect 122:59–65CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Carapetis JR, Currie BJ, Mathews JD (2000) Cumulative incidence of rheumatic fever in an endemic region: a guide to the susceptibility of the population? Epidemiol Infect 124:239–244CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Carapetis JR, Steer AC, Mulholland EK, Weber M (2005a) The global burden of group A streptococcal diseases. Lancet Infect Dis 5:685–694CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Carapetis JR, McDonald M, Wilson NJ (2005b) Acute rheumatic fever. Lancet 366:155–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Centers for Disease Control, Prevention (1999) Nosocomial group A streptococcal infections associated with asymptomatic health-care workers–Maryland and California, 1997. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 48:163-166Google Scholar
  20. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2001) Soft tissue infections among injection drug users—San Francisco, California, 1996–2000. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 50(19):381–384. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11465906
  21. Centers for Disease Control, Prevention (2002) Outbreak of group A streptococcal pneumonia among Marine Corps recruits, 1 Nov–20 Dec, California. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2003, 52:106–109Google Scholar
  22. Cernay J, Rusnak M, Raisova A (1993) Incidence of rheumatic fever in Slovakia during the last 20 years. Ceskoslovenska Pediatrie 48:79–83PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Coburn AF, Young DC (1949) The epidemiology of hemolytic streptotoccus during World War II in the United States Navy. Williams and Wilkins, BaltimoreGoogle Scholar
  24. Cone LA, Woodard DR, Schlievert PM, Tomory GS (1987) Clinical and bacteriologic observations of a toxic shock-like syndrome due to Streptococcus pyogenes. N Engl J Med 317:146–149CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Danchin MH, Rogers S, Selvaraj G, Kelpie L, Rankin P, Vorich R et al (2004) The burden of group A streptococcal pharyngitis in Melbourne families. Indian J Med Res 119(Suppl):144–147PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Davies HD, McGeer A, Schwartz B, Green K, Cann D, Simor AE et al (1996) Invasive group A streptococcal infections in Ontario, Canada. Ontario Group A Streptococcal study group. N Engl J Med 335:547–554CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Del Mar CB, Glasziou PP, Spinks AB (2006) Antibiotics for sore throat. Cochrane database of systematic reviews. :CD000023Google Scholar
  28. Ewald DP, Hall GV, Franks CC (2003) An evaluation of a SAFE-style trachoma control program in Central Australia. Med J Aust 178:65–68PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Ferrieri P (2002) Proceedings of the Jones Criteria workshop. Circulation 106:2521–2523CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Gemmell CG, Peterson PK, Schmeling D, Kim Y, Mathews J, Wannamaker L et al (1981) Potentiation of opsonization and phagocytosis of Streptococcus pyogenes following growth in the presence of clindamycin. J Clin Invest 67:1249–1256CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Hanna JN, Clark MF (2010) Acute rheumatic fever in Indigenous people in North Queensland: some good news at last? Med J Aust 192:581–584PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Harper A for the Centre for Maternal and Child Enquiries (2011) Sepsis (Chapter 7). In: Saving mothers’ lives. Reviewing maternal deaths to make motherhood safer, 2006–2008. BJOG 118 (Supp 1):85–96Google Scholar
  33. Health Protection Agency Group A Streptococcus Working Group (2004) Interim UK guidelines for management of close community contacts of invasive group A streptococcal disease. Commun Dis Public Health 7:354–361Google Scholar
  34. Heggie AD, Jacobs MR, Linz PE, Han DP, Kaplan EL, Boxerbaum B (1992) Prevalence and characteristics of pharyngeal group A beta-hemolytic streptococci in US Navy recruits receiving benzathine penicillin prophylaxis. J Infect Dis 166:1006–1013CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Hoge CW, Schwartz B, Talkington DF, Breiman RF, MacNeill EM, Englender SJ (1993) The changing epidemiology of invasive group A streptococcal infections and the emergence of streptococcal toxic shock-like syndrome: a retrospective population-based study. JAMA 269:384–389CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Hook EW 3rd, Hooton TM, Horton CA, Coyle MB, Ramsey PG, Turck M (1986) Microbiologic evaluation of cutaneous cellulitis in adults. Arch Intern Med 146:295–297CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Horn DL, Zabriskie JB, Austrian