Symptomatic Models of Parkinson’s Disease and L-DOPA-Induced Dyskinesia in Non-human Primates

  • Tom M. Johnston
  • Susan H. FoxEmail author
Part of the Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences book series (CTBN, volume 22)


Models of Parkinson’s disease (PD) can be produced in several non-human primate (NHP) species by applying neurotoxic lesions to the nigrostriatal dopamine pathway. The most commonly used neurotoxin is MPTP, a compound accidentally discovered as a contaminant of street drugs. Compared to other neurotoxins, MPTP has the advantage of crossing the blood–brain barrier and can thus be administered systemically. MPTP-lesioned NHPs exhibit the main core clinical features of PD. When treated with L-DOPA, these NHP models develop involuntary movements resembling the phenomenology of human dyskinesias. In old-world NHP species (macaques, baboons), choreic and dystonic dyskinesias can be readily distinguished and quantified with specific rating scales. More recently, certain non-motor symptoms relevant to human PD have been described in L-DOPA-treated MPTP-NHPs, including a range of neuropsychiatric abnormalities and sleep disturbances. The main shortcomings of MPTP-NHP models consist in a lack of progression of the underlying neurodegenerative lesion, along with an inability to model the intracellular protein-inclusion pathology typical of PD. The strength of MPTP-NHP models lies in their face and predictive validity for symptomatic treatments of parkinsonian motor features. Indeed, these models have been instrumental to the development of several medical and surgical approaches that are currently applied to treat PD.


6-hydroxydopamine MPTP Non-human primate Dyskinesia Non-motor 


  1. Akai T, Ozawa M, Yamaguchi M, Mizuta E, Kuno S (1995) Combination treatment of the partial D2 agonist terguride with the D1 agonist SKF 82958 in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-lesioned parkinsonian cynomolgus monkeys. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 273:14–309Google Scholar
  2. Alexander GM, Schwartzman RJ, Brainard L, Gordon SW, Grothusen JR (1992) Changes in brain catecholamines and dopamine uptake sites at different stages of MPTP parkinsonism in monkeys. Brain Res 588:9–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Annett LE, Torres EM, Ridley RM, Baker HF, Dunnett SB (1995) A comparison of the behavioural effects of embryonic nigral grafts in the caudate nucleus and in the putamen of marmosets with unilateral 6-OHDA lesions. Exp Brain Res 103:71–355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Apicella P, Trouche E, Nieoullon A, Legallet E, Dusticier N (1990) Motor impairments and neurochemical changes after unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesion of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system in monkeys. Neuroscience 38:66–655CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Aziz TZ, Peggs D, Sambrook MA, Crossman AR (1991) Lesion of the subthalamic nucleus for the alleviation of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced parkinsonism in the primate. Mov Disord 6:92–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bankiewicz KS, Oldfield EH, Chiueh CC, Doppman JL, Jacobowitz DM, Kopin IJ (1986) Hemiparkinsonism in monkeys after unilateral internal carotid artery infusion of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Life Sci 39:7–16CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Barraud Q, Lambrecq V, Forni C, McGuire S, Hill M, Bioulac B, Balzamo E, Bezard E, Tison F, Ghorayeb I (2009) Sleep disorders in Parkinson’s disease: the contribution of the MPTP non-human primate model. Exp Neurol 219:82–574CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bergman H, Wichmann T, DeLong MR (1990) Reversal of experimental parkinsonism by lesions of the subthalamic nucleus. Science 249:8–1436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bergman H, Raz A, Feingold A, Nini A, Nelken I, Hansel D, Ben-Pazi H, Reches A (1998) Physiology of MPTP tremor. Mov Disord 13(Suppl 3):29–34PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bezard E, Imbert C, Deloire X, Bioulac B, Gross CE (1997) A chronic MPTP model reproducing the slow evolution of Parkinson’s disease: evolution of motor symptoms in the monkey. Brain Res 766:12–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Blanchet PJ, Calon F, Martel JC, Bédard PJ, Di Paolo T, Walters RR, Piercey MF (1995) Continuous administration decreases and pulsatile administration increases behavioral sensitivity to a novel dopamine D2 agonist (U-91356A) in MPTP-exposed monkeys. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 272(2):9–854Google Scholar
