Over-the-Counter Codeine—from Therapeutic Use to Dependence, and the Grey Areas in Between

Chapter

Abstract

Codeine is a widely used analgesic, that is available for sale in pharmacies over the counter (OTC) in a number of countries including the UK, South Africa, Ireland, France and Australia. In these countries with OTC codeine sales there has been emerging concerns about misuse of and dependence on codeine containing combination analgesics, with increasing numbers of people presenting for help with codeine dependence at primary care and addiction treatment services. This has led to many countries reviewing availability of codeine in OTC available preparations, and considering possible measures to reduce harms from misuse of OTC codeine containing combination analgesics.

Keywords

Codeine Dependence Opioid use disorder Analgesic Abuse 

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National Drug and Alcohol Research CentreUNSWRandwickAustralia
  2. 2.South East Sydney Local Health District (SESLHD) Drug and Alcohol ServicesSurry HillsAustralia
  3. 3.Department of Health, Sport and Exercise Science, School of Health SciencesWaterford Institute of TechnologyWaterfordIreland

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