R, Cleary PP, Ferretti JJ, Fischetti VA et al (1998) Why have group A streptococci remained susceptible to penicillin? Report on a symposium. Clin Infect Dis 26:1341–1345CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Hoy WE, Mathews JD, McCredie DA, Pugsley DJ, Hayhurst BG, Rees M et al (1998) The multidimensional nature of renal disease: rates and associations of albuminuria in an Australian Aboriginal community. Kidney Int 54:1296–1304CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Jaine R, Baker M, Venugopal K (2008) Epidemiology of acute rheumatic fever in New Zealand 1996–2005. J Paediatr Child Health 44:564–571CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Kaplan EL (1993) T. Duckett Jones Memorial Lecture. Global assessment of rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease at the close of the century. Influences and dynamics of populations and pathogens: a failure to realize prevention? Circulation 88:1964–1972CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Kaplan EL (2009) Some things never change! Clin Infect Dis 48:1220–1222CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Kaplan EL, Top FH Jr, Dudding BA, Wannamaker LW (1971) Diagnosis of streptococcal pharyngitis: differentiation of active infection from the carrier state in the symptomatic child. J Infect Dis 123:490–501CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Katz AR, Morens DM (1992) Severe streptococcal infections in historical perspective. Clin Infect Dis 14:298–307CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Kim S, Lee NY (2004) Epidemiology and antibiotic resistance of group A streptococci isolated from healthy schoolchildren in Korea. J Antimicrob Chemother 54:447–450CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Kohler W, Gerlach D, Knoll H (1987) Streptococcal outbreaks and erythrogenic toxin type A. Zentralbl Bakteriol Mikrobiol Hyg A 266:104–115PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Kurahara DK, Grandinetti A, Galario J, Reddy DV, Tokuda A, Langan S et al (2006) Ethnic differences for developing rheumatic fever in a low-income group living in Hawaii. Ethn Dis 16:357–361PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Lamagni TL, Efstratiou A, Vuopio-Varkila J, Jasir A, Schalen C, Strep E (2005) The epidemiology of severe Streptococcus pyogenes associated disease in Europe. Euro Surveill 10:179–184PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Leach AJ, Shelby-James TM, Mayo M, Gratten M, Laming AC, Currie BJ et al (1997) A prospective study of the impact of community-based azithromycin treatment of trachoma on carriage and resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Clin Infect Dis 24:356–362CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Lehmann D, Tennant MT, Silva DT, McAullay D, Lannigan F, Coates H et al (2003) Benefits of swimming pools in two remote Aboriginal communities in Western Australia: intervention study. BMJ 327:415–419CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Lennon D, Martin D, Wong E, Taylor LR (1988) Longitudinal study of post streptococcal disease in Auckland; rheumatic fever, glomerulonephritis, epidemiology and M typing 1981–86. N Z Med J 101:396–398PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Lennon D, Stewart J, Farrell E, Palmer A, Mason H (2009) School-based prevention of acute rheumatic fever: a group randomized trial in New Zealand. Pediatr Infect Dis J 28:787–794CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Lue HC, Chen CL, Wei H, Okuni M, Mabilangan LM, Dharmasakti D et al (1979) The natural history of rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease in the Orient. Jpn Heart J 20:237–252CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Mahmood Z, Al Benna S, Nkere U, Murday A (2006) Decreased morbidity following long saphenous vein harvesting using a minimally invasive technique: a randomised controlled trial comparing two techniques for long saphenous vein harvest. J Cardiothorac Surg 1:15Google Scholar
  54. Majeed HA, Al-Doussary L, Moussa MM, Yusuf AR, Suliman AH (1993) Office diagnosis and management of group A streptococcal pharyngitis employing the rapid antigen detecting test. A 1-year prospective study of reliability and cost in primary care centres. Ann Trop Paediatr 13:65–72Google Scholar
  55. Manyemba J, Mayosi BM (2002) Penicillin for secondary prevention of rheumatic fever. Cochrane database of systematic reviews :CD002227Google Scholar