  12. Blanchet PJ, Konitsiotis S, Chase TN (1998) Amantadine reduces levodopa-induced dyskinesias in parkinsonian monkeys. Mov Disord 13:798–802CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Boyce S, Clarke CE, Luquin R, Peggs D, Robertson RG, Mitchell IJ, Sambrook MA, Crossman AR (1990a) Induction of chorea and dystonia in parkinsonian primates. Mov Disord 5:3–7CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Boyce S, Rupniak NM, Steventon MJ, Iversen SD (1990b) Characterisation of dyskinesias induced by L-dopa in MPTP-treated squirrel monkeys. Psychopharmacology 102:7–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Brotchie JM (2005) Nondopaminergic mechanisms in levodopa-induced dyskinesia. Mov Disord 20:31–919CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Burns RS, Chiueh CC, Markey SP, Ebert MH, Jacobowitz DM, Kopin IJ (1983) A primate model of parkinsonism: selective destruction of dopaminergic neurons in the pars compacta of the substantia nigra by N-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 80:50–4546Google Scholar
  17. Campos-Romo A, Ojeda-Flores R, Moreno-Briseno P, Fernandez-Ruiz J (2009) Quantitative evaluation of MPTP-treated nonhuman parkinsonian primates in the HALLWAY task. J Neurosci Methods 177:8–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Chu Y, Kordower JH (2007) Age-associated increases of alpha-synuclein in monkeys and humans are associated with nigrostriatal dopamine depletion: Is this the target for Parkinson’s disease? Neurobiol Dis 25:49–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Clarke CE, Sambrook MA, Mitchell IJ, Crossman AR (1987) Levodopa-induced dyskinesia and response fluctuations in primates rendered parkinsonian with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). J Neurol Sci 78:80–273Google Scholar
  20. Crossman AR, Mitchell IJ, Sambrook MA (1985) Regional brain uptake of 2-deoxyglucose in N-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced parkinsonism in the macaque monkey. Neuropharmacology 24:91–587CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Decamp E, Schneider JS (2009) Interaction between nicotinic and dopaminergic therapies on cognition in a chronic Parkinson model. Brain Res 1262:109–114.
  22. DeLong MR, Crutcher MD, Georgopoulos AP (1985) Primate globus pallidus and subthalamic nucleus: functional organization. J Neurophysiol 53:43–530Google Scholar
  23. Di Monte DA, McCormack A, Petzinger G, Janson AM, Quik M, Langston WJ (2000) Relationship among nigrostriatal denervation, parkinsonism, and dyskinesias in the MPTP primate model. Mov Disord 15(3):66–459Google Scholar
  24. Emborg ME (2007) Nonhuman primate models of Parkinson’s disease. ILAR J 48:55–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Eslamboli A (2005) Marmoset monkey models of Parkinson’s disease: which model, when and why? Brain Res Bull 68:9–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Everett GM, Blockus LE, Shepperd IM (1956) Tremor induced by tremorine and its antagonism by anti-Parkinson drugs. Science 79:124Google Scholar
  27. Forno LS, Langston JW, DeLanney LE, Irwin I, Ricaurte GA (1986) Locus ceruleus lesions and eosinophilic inclusions in MPTP-treated monkeys. Ann Neurol 20:55–449Google Scholar
  28. Fox SH, Brotchie JM (2010) The MPTP lesioned non-human primate models of PD; Past, present and future. Prog Brain Research 184:133–157Google Scholar
  29. Fox SH, Henry B, Hill MP, Peggs D, Crossman AR, Brotchie JM (2001) Neural mechanisms underlying peak-dose dyskinesia induced by levodopa and apomorphine are distinct: evidence from the effects of the alpha(2) adrenoceptor antagonist idazoxan. Mov Disord 16:50–642CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Fox SH, Lang AE, Brotchie JM (2006a) Translation of nondopaminergic treatments for levodopa-induced dyskinesia from MPTP-lesioned nonhuman primates to phase IIa clinical studies: keys to success and roads to failure. Mov Disord 21:94–1578CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Fox SH, Visanji NP, Johnston TH, Gomez-Ramirez J, Voon V, Brotchie JM (2006b) Dopamine receptor agonists and levodopa and inducing psychosis-like behavior in the MPTP primate model of Parkinson disease. Arch Neurol 63:4–1343Google Scholar
  32. Fox SH, Visanji NP, Reyes G, Huot P, Gomez-Ramirez J, Johnston TH, Brotchie JM (2010) Development of psychosis-like behaviors and motor complications with de novo levodopa treatment in the MPTP primate model of Parkinson’s disease. Can J Neurol Sci 37:86–95CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Fox SH, Johnston TH, Li Q, Brotchie J, Bezard E (2012) A critique of available scales and presentation of the Non-Human Primate Dyskinesia Rating Scale. Mov Disord 27(11):8–1373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Gibb WR, Lees AJ, Wells FR, Barnard RO, Jenner P, Marsden CD (1987) Pathology of MPTP in the marmoset. Adv Neurol 45:90–187Google Scholar
