Advertisement

Sleep Deprivation Therapy for Depression

  • Sara DallaspeziaEmail author
  • Francesco Benedetti
Part of the Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences book series (CTBN, volume 25)

Abstract

Sleep deprivation (SD) is the most widely documented rapid-onset antidepressant therapy, targeting the broadly defined depressive syndrome. Although SD responses are transient, its effects can be sustained by concomitant medications (e.g., selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and lithium) and circadian-related interventions (e.g., bright light and sleep phase advance). Thus, considering its safety, this technique can now be considered among the first-line antidepressant treatment strategies for patients affected by mood disorders. SD is a complex intervention and it should be considered multi-target in nature. Thus, the mechanisms explaining its antidepressant effect can be looked for on many levels, involving not only monoaminergic mechanisms but also sleep homeostatic and circadian mechanisms, glutamatergic mechanisms and synaptic plasticity.

Keywords

Mood disorder Depression Antidepressant therapy Chronotherapeutics Sleep deprivation 

References

  1. Adli M, Hollinde DL, Stamm T et al (2007) Response to lithium augmentation in depression is associated with the glycogen synthase kinase 3-beta −50T/C single nucleotide polymorphism. Biol Psychiatry 62:1295–1302PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Adrien J (2002) Neurobiological bases for the relation between sleep and depression. Sleep Med Rev 6:341–351PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Amin MM, Khalid R, Khan P (1980) Relationship between sleep deprivation and urinary MHPG levels. Int Pharmacopsychiatry 15:81–85PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Asikainen M, Toppila J, Alanko L, Ward DJ, Stenberg D, Porkka-Heiskanen T (1997) Sleep deprivation increases brain serotonin turnover in the rat. NeuroReport 8:1577–1582PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Barbini B, Colombo C, Benedetti F, Campori E, Bellodi L, Smeraldi E (1998) The unipolar-bipolar dichotomy and the response to sleep deprivation. Psychiatry Res 79:43–50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Basheer R, Magner M, McCarley RW, Shiromani PJ (1998) REM sleep deprivation increases the levels of tyrosine hydroxylase and norepinephrine transporter mRNA in the locus coeruleus. Brain Res Mol Brain Res 57:235–240PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Baumgartner A, Riemann D, Berger M (1990) Neuroendocrinological investigations during sleep deprivation in depression. II. Longitudinal measurement of thyrotropin, TH, cortisol, prolactin, GH, and LH during sleep and sleep deprivation. Biol Psychiatry 28:569–587PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Benedetti F, Barbini B, Campori E, Colombo C, Smeraldi E (1996) Dopamine agonist amineptine prevents the antidepressant effect of sleep deprivation. Psychiatry Res 65:179–184PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Benedetti F, Barbini B, Lucca A, Campori E, Colombo C, Smeraldi E (1997) Sleep deprivation hastens the antidepressant action of fluoxetine. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 247:100–103PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Benedetti F, Colombo C, Barbini B, Campori E, Smeraldi E (1999a) Ongoing lithium treatment prevents relapse after total sleep deprivation. J Clin Psychopharmacol 19:240–245PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Benedetti F, Serretti A, Colombo C et al (1999b) Influence of a functional polymorphism within the promoter of the serotonin transporter gene on the effects of total sleep deprivation in bipolar depression. Am J Psychiatry 156:1450–1452PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Benedetti F, Zanardi R, Colombo C, Smeraldi E (1999c) Worsening of delusional depression after sleep deprivation: case reports. J Psychiatr Res 33:69–72PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Benedetti F, Campori E, Barbini B, Fulgosi MC, Colombo C (2001) Dopaminergic augmentation of sleep deprivation effects in bipolar depression. Psychiatry Res 104:239–246PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Benedetti F, Lucca A, Brambilla F, Colombo C, Smeraldi E (2002) Interleukine-6 serum levels correlate with response to antidepressant sleep deprivation and sleep phase advance. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 26:1167–1170PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Benedetti F, Colombo C, Serretti A et al (2003a) Antidepressant effects of light therapy combined with sleep deprivation are influenced by a functional polymorphism within the promoter of the serotonin transporter gene. Biol Psychiatry 54:687–692PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Benedetti F, Serretti A, Colombo C, Lilli R, Lorenzi C, Smeraldi E (2003b) Dopamine receptor D2 and D3 gene variants are not associated with the antidepressant effect of total sleep deprivation in bipolar depression. Psychiatry Res 118:241–247PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Benedetti F, Bernasconi A, Lorenzi C et al (2004a) A single nucleotide polymorphism in glycogen synthase kinase 3-beta promoter gene influences onset of illness in patients affected by bipolar disorder. Neurosci Lett 355:37–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Benedetti F, Serretti A, Colombo C, Lorenzi C, Tubazio V, Smeraldi E (2004b) A glycogen synthase kinase 3-beta promoter gene single nucleotide polymorphism is associated with age at onset and response to total sleep deprivation in bipolar depression. Neurosci Lett 368:123–126PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Benedetti F, Barbini B, Fulgosi MC et al (2005a) Combined total sleep deprivation and light therapy in the treatment of drug-resistant bipolar depression: acute response and long-term remission rates. J Clin Psychiatry 66:1535–1540PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Benedetti F, Serretti A, Pontiggia A et al (2005b) Long-term response to lithium salts in bipolar illness is influenced by the glycogen synthase kinase 3-beta −50 T/C SNP. Neurosci Lett 376:51–55PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Benedetti F, Barbini B, Colombo C, Smeraldi E (2007a) Chronotherapeutics in a psychiatric ward. Sleep Med Rev 11:509–522PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Benedetti F, Bernasconi A, Blasi V et al (2007b) Neural and genetic correlates of antidepressant response to sleep deprivation: a fMRI study of moral valence decision in bipolar depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry 64:179–187PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Benedetti F, Dallaspezia S, Fulgosi MC, Barbini B, Colombo C, Smeraldi E (2007c) Phase advance is an actimetric correlate of antidepressant response to sleep deprivation and light therapy in bipolar depression. Chronobiol Int 24:921–937PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Benedetti F, Barbini B, Bernasconi A et al (2008a) Lithium overcomes the influence of 5-HTTLPR gene polymorphism on antidepressant response to sleep deprivation. J Clin Psychopharmacol 28:249–251PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Benedetti F, Barbini B, Bernasconi A et al (2008b) Serotonin 5-HT2A receptor gene variants influence antidepressant response to repeated total sleep deprivation in bipolar depression. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 32:1863–1866PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Benedetti F, Calabrese G, Bernasconi A et al (2009) Spectroscopic correlates of antidepressant response to sleep deprivation and light therapy: a 3.0 Tesla study of bipolar depression. Psychiatry Res 173:238–242PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Benedetti F, Barbini B, Bernasconi A et al (2010) Acute antidepressant response to sleep deprivation combined with light therapy is influenced by the catechol-O-methyltransferase Val(108/158)Met polymorphism. J Affect Disord 121:68–72PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Benedetti F, Dallaspezia S, Lorenzi C et al (2011) Gene–gene interaction of glycogen synthase kinase 3-beta and serotonin transporter on human antidepressant response to sleep deprivation. J Affect Disord 136:514–519PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Berger M, Vollmann J, Hohagen F et al (1997) Sleep deprivation combined with consecutive sleep phase advance as a fast-acting therapy in depression: an open pilot trial in medicated and unmedicated patients. Am J Psychiatry 154:870–872PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Bertolucci PH, Andrade LA, Lima JG, Carlini EA (1987) Total sleep deprivation and Parkinson disease. Arq Neuropsiquiatr 45:224–230PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Borbely AA, Wirz-Justice A (1982) Sleep, sleep deprivation and depression. A hypothesis derived from a model of sleep regulation. Hum Neurobiol 1:205–210PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Bunney BG, Bunney WE (2013) Mechanisms of rapid antidepressant effects of sleep deprivation therapy: clock genes and circadian rhythms. Biol Psychiatry 73:1164–1171PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Bushey D, Tononi G, Cirelli C (2011) Sleep and synaptic homeostasis: structural evidence in Drosophila. Science 332:1576–1581PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Canali P, Sferrazza Papa G, Casali AG et al (2014) Changes of cortical excitability as markers of antidepressant response in bipolar depression: preliminary data by combining TMS and EEG. Bipolar DisordGoogle Scholar