  56. Marijon E, Ou P, Celermajer DS, Ferreira B, Mocumbi AO, Jani D et al (2007) Prevalence of rheumatic heart disease detected by echocardiographic screening. N Engl J Med 357:470–476CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Marijon E, Mirabel M, Celermajer DS, Jouven X (2012) Rheumatic heart disease. Lancet 379:953–964CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Marshall CS, Cheng AC, Markey PG, Towers RJ, Richardson LJ, Fagan PK et al (2011) Acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis in the Northern Territory of Australia: a review of 16 years data and comparison with the literature. Am J Trop Med Hyg 85:703–710CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Martin PR, Hoiby EA (1990) Streptococcal serogroup A epidemic in Norway 1987–1988. Scand J Infect Dis 22:421–429CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. McDonald M, Currie BJ, Carapetis JR (2004) Acute rheumatic fever: a chink in the chain that links the heart to the throat? Lancet Infect Dis 4:240–245CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. McDonald MI, Towers RJ, Andrews RM, Benger N, Currie BJ, Carapetis JR (2006) Low rates of streptococcal pharyngitis and high rates of pyoderma in Australian aboriginal communities where acute rheumatic fever is hyperendemic. Clin Infect Dis 43:683–689CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. McNamara DR, Tleyjeh IM, Berbari EF, Lahr BD, Martinez JW, Mirzoyev SA et al (2007) Incidence of lower-extremity cellulitis: a population-based study in Olmsted county. Minnesota. Mayo Clin Proc 82:817–821CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Milne LM, Lamagni T, Efstratiou A, Foley C, Gilman J, Lilley M et al (2011) Streptococcus pyogenes cluster in a care home in England April to June 2010. Euro Surveill 16:20021PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Milne RJ, Lennon D, Stewart JM, Vander Hoorn S, Scuffham PA (2012a). Mortality and hospitalisation costs of rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease in New Zealand. J Paediatr Child Health 48:692–697Google Scholar
  65. Milne RJ, Lennon DR, Stewart JM, Vander Hoorn S, Scuffham PA (2012b) Incidence of acute rheumatic fever in New Zealand children and youth. J Paediatr Child Health 48:685–691Google Scholar
  66. Morita JY, Kahn E, Thompson T, Laclaire L, Beall B, Gherardi G et al (2000) Impact of azithromycin on oropharyngeal carriage of group A Streptococcus and nasopharyngeal carriage of macrolide-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. Pediatr Infect Dis J 19:41–46CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Myo Thet H, Thein N, Nyan T, May Mon K (1992) Prevalence of cardiovascular diseases in rural area of Hmawbi and urban Yangon city. Asia Pac J Public Health 6:188–194Google Scholar
  68. Nandi S, Kumar R, Ray P, Vohra H, Ganguly NK (2001) Group A streptococcal sore throat in a periurban population of northern India: a one-year prospective study. Bull World Health Organ 79:528–533PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Nathan L, Peters MT, Ahmed AM, Leveno KJ (1993) The return of life-threatening puerperal sepsis caused by group A streptococci. Am J Obstet Gynecol 169:571–572PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. New South Wales Health (2012) Invasive group A Streptococcus—Control guidelines for NSW Public Health Units 2015. [cited October 2012].http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/factsheets/guideline/maternal_sepsis.html
  71. Noonan S, Zurynski YA, Currie BJ, McDonald M, Wheaton G, Nissen M, et al. (2012) A National Prospective Surveillance Study of Acute Rheumatic Fever in Australian Children. Pediatr Infect Dis J [Epub ahead of print]Google Scholar
  72. Norton R, Smith HV, Wood N, Siegbrecht E, Ross A, Ketheesan N (2004) Invasive group A streptococcal disease in North Queensland (1996–2001). Indian J Med Res 119(Suppl):148–151PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Omar A (1995) Pattern of acute rheumatic fever in a local teaching hospital. Medical J Malaysia 50:125–130Google Scholar
  74. Ontario Ministry of Health (2005) Guidelines for management of contacts of cases of invasive group A streptococcal disease (GAS) including streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) and necrotising fasciitis (NF) [cited October 2012]. http://microbiology.mtsinai.on.ca/protocols/pdf/k5c.pdf