  35. Gomez-Mancilla B, Bedard PJ (1993) Effect of nondopaminergic drugs on L-dopa-induced dyskinesias in MPTP-treated monkeys. Clin Neuropharmacol 16:27–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Gomez-Ramirez J, Johnston TH, Visanji NP, Fox SH, Brotchie JM (2006) Histamine H3 receptor agonists reduce L-dopa-induced chorea, but not dystonia, in the MPTP-lesioned nonhuman primate model of Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord 21:46–839CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Grabli D, Karachi C, Folgoas E, Monfort M, Tande D, Clark S, Civelli O, Hirsch EC, Francois C (2013) Gait disorders in parkinsonian monkeys with pedunculopontine nucleus lesions: a tale of two systems. J Neurosci 33:93–11986Google Scholar
  38. Halliday G, Herrero MT, Murphy K, McCann H, Ros-Bernal F, Barcia C, Mori H, Blesa FJ, Obeso JA (2009) No Lewy pathology in monkeys with over 10 years of severe MPTP Parkinsonism. Mov Disord 24:23–1519CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hatami A, Chesselet MF (2014) Transgenic rodent models to study alpha-synuclein pathogenesis with a focus on cognitive deficits, Current Topics in Behavioural Neuroscience, In pressGoogle Scholar
  40. Henry B, Fox SH, Peggs D, Crossman AR, Brotchie JM (1999) The alpha2-adrenergic receptor antagonist idazoxan reduces dyskinesia and enhances anti-parkinsonian actions of L-dopa in the MPTP-lesioned primate model of Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord 14:53–744Google Scholar
  41. Hyacinthe C, Imbert C, Barraud Q, Tison F, Bezard E, Ghorayeb I (2014) D1 receptor agonist improves sleep-wake parameters in experimental parkinsonism. Neurobiol Dis 63:4–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Iravani MM, Syed E, Jackson MJ, Johnston LC, Smith LA, Jenner P (2005) A modified MPTP treatment regime produces reproducible partial nigrostriatal lesions in common marmosets. Eur J Neurosci 21:54–841CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Jenner P (2003a) The contribution of the MPTP-treated primate model to the development of new treatment strategies for Parkinson’s disease. Parkinsonism Relat Disord 9:7–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Jenner P (2003b) The MPTP-treated primate as a model of motor complications in PD: primate model of motor complications. Neurology 61:S4–11CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Jenner P, Rupniak NM, Rose S, Kelly E, Kilpatrick G, Lees A, Marsden CD (1984) 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-induced parkinsonism in the common marmoset. Neurosci Lett 50:85–90CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Johnston TH, Savola JM, Fox SH, Brotchie JM (2010) The α2 adrenergic antagonist fipamezole prolongs the anti-parkinsonian actions of L-DOPA in the MPTP-lesioned macaque. Mov Disord 25(13):93–2084Google Scholar
  47. Kalia L, Brotchie JM, Fox SH (2013) Novel nondopaminergic targets for motor features of Parkinson’s disease: Review of recent trials. Mov Disord 28:44–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Karachi C, Grabli D, Bernard FA, Tande´ D, Wattiez N, Belaid H, Bardinet E,Prigent A, Nothacker HP, Hunot S, Hartmann A, Lehericy S, Hirsch EC, Francois C (2010) Cholinergic mesencephalic neurons are involved in gait and postural disorders in Parkinson disease. J Clin Invest 120:2745–2754Google Scholar
  49. Kowall NW, Hantraye P, Brouillet E, Beal MF, McKee AC, Ferrante RJ (2000) MPTP induces alpha-synuclein aggregation in the substantia nigra of baboons. NeuroReport 11:3–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kuoppamaki M, Al-Barghouthy G, Jackson M, Smith L, Zeng BY, Quinn N, Jenner P (2002) Beginning-of-dose and rebound worsening in MPTP-treated common marmosets treated with levodopa. Mov Disord 17:7–1312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Langston JW, Langston EB, Irwin I (1984) MPTP-induced parkinsonism in human and non-human primates–clinical and experimental aspects. Acta Neurol Scand Suppl 100:49–54PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Lieu CA, Deogaonkar M, Bakay RA (2011) Subramanian T Dyskinesias do not develop after chronic intermittent levodopa therapy in clinically hemiparkinsonian rhesus monkeys. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 17(1):9–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Liu N, Yue F, Tang WP, Chan P (2009) An objective measurement of locomotion behavior for hemiparkinsonian cynomolgus monkeys. J Neurosci Methods 183:94–188Google Scholar
