Advertisement

Gourds: Bitter, Bottle, Wax, Snake, Sponge and Ridge

  • Narinder P. S. DhillonEmail author
  • Supannika Sanguansil
  • Sheo Pujan Singh
  • Mohammed Abu Taher Masud
  • Prashant Kumar
  • Latchumi Kanthan Bharathi
  • Halit Yetişir
  • Rukui Huang
  • Doan Xuan Canh
  • James D. McCreight
Chapter
Part of the Plant Genetics and Genomics: Crops and Models book series (PGG, volume 20)

Abstract

Bitter gourd, bottle gourd, wax gourd, snake gourd, sponge gourd, and ridge gourd are cultivated and marketed by smallholder farmers, and are important crops in home gardens throughout southern and southeastern Asia. These vegetables provide significant dietary nutrients such as vitamin A and C, iron and calcium. Public sector breeders and germplasm curators release open-pollinated varieties of these cucurbits developed through selection from landraces. Private sector breeders develop F1 hybrid cultivars of these gourds that are popular with growers because of their uniformity, early and total marketable yield, and, in some cases, disease resistance. This chapter reviews the status of germplasm resources for sustained genetic improvement of these cucurbit species. Susceptibility to viruses is currently the major production constraint for these gourds, and systematic evaluation of their germplasm against viruses will be helpful for breeding improved cucurbit lines. The germplasm resources of these gourd species are held in an array of genebanks in several countries and may not be readily available for scientific research or to commercial breeders outside of their respective country. Many accessions of these gourd species listed by the World Vegetable Center and the U.S. Germplasm Resources Information Network are either not available or inactive. More accessions of these gourd species and their relatives need, therefore, to be collected from various regions of the tropics, conserved, and evaluated to ensure continuous genetic gains in breeding programs.

Keywords

Momordica charantia Lagenaria siceraria Benincasa hispida Luffa spp. Trichosanthes spp. Genetic resources Disease resistance Grafting Plant breeding 

