Bacterial Moonlighting Proteins and Bacterial Virulence

  • Brian HendersonEmail author
  • Andrew Martin
Part of the Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology book series (CT MICROBIOLOGY, volume 358)


Implicit in the central dogma is the hypothesis that each protein gene product has but one function. However, over the past decade, it has become clear that many proteins have one or more unique functions, over-and-above the principal biological action of the specific protein. This phenomenon is now known as protein moonlighting and many well-known proteins such as metabolic enzymes and molecular chaperones are now recognised as moonlighting proteins. A growing number of bacterial species are being found to have moonlighting proteins and the moonlighting activities of such proteins can contribute to bacterial virulence behaviour. The glycolytic enzymes, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPD) and enolase, and the cell stress proteins: chaperonin 60, Hsp70 and peptidyl prolyl isomerase, are among the most common of the bacterial moonlighting proteins which play a role in bacterial virulence. Moonlighting activities include adhesion and modulation of cell signalling processes. It is likely that only the tip of the bacterial moonlighting iceberg has been sighted and the next decade will bring with it many new discoveries of bacterial moonlighting proteins with a role in bacterial virulence.


Molecular Chaperone Glycolytic Enzyme Bacterial Virulence Phosphoglycerate Mutase Peptidyl Prolyl Isomerase 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



American foulbrood


Autocrine motility factor


Adenosine triphosphate


Cluster of differentiation




Dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule


Extracellular matrix


Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition


Endoplasmic reticulum


Fructose bisphosphate aldolase


Fibronectin-binding protein


Factor H-like (protein)


Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase


Growth hormone releasing hormone


High-density lipoprotein


Hepatocyte growth factor receptor


Heat shock protein


High-temperature requirement




Iron-responsive elements


Listeria adhesion protein.


Legionella-containing vacuole


Low density lipoprotein




Mitogen-activated protein (kinase)


Major histocompatibility complex


Macrophage infectivity potentiator


Myeloid differentiation factor


Nuclear factor of activated T cells


Open reading frame


Protein-folding catalyst


Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase




Purified protein derivative


Peptidyl prolyl isomerase


Streptococcal surface dehydrogenase


Signal transducer and activator of transcription


Tricarboxylic acid cycle


Toll-like receptor


Triose phosphate isomerase


Urokinase plasminogen activator receptor


Voltage dependent anion channel


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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Microbial DiseasesUCL-Eastman Dental Institute, University College LondonLondonUK
  2. 2.Division of BiosciencesInstitute of Structural and Molecular Biology, University College LondonLondonUK

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