  54. Meissner W, Prunier C, Guilloteau D, Chalon S, Gross CE, Bezard E (2003) Time-course of nigrostriatal degeneration in a progressive MPTP-lesioned macaque model of Parkinson’s disease. Mol Neurobiol 28:18–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Mestre TJT, Brotchie JM, Fox S (2010) Evolution of the “short duration” response to L-DOPA in the MPTP-lesioned non-human primate model of Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord 25(Suppl 2):S417Google Scholar
  56. Mitchell IJ, Cross AJ, Sambrook MA, Crossman AR (1985) Sites of the neurotoxic action of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine in the macaque monkey include the ventral tegmental area and the locus coeruleus. Neurosci Lett 61:195–200CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Nandi D, Jenkinson N, Stein J, Aziz T (2008) The pedunculopontine nucleus in Parkinson’s disease: primate studies. Br J Neurosurg 22, Suppl 1:S4–8Google Scholar
  58. Nutt JG, Carter JH, Lea ES, Sexton GJ (2002) Evolution of the response to levodopa during the first 4 years of therapy. Ann Neurol 51:93–686CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Obeso JA, Rodriguez-Oroz MC, Rodriguez M, DeLong MR, Olanow CW (2000) Pathophysiology of levodopa-induced dyskinesias in Parkinson’s disease: problems with the current model. Ann Neurol 47:S22-32, discussion S32-4Google Scholar
  60. Ovadia A, Zhang Z, Gash DM (1995) Increased susceptibility to MPTP toxicity in middle-aged rhesus monkeys. Neurobiol Aging 16:7–931CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Pearce RK, Jackson M, Smith L, Jenner P, Marsden CD (1995) Chronic L-DOPA administration induces dyskinesias in the 1-methyl-4- phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-treated common marmoset (Callithrix Jacchus). Mov Disord 10:40–731Google Scholar
  62. Perez-Otano I, Herrero MT, Oset C, De Ceballos ML, Luquin MR, Obeso JA, Del Rio J (1991) Extensive loss of brain dopamine and serotonin induced by chronic administration of MPTP in the marmoset. Brain Res 567:32–127Google Scholar
  63. Perez-Otano I, Oset C, Luquin MR, Herrero MT, Obeso JA, Del Rio J (1994) MPTP-induced parkinsonism in primates: pattern of striatal dopamine loss following acute and chronic administration. Neurosci Lett 175:5–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Pessiglione M, Guehl D, Jan C, Francois C, Hirsch EC, Feger J, Tremblay L (2004) Disruption of self-organized actions in monkeys with progressive MPTP-induced parkinsonism: II. Effects of reward preference. Eur J Neurosci 19:46–437Google Scholar
  65. Petzinger GM, Quik M, Ivashina E, Jakowec MW, Jakubiak M, Di Monte D, Langston JW (2001) Reliability and validity of a new global dyskinesia rating scale in the MPTP-lesioned non-human primate. Mov Disord 16(2):7–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Pifl C, Schingnitz G, Hornykiewicz O (1991) Effect of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine on the regional distribution of brain monoamines in the rhesus monkey. Neuroscience 44:591–605CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Pifl C, Hornykiewicz O, Blesa J, Adánez R, Cavada C, Obeso JA (2013) Reduced noradrenaline, but not dopamine and serotonin in motor thalamus of the MPTP primate: relation to severity of parkinsonism. J Neurochem 125:62–657CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Poirier LJ (1960) Experimental and histological study of midbrain dyskinesias. J Neurophysiol 23:51–534Google Scholar
  69. Postuma RB, Gagnon JF, Vendette M, Fantini ML, Massicotte-Marquez J, Montplaisir J (2009) Quantifying the risk of neurodegenerative disease in idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder. Neurology 72:300–1296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Przedborski S, Jackson-Lewis V, Naini AB, Jakowec M, Petzinger G, Miller R, Akram M (2001) The parkinsonian toxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP): a technical review of its utility and safety. J Neurochem 76:74–1265Google Scholar
  71. Quinn NP (1998) Classification of fluctuations in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Neurology 51:S25–9Google Scholar