  35. Cirelli C, Tononi G (2000) Gene expression in the brain across the sleep-waking cycle. Brain Res 885:303–321PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Clark CP, Brown GG, Archibald SL et al (2006) Does amygdalar perfusion correlate with antidepressant response to partial sleep deprivation in major depression? Psychiatry Res 146:43–51PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Colombo C, Benedetti F, Barbini B, Campori E, Smeraldi E (1999) Rate of switch from depression into mania after therapeutic sleep deprivation in bipolar depression. Psychiatry Res 86:267–270PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Colombo C, Lucca A, Benedetti F, Barbini B, Campori E, Smeraldi E (2000) Total sleep deprivation combined with lithium and light therapy in the treatment of bipolar depression: replication of main effects and interaction. Psychiatry Res 95:43–53PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Davidson RJ, Irwin W, Anderle MJ, Kalin NH (2003) The neural substrates of affective processing in depressed patients treated with venlafaxine. Am J Psychiatry 160:64–75PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Deboer T, Vansteensel MJ, Detari L, Meijer JH (2003) Sleep states alter activity of suprachiasmatic nucleus neurons. Nat Neurosci 6:1086–1090PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Delva NJ, Woo M, Southmayd SE, Hawken ER (2001) Myocardial infarction during sleep deprivation in a patient with dextrocardia–a case report. Angiology 52:83–86PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Demet EM, Chicz-Demet A, Fallon JH, Sokolski KN (1999) Sleep deprivation therapy in depressive illness and Parkinson’s disease. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 23:753–784PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Ebert D, Feistel H, Kaschka W, Barocka A, Pirner A (1994) Single photon emission computerized tomography assessment of cerebral dopamine D2 receptor blockade in depression before and after sleep deprivation–preliminary results. Biol Psychiatry 35:880–885PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Ebert D, Albert R, Hammon G, Strasser B, May A, Merz A (1996) Eye-blink rates and depression. Is the antidepressant effect of sleep deprivation mediated by the dopamine system? Neuropsychopharmacology 15:332–339PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Elliott R, Rubinsztein JS, Sahakian BJ, Dolan RJ (2002) The neural basis of mood-congruent processing biases in depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry 59:597–604PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Fahndrich E (1981) Effects of sleep deprivation on depressed patients of different nosological groups. Psychiatry Res 5:277–285PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Frye MA, Helleman G, McElroy SL et al (2009) Correlates of treatment-emergent mania associated with antidepressant treatment in bipolar depression. Am J Psychiatry 166:164–172PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Gardner JP, Fornal CA, Jacobs BL (1997) Effects of sleep deprivation on serotonergic neuronal activity in the dorsal raphe nucleus of the freely moving cat. Neuropsychopharmacology 17:72–81PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Gerner RH, Post RM, Gillin JC, Bunney WE Jr (1979) Biological and behavioral effects of one night’s sleep deprivation in depressed patients and normals. J Psychiatr Res 15:21–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Gessa GL, Pani L, Fadda P, Fratta W (1995) Sleep deprivation in the rat: an animal model of mania. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 5(Suppl):89–93PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Giedke H, Schwarzler F (2002) Therapeutic use of sleep deprivation in depression. Sleep Med Rev 6:361–377PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Giedke H, Wormstall H, Haffner HT (1990) Therapeutic sleep deprivation in depressives, restricted to the two nocturnal hours between 3:00 and 5:00. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 14:37–47PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Giedke H, Geilenkirchen R, Hauser M (1992) The timing of partial sleep deprivation in depression. J Affect Disord 25:117–128PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Grozinger M, Kogel P, Roschke J (2002) Effects of REM sleep awakenings and related wakening paradigms on the ultradian sleep cycle and the symptoms in depression. J Psychiatr Res 36:299–308PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Grunze H, Erfurth A, Walden J (1999) Trimipramine fails to exert antimanic efficacy: a case of the discrepancy between in vitro rationale and clinical efficacy. Clin Neuropharmacol 22:298–300PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Hamann S (2005) Blue genes: wiring the brain for depression. Nat Neurosci 8:701–703PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Hanlon EC, Vyazovskiy VV, Faraguna U, Tononi G, Cirelli C (2011) Synaptic potentiation and sleep need: clues from molecular and electrophysiological studies. Curr Top Med Chem 