  75. Padmavati S, Sharma KB, Jayaram O (1973) Epidemiology and prophylaxis of rheumatic fever in Delhi–a five year follow-up. Singapore Med J 14:457–461PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Parnaby MG, Carapetis JR (2010) Rheumatic fever in indigenous Australian children. J Paediatr Child Health 46:527–533CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Pastore S, De Cunto A, Benettoni A, Berton E, Taddio A, Lepore L (2011) The resurgence of rheumatic fever in a developed country area: the role of echocardiography. Rheumatology 50:396–400CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Prevention of Invasive Group ASIWP (2002) Prevention of invasive group A streptococcal disease among household contacts of case patients and among postpartum and postsurgical patients: recommendations from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Clin Infect Dis 35:950–959CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Purcell B, Samuelsson S, Hahne SJ, Ehrhard I, Heuberger S, Camaroni I et al (2004) Effectiveness of antibiotics in preventing meningococcal disease after a case: systematic review. BMJ 328:1339CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Quinn RW (1989) Comprehensive review of morbidity and mortality trends for rheumatic fever, streptococcal disease, and scarlet fever: the decline of rheumatic fever. Rev Infect Dis 11:928–953CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. RHD Australia (ARF/RHD writing group) (2012) The Australian guideline for prevention, diagnosis and management of acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease (2nd edition). National Heart Foundation of Australia and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand [cited Oct 2012]. http://www.rhdaustralia.org.au/sites/default/files/guideline_0.pdf
  82. Rheumatic fever working party (1960) The evolution of rheumatic heart disease in children. Five-year report of a co-operative clinical trial of A.C.T.H. cortisone, and aspirin. Circulation 22:503–515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Richmond P, Harris L (1998) Rheumatic fever in the Kimberley region of Western Australia. J Trop Pediatr 44:148–152CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Rizvi SF, Khan MA, Kundi A, Marsh DR, Samad A, Pasha O (2004) Status of rheumatic heart disease in rural Pakistan. Heart 90:394–399CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Sartain JB, Anderson NL, Barry JJ, Boyd PT, Howat PW (2012) Rheumatic heart disease in pregnancy—cardiac and obstetric outcomes. Intern Med J [epub ahead of print]Google Scholar
  86. Sawhney H, Aggarwal N, Suri V, Vasishta K, Sharma Y, Grover A (2003) Maternal and perinatal outcome in rheumatic heart disease. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 80:9–14CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Seckeler MD, Hoke TR (2011) The worldwide epidemiology of acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease. Clin Epidemiol 3:67–84PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Seppala H, Klaukka T, Vuopio-Varkila J, Muotiala A, Helenius H, Lager K et al (1997) The effect of changes in the consumption of macrolide antibiotics on erythromycin resistance in group A streptococci in Finland. Finnish Study Group for Antimicrobial Resistance. N Engl J Med 337:441–446CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Shelby-James TM, Leach AJ, Carapetis JR, Currie BJ, Mathews JD (2002) Impact of single dose azithromycin on group A streptococci in the upper respiratory tract and skin of Aboriginal children. Pediatr Infect Dis J 21:375–380CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Sjoblom AC, Eriksson B, Jorup-Ronstrom C, Karkkonen K, Lindqvist M (1993) Antibiotic prophylaxis in recurrent erysipelas. Infection 21:390–393CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Smith A, Lamagni TL, Oliver I, Efstratiou A, George RC, Stuart JM (2005) Invasive group A streptococcal disease: Should close contacts routinely receive antibiotic prophylaxis? The Lancet Infect Dis 5:494–500Google Scholar
  92. Smith MT, Lester-Smith D, Zurynski Y, Noonan S, Carapetis JR, Elliott EJ (2011) Persistence of acute rheumatic fever in a tertiary children’s hospital. J Paediatr Child Health 47:198–203CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Steer AC, Adams J, Carlin J, Nolan T, Shann F (1999) Rheumatic heart disease in school children in Samoa. Arch Dis Child 81:372CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Steer AC, Jenney AJ, Oppedisano F, Batzloff MR, Hartas J, Passmore J et al (2008) High burden of invasive beta-haemolytic streptococcal infections in Fiji. Epidemiol Infect 136:621–627CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Steer AC, Batzloff MR, Mulholland K, Carapetis JR (2009a) Group A streptococcal vaccines: facts versus fantasy. Curr Opin Infect Dis 22:544–552CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Steer AC, Law I, Matatolu L, Beall BW, Carapetis JR (2009b) Global emm type distribution of group A streptococci: systematic review and implications for vaccine development. Lancet Infect Dis 9:611–616CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Stevens DL (1995) Streptococcal toxic-shock syndrome: spectrum of disease, pathogenesis, and new concepts in treatment. Emerg Infect Dis 1:69–78CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Stevens DL, Maier KA, Mitten JE (1987) Effect of antibiotics on toxin production and viability of Clostridium perfringens. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 31:213–218CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Stevens DL, Tanner MH, Winship J, Swarts R, Ries KM, Schlievert PM et al (1989) Severe group A streptococcal infections associated with a toxic shock-like syndrome and scarlet fever toxin A. N Engl J Med 321:1–7CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Stromberg A, Romanus V, Burman LG (1991) Outbreak of group A streptococcal bacteremia in Sweden: an epidemiologic and clinical study. J Infect Dis 164:595–598CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Svensson N, Oberg S, Henriques B, Holm S, Kallenius G, Romanus V et al (2000) Invasive group A streptococcal infections in Sweden in 1994 and 1995: epidemiology and clinical spectrum. Scand J Infect Dis 32:609–614CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Tanz RR, Shulman ST, Barthel MJ, Willert C, Yogev R (1985) Penicillin plus rifampin eradicates pharyngeal carriage of group A streptococci. J Pediatrics 106:876–880CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. The WHO Young Infants Study Group (1999) Bacterial etiology of serious infections in young infants in developing countries: Results of a multicenter study. Pediatr Infect Dis J 18:S17–S22Google Scholar
  104. The Working Group on Severe Streptococcal Infections (1993) Defining the group A streptococcal toxic shock syndrome: Rationale and consensus definition. The Working Group on Severe Streptococcal Infections. JAMA 269:390–391Google Scholar
  105. Tibazarwa KB, Volmink JA, Mayosi BM (2008) Incidence of acute rheumatic fever in the world: a systematic review of population-based studies. Heart 94:1534–1540CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Veasy LG, Wiedmeier SE, Orsmond GS, Ruttenberg HD, Boucek MM, Roth SJ et al (1987) Resurgence of acute rheumatic fever in the intermountain area of the United States. N Engl J Med 316:421–427CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Wannamaker LW (1954) The epidemiology of streptococcal infections. Columbia University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  108. Wasserzug O, Valinsky L, Klement E, Bar-Zeev Y, Davidovitch N, Orr N et al (2009) A cluster of ecthyma outbreaks caused by a single clone of invasive and highly infective Streptococcus pyogenes. Clin Infect Dis 48:1213–1219CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. White AV, Hoy WE, McCredie DA (2001) Childhood post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis as a risk factor for chronic renal disease in later life. Med J Aust 174:492–496PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. WHO Expert consultation on rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease (2001) Rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease: report of a WHO Expert Consultation, Geneva, 29 Oct–1 Nov. WHO Technical Report Series 923. 2004 [cited October 2012]. http://whqlibdoc.who.int/trs/WHO_TRS_923.pdf
  111. Williams AW, Gurley CR, Sobel E, Castelda M (1932) Milk-borne Septic Sore Throat and Scarlet Fever and Their Relation to Beta Hemolytic Streptococci. J Bacteriol 23:241–258PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. World Health Organisation (1990) Global Burden of Disease [cited Oct 2012]. http://www.who.int/topics/global_burden_of_disease/en/
  113. World Health Organisation (2011) Global Tuberculosis Control: WHO Report. WHO Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data. 2011 [cited Oct 2012]. http://www.who.int/tb/publications/global_report/2011/gtbr11_full.pdf
  114. World Health Organization (2005) The Current Evidence for the Burden of Group A Streptococcal Diseases. Discussion papers on Child Health. Department of Child and Adolescent Health and Development, WHO. [cited Oct 2012]. http://whqlibdoc.who.int/hq/2005/WHO_FCH_CAH_05.07.pdf
  115. Yagupsky P, Landau D, Beck A, Dagan R (1995) Carriage of Streptococcus pyogenes among infants and toddlers attending day-care facilities in closed communities in southern Israel. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 14:54–58CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Global and Tropical HealthMenzies School of Health ResearchDarwinAustralia
  2. 2.Division of MedicineRoyal Darwin HospitalDarwinAustralia
  3. 3.Telethon Institute for Child Health Research, Centre for Child Health ResearchUniversity of Western AustraliaPerthWestern Australia

Personalised recommendations