  72. Revuelta GJ, Uthayathas S, Wahlquist AE, Factor SA, Papa SM (2012) Non-human primate FOG develops with advanced parkinsonism induced by MPTP Treatment. Exp Neurol 237(2):9–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Rose S, Nomoto M, Jenner P, Marsden CD (1989) Transient depletion of nucleus accumbens dopamine content may contribute to initial akinesia induced by MPTP in common marmosets. Biochem Pharmacol 38:81–3677CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Russ H, Mihatsch W, Gerlach M, Riederer P, Przuntek H (1991) Neurochemical and behavioural features induced by chronic low dose treatment with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) in the common marmoset: implications for Parkinson’s disease? Neurosci Lett 123:8–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Schneider JS (1989) Levodopa-induced dyskinesias in parkinsonian monkeys: relationship to extent of nigrostriatal damage. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 34(1):6–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Schneider JS, Kovelowski CJ 2nd (1990) Chronic exposure to low doses of MPTP. I. Cognitive deficits in motor asymptomatic monkeys. Brain Res 519:8–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Schneider JS, Gonczi H, Decamp E (2003) Development of levodopa-induced dyskinesias in parkinsonian monkeys may depend upon rate of symptom onset and/or duration of symptoms. Brain Res 990:38–44CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Smith LA, Jackson MJ, Hansard MJ, Maratos E, Jenner P (2003) Effect of pulsatile administration of levodopa on dyskinesia induction in drug-naive MPTP-treated common marmosets: effect of dose, frequency of administration, and brain exposure. Mov Disord 18:95–487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Taylor JR, Elsworth JD, Roth RH, Sladek JR Jr, Redmond DE Jr (1990) Cognitive and motor deficits in the acquisition of an object retrieval/detour task in MPTP-treated monkeys. Brain 113(Pt 3):37–617Google Scholar
  80. Taylor JR, Elsworth JD, Roth RH, Sladek JR Jr, Redmond DE Jr (1997) Severe long-term 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-induced parkinsonism in the vervet monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops sabaeus). Neuroscience 81:55–745CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Todd RD, Carl J, Harmon S, O’Malley KL, Perlmutter JS (1996) Dynamic changes in striatal dopamine D2 and D3 receptor protein and mRNA in response to 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) denervation in baboons. J Neurosci 16:82–7776Google Scholar
  82. Togasaki DM, Hsu A, Samant M, Farzan B, DeLanney LE, Langston JW, Di Monte DA, Quik M (2005) The Webcam system: a simple, automated, computer-based video system for quantitative measurement of movement in nonhuman primates. J Neurosci Methods 145:66–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Verhave PS, Jongsma MJ, Van den Berg RM, Vis JC, Vanwersch RA, Smit AB, Van Someren EJ, Philippens IH (2011) REM sleep behavior disorder in the marmoset MPTP model of early Parkinson disease. Sleep 34(8):25–1119Google Scholar
  84. Vezoli J, Fifel K, Leviel V, Dehay C, Kennedy H, Cooper HM, Gronfier C, Procyk E (2011) Early presymptomatic and long-term changes of rest activity cycles and cognitive behavior in a MPTP-monkey model of Parkinson’s disease. PLoS ONE 6(8):e23952CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Villalba RM, Lee H, Smith Y (2009) Dopaminergic denervation and spine loss in the striatum of MPTP-treated monkeys. Exp Neurol 215:7–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Visanji NP, Brotchie JM (2005) MPTP-induced models of Parkinson’s disease in mice and non-human primates. Curr Protoc Pharmacol Chapter 5:Unit5.42Google Scholar
  87. Visanji NP, Gomez-Ramirez J, Johnston TH, Pires D, Voon V, Brotchie JM, Fox SH (2006) Pharmacological characterization of psychosis-like behavior in the MPTP-lesioned nonhuman primate model of Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord 21:91–1879CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Visanji NP, Fox SH, Johnston T, Reyes G, Millan MJ, Brotchie JM (2009a) Dopamine D3 receptor stimulation underlies the development of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia in animal models of Parkinson’s disease. Neurobiol Dis 35:92–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Visanji NP, Fox SH, Johnston TH, Millan MJ, Brotchie JM (2009b) Alpha1-adrenoceptors mediate dihydroxyphenylalanine-induced activity in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-lesioned macaques. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 328:83–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Voon V, Fox SH (2007) Medication-related impulse control and repetitive behaviors in Parkinson disease. Arch Neurol 64:96–1089CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Toronto Western Research InstituteUniversity of Toronto, Toronto Western HospitalTorontoCanada
  2. 2.Division of NeurologyUniversity of Toronto, Toronto Western HospitalTorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations