Effects of Hallucinogens on Neuronal Activity

  • L. Lladó-Pelfort
  • P. Celada
  • M. S. Riga
  • E. Troyano-Rodríguez
  • N. Santana
  • F. Artigas
Part of the Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences book series (CTBN, volume 36)


Hallucinogens evoke sensory, perceptual, affective, and cognitive effects that may be useful to understand the neurobiological basis of mood and psychotic disorders. The present chapter reviews preclinical research carried out in recent years in order to better understand the action of psychotomimetic agents such as the noncompetitive NMDA receptor (NMDA-R) antagonists and serotonergic hallucinogens. Our studies have focused on the mechanisms through which these agents alter cortical activity. Noncompetitive NMDA-R antagonists, such as phencyclidine (PCP) and MK-801 (dizocilpine), as well as the serotonergic hallucinogens DOI and 5-MeO-DMT, produce similar effects on cellular and population activity in prefrontal cortex (PFC); these effects include alterations of pyramidal neuron discharge (with an overall increase in firing), as well as a marked attenuation of the low frequency oscillations (0.2–4 Hz) to which neuronal discharge is coupled in anesthetized rodents. PCP increases c-fos expression in excitatory neurons from various cortical and subcortical areas, particularly the thalamus. This effect of PCP involves the preferential blockade of NMDA-R on GABAergic neurons of the reticular nucleus of the thalamus, which provides feedforward inhibition to the rest of thalamic nuclei. It is still unknown whether serotonergic hallucinogens also affect thalamocortical networks. However, when examined, similar alterations in other cortical areas, such as the primary visual cortex (V1), have been observed, suggesting that these agents affect cortical activity in sensory and associative areas. Interestingly, the disruption of PFC activity induced by PCP, DOI and 5-MeO-DMT is reversed by classical and atypical antipsychotic drugs. This effect suggests a possible link between the mechanisms underlying the disruption of perception by multiple classes of hallucinogenic agents and the therapeutic efficacy of antipsychotic agents.


5-HT2A receptors Antipsychotic drugs NMDA receptors Prefrontal cortex Thalamus 



Supported by the Innovative Medicines Initiative Joint Undertaking (IMI) under Grant Agreement N° 115008 (NEWMEDS). IMI is a public–private partnership between the European Union and the European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Associations. Support from the following grants is also acknowledged: SAF 2015-68346-P (Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness and European Regional Development Fund), PI09/1245 and PI12/00156 (PN de I+D+I 2008–2011, ISCIII-Subdireccion General de Evaluación y Fomento de la Investigación cofinanced by the European Regional Development Fund. “Una manera de hacer Europa”) and Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental, CIBERSAM (P82, 11INT3). Support from the Generalitat de Catalunya (SGR20093) is also acknowledged. MR is recipient of a IDIBAPS fellowship.

Statement of interest



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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. Lladó-Pelfort
    • 1
  • P. Celada
    • 1
  • M. S. Riga
    • 1
  • E. Troyano-Rodríguez
    • 1
  • N. Santana
    • 1
  • F. Artigas
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Neurochemistry and Neuropharmacology, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental (CIBERSAM)Institut d’Investigacions Biomèdiques de Barcelona (IIBB-CSIC-IDIBAPS)BarcelonaSpain
  2. 2.Department of Neurochemistry and NeuropharmacologyIIBB-CSIC (IDIBAPS)BarcelonaSpain

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