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Repair of the CNS Using Endogenous and Transplanted Neural Stem Cells

  • R. C. Trueman
  • A. Klein
  • H. S. Lindgren
  • M. J. Lelos
  • S. B. DunnettEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences book series (CTBN, volume 15)

Abstract

Restoration of the damaged central nervous system is a vast challenge. However, there is a great need for research into this topic, due to the prevalence of central nervous system disorders and the devastating impact they have on people’s lives. A number of strategies are being examined to achieve this goal, including cell replacement therapy, enhancement of endogenous plasticity and the recruitment of endogenous neurogenesis. The current chapter reviews this topic within the context of Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease and stroke. For each disease exogenous cell therapies are discussed including primary (foetal) cell transplants, neural stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells and marrow stromal cells. This chapter highlights the different mechanistic approaches of cell replacement therapy versus cells that deliver neurotropic factors, or enhance the endogenous production of these factors. Evidence of exogenously transplanted cells functionally integrating into the host brain, replacing cells, and having a behavioural benefit are discussed, along with the ability of some cell sources to stimulate endogenous neuroprotective and restorative events. Alongside exogenous cell therapy, the role of endogenous neurogenesis in each of the three diseases is outlined and methods to enhance this phenomenon are discussed.

Keywords

Stroke Huntington's disease Parkinson's disease Neural transplantation Stem cell Neurogenesis Cell therapy 

Abbreviations

6-OHDA

6-hydroxydopamine

BBB

Blood–brain barrier

BDNF

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor

bNGF

Nerve growth factor beta

DA

Dopamine

DAergic

Dopaminergic

ESCs

Embryonic stem cells

FGF

Fibroblast growth factor

GDNF

Glial cell line-derived growth factor

GE

Ganglionic eminence

HD

Huntington’s disease

iNs

Induced neural stem cells

iPSCs

Induced pluripotent stem cells

L-DOPA

L-dihydroxyphenylalanine

MPTP

1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine

MSCs

Mesenchymal stem cells

NSCs

Neural stem cells

PD

Parkinson’s disease

SGZ

Subgranular zone

SN

Substantia nigra

SVZ

Subventricular zone

TH

Tyrosine hydroxylase

VEGF

Vascular endothelial growth factor

VM

Ventral mesencephalon

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. C. Trueman
    • 1
  • A. Klein
    • 2
  • H. S. Lindgren
    • 3
  • M. J. Lelos
    • 3
  • S. B. Dunnett
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.School of Biomedical SciencesUniversity of Nottingham Medical SchoolNottinghamUK
  2. 2.Hannover Medical School (MHH)Institute of NeuroanatomyHannoverGermany
  3. 3.The Brain Repair Group, School of BiosciencesCardiff UniversityCardiffUK

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