11:2472–2482PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Harvey AG (2008) Sleep and circadian rhythms in bipolar disorder: seeking synchrony, harmony, and regulation. Am J Psychiatry 165:820–829PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Hefti K, Holst SC, Sovago J et al (2013) Increased metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 availability in human brain after one night without sleep. Biol Psychiatry 73:161–168PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Heils A, Mossner R, Lesch KP (1997) The human serotonin transporter gene polymorphism–basic research and clinical implications. J Neural Transm 104:1005–1014PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Hines DJ, Schmitt LI, Hines RM, Moss SJ, Haydon PG (2013) Antidepressant effects of sleep deprivation require astrocyte-dependent adenosine mediated signaling. Transl Psychiatry 3:e212PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Hipolide DC, Moreira KM, Barlow KB, Wilson AA, Nobrega JN, Tufik S (2005) Distinct effects of sleep deprivation on binding to norepinephrine and serotonin transporters in rat brain. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 29:297–303PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Hogl B, Peralta C, Wetter TC, Gershanik O, Trenkwalder C (2001) Effect of sleep deprivation on motor performance in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord 16:616–621PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Holsboer-Trachsler E, Hemmeter U, Hatzinger M, Seifritz E, Gerhard U, Hobi V (1994) Sleep deprivation and bright light as potential augmenters of antidepressant drug treatment–neurobiological and psychometric assessment of course. J Psychiatr Res 28:381–399PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Huber R, Maki H, Rosanova M et al (2013) Human cortical excitability increases with time awake. Cereb Cortex 23:332–338PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Joffe RT, Swinson RP (1988) Total sleep deprivation in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Acta Psychiatr Scand 77:483–487PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Kasper S, Moises HW, Beckmann H (1983) Dexamethasone suppression test combined with total sleep deprivation in depressed patients. Psychiatr Clin (Basel) 16:17–25Google Scholar
  68. Kasper S, Sack DA, Wehr TA, Kick H, Voll G, Vieira A (1988) Nocturnal TSH and prolactin secretion during sleep deprivation and prediction of antidepressant response in patients with major depression. Biol Psychiatry 24:631–641PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Kavcic P, Rojc B, Dolenc-Groselj L, Claustrat B, Fujs K, Poljak M (2011) The impact of sleep deprivation and nighttime light exposure on clock gene expression in humans. Croat Med J 52:594–603PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Kuhs H, Tolle R (1991) Sleep deprivation therapy. Biol Psychiatry 29:1129–1148PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Kwok JB, Hallupp M, Loy CT et al (2005) GSK3B polymorphisms alter transcription and splicing in Parkinson’s disease. Ann Neurol 58:829–839PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Leibenluft E, Wehr TA (1992) Is sleep deprivation useful in the treatment of depression? Am J Psychiatry 149:159–168PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Lim MM, Xu J, Holtzman DM, Mach RH (2011) Sleep deprivation differentially affects dopamine receptor subtypes in mouse striatum. NeuroReport 22:489–493PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Lopez-Rodriguez F, Wilson CL, Maidment NT, Poland RE, Engel J (2003) Total sleep deprivation increases extracellular serotonin in the rat hippocampus. Neuroscience 121:523–530PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Manji HK, Quiroz JA, Payne JL et al (2003) The underlying neurobiology of bipolar disorder. World Psychiatry 2:136–146PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Martiny K, Refsgaard E, Lund V et al (2013) The day-to-day acute effect of wake therapy in patients with major depression using the HAM-D6 as primary outcome measure: results from a randomised controlled trial. PLoS ONE 8:e67264PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Massart R, Freyburger M, Suderman M et al (2014) The genome-wide landscape of DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation in response to sleep deprivation impacts on synaptic plasticity genes. Transl Psychiatry 4:e347PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Massimini M, Ferrarelli F, Huber R, Esser SK, Singh H, Tononi G (2005) Breakdown of cortical effective connectivity during sleep. Science 309:2228–2232PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Matussek N, Romisch P, Ackenheil M (1977) MHPG excretion during sleep deprivation in endogenous depression. Neuropsychobiology 3:23–29PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Mogilnicka E (1981) REM sleep deprivation changes behavioral response to catecholaminergic and serotonergic receptor activation in rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 15:149–151PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Mongrain V, Hernandez SA, Pradervand S et al (2010) Separating the contribution of glucocorticoids and wakefulness to the molecular and electrophysiological correlates of sleep homeostasis. Sleep 33:1147–1157PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Mongrain V, La Spada F, Curie T, Franken P (2011) Sleep loss reduces the DNA-binding of BMAL1, CLOCK, and NPAS2 to specific clock genes in the mouse cerebral cortex. PLoS ONE 6:e26622PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Muller HU, Riemann D, Berger M, Muller WE (1993) The influence of total sleep deprivation on urinary excretion of catecholamine metabolites in major depression. Acta Psychiatr Scand 88:16–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Neumeister A, Goessler R, Lucht M, Kapitany T, Bamas C, Kasper S (1996) Bright light therapy stabilizes the antidepressant effect of partial sleep deprivation. Biol Psychiatry 39:16–21PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Nissen C, Feige B, Konig A, Voderholzer U, Berger M, Riemann D (2001) Delta sleep ratio as a predictor of sleep deprivation response in major depression. J Psychiatr Res 35:155–163PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Parry BL, Curran ML, Stuenkel CA et al (2000) Can critically timed sleep deprivation be useful in pregnancy and postpartum depressions? J Affect Disord 60:201–212PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Payne JL, Quiroz JA, Zarate CA Jr, Manji HK (2002) Timing is everything: does the robust upregulation of noradrenergically regulated plasticity genes underlie the rapid antidepressant effects of sleep deprivation? Biol Psychiatry 52:921–926PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Peet M (1994) Induction of mania with selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors and tricyclic antidepressants. Br J Psychiatry 164:549–550PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Pezawas L, Meyer-Lindenberg A, Drabant EM et al (2005) 5-HTTLPR polymorphism impacts human cingulate-amygdala interactions: a genetic susceptibility mechanism for depression. Nat Neurosci 8:828–834PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Reinink E, Bouhuys N, Wirz-Justice A, van den Hoofdakker R (1990) Prediction of the antidepressant response to total sleep deprivation by diurnal variation of mood. Psychiatry Res 32:113–124PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Ridderinkhof KR, Ullsperger M, Crone EA, Nieuwenhuis S (2004) The role of the medial frontal cortex in cognitive control. Science 306:443–447PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Riemann D, Hohagen F, Konig A et al (1996) Advanced vs. normal sleep timing: effects on depressed mood after response to sleep deprivation in patients with a major depressive disorder. J Affect Disord 37:121–128PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Riemann D, Konig A, Hohagen F et al (1999) How to preserve the antidepressive effect of sleep deprivation: a comparison of sleep phase advance and sleep phase delay. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 249:231–237PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Robbins TW (2005) Controlling stress: how the brain protects itself from depression. Nat Neurosci 8:261–262PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Roy-Byrne PP, Uhde TW (1984) Post RM antidepressant effect of one night’s sleep deprivation: clinical and theoretical implications. In: Post RM, Ballenger JC (eds) Neurobiology of mood disorders. William & Wilkins, Baltimore, pp 817–835Google Scholar
  96. Roy-Byrne PP, Uhde TW, Post RM (1986) Effects of one night’s sleep deprivation on mood and behavior in panic disorder. Patients with panic disorder compared with depressed patients and normal controls. Arch Gen Psychiatry 43:895–899PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Ruhe HG, Ooteman W, Booij J et al (2009) Serotonin transporter gene promoter polymorphisms modify the association between paroxetine serotonin transporter occupancy and clinical response in major depressive disorder. Pharmacogenet Genomics 19:67–76PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Salomon RM, Delgado PL, Licinio J, Krystal JH, Heninger GR, Charney DS (1994) Effects of sleep deprivation on serotonin function in depression. Biol Psychiatry 36:840–846PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Santos R, Carlini EA (1983) Serotonin receptor activation in rats previously deprived of REM sleep. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 18:501–507PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Savelyev SA, Rantamaki T, Rytkonen KM, Castren E, Porkka-Heiskanen T (2012) Sleep homeostasis and depression: studies with the rat clomipramine model of depression. Neuroscience 212:149–158PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Schulte W (1971) Zum Priblem der provokation und kupierung von Melancholischen Phasen. Schweizer Arch Neurol Neurochem Psychiatr 109:427–435Google Scholar
  102. Selvi Y, Gulec M, Agargun MY, Besiroglu L (2007) Mood changes after sleep deprivation in morningness-eveningness chronotypes in healthy individuals. J Sleep Res 16:241–244PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Serretti A, Benedetti F, Colombo C, Lilli R, Lorenzi C, Smeraldi E (1999) Dopamine receptor D4 is not associated with antidepressant activity of sleep deprivation. Psychiatry Res 89:107–114PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Serretti A, Benedetti F, Zanardi R, Smeraldi E (2005) The influence of Serotonin Transporter Promoter Polymorphism (SERTPR) and other polymorphisms of the serotonin pathway on the efficacy of antidepressant treatments. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 29(6):1074–1084Google Scholar
  105. Siegel JM, Rogawski MA (1988) A function for REM sleep: regulation of noradrenergic receptor sensitivity. Brain Res 472:213–233PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Smeraldi E, Benedetti F, Barbini B, Campori E, Colombo C (1999) Sustained antidepressant effect of sleep deprivation combined with pindolol in bipolar depression—a placebo-controlled trial. Neuropsychopharmacology 20:380–385PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Suh SY, Kim JW, Choi CU et al (2007) Spontaneous coronary dissection associated with sleep deprivation presenting with acute myocardial infarction. Int J Cardiol 115:e78–e79PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Sulzer D, Edwards RH (2005) Antidepressants and the monoamine masquerade. Neuron 46:1–2PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Tononi G, Cirelli C (2003) Sleep and synaptic homeostasis: a hypothesis. Brain Res Bull 62:143–150PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Tononi G, Cirelli C (2006) Sleep function and synaptic homeostasis. Sleep Med Rev 10:49–62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Tufik S, Lindsey CJ, Carlini EA (1978) Does REM sleep deprivation induce a supersensitivity of dopaminergic receptors in the rat brain? Pharmacology 16:98–105PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. van den Burg W, Bouhuys AL, van den Hoofdakker RH, Beersma DG (1990) Sleep deprivation in bright and dim light: antidepressant effects on major depressive disorder. J Affect Disord 19:109–117PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Vogel GW, Thurmond A, Gibbons P, Sloan K, Walker M (1975) REM sleep reduction effects on depression syndromes. Arch Gen Psychiatry 32:765–777PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Volkow ND, Wang GJ, Telang F et al (2008) Sleep deprivation decreases binding of [11C]raclopride to dopamine D2/D3 receptors in the human brain. J Neurosci 28:8454–8461PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Volkow ND, Tomasi D, Wang GJ et al (2012) Evidence that sleep deprivation downregulates dopamine D2R in ventral striatum in the human brain. J Neurosci 32:6711–6717PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Vyazovskiy VV, Cirelli C, Pfister-Genskow M, Faraguna U, Tononi G (2008) Molecular and electrophysiological evidence for net synaptic potentiation in wake and depression in sleep. Nat Neurosci 11:200–208PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Wehr TA, Rosenthal NE, Sack DA, Gillin JC (1985) Antidepressant effects of sleep deprivation in bright and dim light. Acta Psychiatr Scand 72:161–165PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Wirz-Justice A, Van den Hoofdakker RH (1999) Sleep deprivation in depression: what do we know, where do we go? Biol Psychiatry 46:445–453PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Wirz-Justice A, Tobler I, Kafka MS et al (1981) Sleep deprivation: effects on circadian rhythms of rat brain neurotransmitter receptors. Psychiatry Res 5:67–76PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Wirz-Justice A, Benedetti F, Berger M et al (2005) Chronotherapeutics (light and wake therapy) in affective disorders. Psychol Med 35:939–944PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Wirz-Justice A, Benedetti F, Terman M (2009) Chronotherapeutics for affective disorders. A clinician’s manual for light and wake therapy. Karger, BaselGoogle Scholar
  122. Wu J, Buchsbaum MS, Gillin JC et al (1999) Prediction of antidepressant effects of sleep deprivation by metabolic rates in the ventral anterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortex. Am J Psychiatry 156:1149–1158PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Scientific InstituteUniversity Vita-Salute San RaffaeleMilanoItaly
  2. 2.Dipartimento di Neuroscienze ClinicheIstituto Scientifico Universitario Ospedale San Raffaele, San Raffaele TurroMilanoItaly

Personalised recommendations