References

  1. Avital A, Paris HS. Cucurbits depicted in Byzantine mosaics from Israel, 350–600 CE. Ann Bot. 2014;114:203–22.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Bates DM, Robinson RW. Cucumbers, melons and water-melons. In: Smart J, Simmonds NW, editors. Evolution of crop plants. 2nd ed. Harlow: Longman; 1995. p. 89–96.Google Scholar
  3. Bharathi LK, Munshi AD, Behera TK, Vinod, Joseph JK, Bhat KV, Das AB, Sidhu AS. Production and preliminary characterization of novel inter-specific hybrids derived from Momordica species. Curr Sci. 2012;103:178–86.Google Scholar
  4. Bruton BD, Fish WW, Roberts W, Popham W. The influence of rootstock selection on fruit quality attributes of watermelon. Open Food Sci J. 2009;3:15–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chen CY, Lan H, Li YM, Dai XG. Genetic polymorphism analysis of bitter gourd germplasms by ISSR. J Changjiang Veg. 2012;12:19–22.Google Scholar
  6. Chen ZD, Huang RK, Li QQ, Wen JL, Chen QY, Liang JZ. Disease resistance evaluation of bitter gourd germplasm to Fusarium wilt at seedling stage. J Southern Agric. 2014;45:1776–80.Google Scholar
  7. Cohen R, Burger Y, Horev C, Koren A, Edelstein M. Introducing grafted cucurbits to modern agriculture: the Israeli experience. Plant Dis. 2007;91:916–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dey SS, Singh AK, Chandel D, Behera TK. Genetic diversity of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) genotypes revealed by RAPD markers and agronomic traits. Sci Hortic. 2006;109:21–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dey SS, Behera TK, Munshi AD, Pal A. Gynoecious inbred with better combining ability improves yield and earliness in bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.). Euphytica. 2010;173:37–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dhillon NPS, Phethin S, Lin CC, Wallace C, Wang JF, Kousik CS, et al. Preliminary evaluation of resistance to powdery mildew (Podosphaera xanthii) in AVRDC collections of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.). In: Hughes JdA, Kasemsap P, Dasgupta S, Dutta OP, Ketsa S, Chaikiattiyos S, Linwattana G, Kosiyachinda S, Chantrasmi V, editors. Families, farms, food: sustaining small-scale vegetable production and marketing systems for food and nutrition security. Proceedings of the regional symposium (SEAVEG 2014). AVRDC – The World Vegetable Center (SB320.2.H9 2014), Shanhua, Taiwan 2015.Google Scholar
  11. Dhillon NPS, Lin CC, Sun Z, Hanson PM, Ledesma DR, Habicht SD, Yang RY. Varietal and harvesting stage variation in the content of carotenoids, ascorbic acid and tocopherols in the fruit of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.). Plant Genetic Res Characteriz Utiliz. 2016a. doi: https://doi.org/10.1017/S147926211500057X.Google Scholar
  12. Dhillon NPS, Sanguansil S, Srimat S, Cheng HC, Lin CC, Srinivasan R, Kenyon L, Schafleitner R, Yang RY, Hanson P. Status of cucurbit breeding at AVRDC- The World Vegetable Center. In: Kozik EU, editor. Proceedings of the XIth EUCARPIA meeting on genetics and breeding of Cucurbitaceae, July 24–28, 2016b.Google Scholar
  13. Erickson DL, Smith BD, Clarke AC, Sandweiss DH, Tuross N. An Asian origin for a 10,000-year-old domesticated plant in the Americas. PNAS USA. 2005;102:18315–20.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Gaikwad AB, Behera TK, Singh AK, Chandel D, Karihaloo JL, Staub JE. Amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis provides strategies for improvement of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.). HortScience. 2008;43:127–33.Google Scholar
  15. Gürcan K, Say A, Yetişir H, Denli N. A study of genetic diversity in bottle gourd [Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl.] population, and implication for the historical origins on bottle gourds in Turkey. Genet Resour Crop Evol. 2015;62:321–33.Google Scholar
  16. Haldhar SM, Choudhary BR, Bhargava R, Gurjar K. Host plant resistance (HPR) traits of ridge gourd (Luffa acutangula (Roxb.)) L. against melon fruit fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett)) in hot arid region of India. Sci Hortic. 2015;194:168–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Heiser Jr CB. The gourd book. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press; 1979.Google Scholar
  18. Huh YC, Lee WM, Ko HC, Park DK, Park KS, Lee HJ et al. Development of Fusarium resistant F1 hybrids of bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria Standl.) for watermelon rootstocks. In: Sari N, Solmaz I, Aras V, editors. Proceedings of the Xth EUCARPIA meeting on genetics and breeding of Cucurbitaceae. Antalya, Turkey. 2012, Oct 15–18, 2012, p. 74–80.Google Scholar
  19. Islam S, Munshi AD, Mandal B, Kumar R, Behera TK. Genetics of resistance in Luffa cylindrica Roem. against Tomato Leaf Curl New Delhi Virus. Euphytica. 2010;174:83–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Islam S, Munshi AD, Verma M, Arya L, Mandal B, Behera TK, Kumar R, Lal SK. Screening of Luffa cylindrica Roem. for resistance against Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus, inheritance of resistance, and identification of SRAP markers linked to the single dominant resistance gene. J Hortic Sci Biotechnol. 2011;86:661–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Iwamoto E, Hayashida S, Ishida T, Morita T. Breeding and seasonal adaptability of high-female F1 hybrid bitter melon (Momordica charantia L.) ‘Kumaken BP1’ using gynoecious inbred line for the seed parent. Hort Res. 2009;8:143–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Janick J, Paris HS, Parrish DC. The cucurbits of mediterranean antiquity: identification of taxa from ancient images and descriptions. Ann Bot. 2007;100:1441–57.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. Ji Y, Luo Y, Hou B, Wang W, Zhao J, Yang L, et al. Development of polymorphic microsatellite loci in Momordica charantia (Cucurbitaceae) and their transferability to other cucurbit species. Sci Hortic. 2012;140:115–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kang JB, Zhu HS, Li DZ, Li YP, Wang WC, Wen QF. Determination of Momordica’s germplasm diversity by ISSR. Fujian J Agric Sci. 2010;25:597–601.Google Scholar
  25. Kousik CS, Levi A, Ling K-S, Wechter WP. Potential sources of resistance to cucurbit powdery mildew in U.S. plant introductions of bottle gourd. HortScience. 2008;43:1359–64.Google Scholar
  26. Kousik CS, Donahoo RS, Hassell R. Resistance in watermelon rootstocks to crown rot caused by Phytophthora capsici. Crop Prot. 2012;39:18–25.Google Scholar
  27. Levi A, Thies J, Ling KS, Simmons AM, Kousik C, Hassell R. Genetic diversity among Lagenaria siceraria accessions containing resistance to root-knot nematodes, whiteflies, ZYMV or powdery mildew. Plant Genet Res Characteriz Utiliz. 2009;7:216–26.Google Scholar
  28. Li HL. The origins of cultivated plants in southeast Asia. Econ Bot. 1970;24:3–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ling K-S, Levi A, Adkins S, Kousik CS, Miller G, Hassell R, et al. Development and field evaluation of multiple virus-resistant bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria). Plant Dis. 2013;97:1057–62.Google Scholar
  30. Marr KL, Xia YM, Bhattarai NK. Allozymic, morphological, phonological, linguistic, plant use and nutritional data of Benincasa hispida (Cucurbitaceae). Econ Bot. 2007;61:44–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. McCreight JD, Staub JE, Wehner TC, Dhillon NPS. Gone global: Familiar and exotic cucurbits have Asian origins. HortScience. 2013;48:1078–89.Google Scholar
  32. Minocha S. An overview on Lagenaria siceraria (Bottle gourd). J Biomed Pharm Res. 2015;4:4–10.Google Scholar
  33. Morgan W, Midmore D. Bitter melon in Australia. Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation, Rockhampton, Australia, Publication 2002;No. 02/134, p. 29.Google Scholar
  34. Morimoto Y, Maundu P, Fujimaki H, Morishima H. Diversity of landraces of the white-flowered gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) and its wild relatives in Kenya: fruit and seed morphology. Genet Resour Crop Evol. 2005;52:737–47.Google Scholar
  35. Munshi AD, Behera TK, Sureja AK, Kumar R. Occurrence and preliminary characterization of gynoecious ridge gourd [Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb.] in a natural population. Cucurbit Genet Coop Rpt. 2010–2011;33–34:57–9.Google Scholar
  36. Munshi AD, Islam S, Kumar R, Mandal B, Behera TK, Sureja AK. Sponge gourd DSG 6 to combat ToLCNDV. Indian Horticulture 2015, May–June 2015.Google Scholar
  37. Oda M. Grafting of vegetable crops. Sci Rep Agr Biol Sci Osaka Pref Univ. 2002;53:1–5.Google Scholar
  38. Pandey S, Kumar S, Rai M, Mishra U, Singh M. Assessment of genetic diversity in Indian ash gourd (Benincasa hispida) accessions using RAPD markers. In: Pitrat M, editor. Proceedings of the IXth EUCARPIA meeting on genetics and breeding of Cucurbitaceae. Avignon, France 2012, May 21–24, 2018, p. 59–66.Google Scholar
  39. Pandit MK, Acharya S. Potential of minor cucurbits for sustainability and livelihood support in West Bengal. J Agroforestry Environ. 2008;2:209–12.Google Scholar
  40. Paris HS, Lebeda A, Kristkova E, Andres TC, Nee MH. Parallel evolution under domestication and phenotypic differentiation of the cultivated subspecies of Cucurbita pepo (Cucurbitaceae). Econ Bot. 2012;66:71–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Pradheep K, Pani DR, Bhatt KC. Taxonomic notes on the Trichosanthes cucumerina group (Cucurbitaceae) from India. Novon. 2015;24:39–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Provvidenti R. Sources of resistance or tolerance to viruses in Lagenaria siceraria. Cucurbit Genet Coop Rpt. 1981;4:38–40.Google Scholar
  43. Ram D, Kumar S, Singh M, Rai M, Kalloo G. Inheritance of gynoecism in bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.). J Heredity. 2006;97:294–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Relevante CA, Cheewachaiwit S, Chuapong J, Stratongjun M, Salutan VE, Peters D, et al. Emerging new poleroviruses and tospoviruses affecting vegetables in Asia and breeding for resistance. International seminar on emerging infectious diseases of food crops in Asia 2012. 19–23 October 2012, Tokyo, Japan.Google Scholar
  45. Reyes MEC, Gildemache BH, Jansen GJ. Momordica L. In: Piluek, editor. Plant Resources of South-East Asia, No. 8, Vegetables. Wageningen: Pudoc Scientific Publishers; 1994. p. 206–10.Google Scholar
  46. Richardson JB. The Pre-Columbian distribution of the bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria): a re-evaluation. Econ Bot. 1972;26:265–73.Google Scholar
  47. Robinson RW, Decker-Walters DS. Cucurbits. New York: CAB International; 1997. p. 226.Google Scholar
  48. Schaefer H, Renner SS. A three-genome phylogeny of Momordica (Cucurbitaceae) suggests seven returns from dioecy to monoecy and recent long-distance dispersal to Asia. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2010;54:553–60.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Schaefer H, Renner SS. Phylogenetic relationships in the order Cucurbitales and a new classification of the gourd family (Cucurbitaceae). Taxon. 2011;60:122–38.Google Scholar
  50. Seshadri VS, More TA. Cucurbit vegetables – biology, production and utilization. New Delhi: Studium Press; 2009.Google Scholar
  51. Shen D, Li XX, Feng LX, Wang HP, Song JP, Yang CR, et al. Evaluation on resistance of cucurbitaceae germplasm resources to root-knot nematode. J Plant Genet Resour. 2007;8:340–2.Google Scholar
  52. Singh SP. Cucurbits – biodiversity, breeding and production in Uttar Pradesh. Lucknow: Uttar Pradesh State Biodiversity Board; 2013. p. 108.Google Scholar
  53. Singh D, Bhandari MM. The identity of an imperfectly known hermaphrodite Luffa, with a note on related species. Baileya. 1963;11:132–41.Google Scholar
  54. Telford RH, Schaefer H, Greuter W, Renner SS. A new Australian species of Luffa (Cucurbitaceae) and typification of two Australian Cucumis names, all based on specimens collected by Ferdinand Mueller in 1856. PhytoKeys. 2011;5:21–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Tian LB, Yang Y, Shang S, Si LT. Correlation of bitter melon’s resistance to powdery mildew and activities of defence enzymes. J Shenyang Agric Univ. 2015;46:284–91.Google Scholar
  56. Walters TW. Historical overview on domesticated plants in China with special emphasis on the Cucurbitaceae. Econ Bot. 1989;43:297–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Walters TW, Decker-Walters DS. Systematic re-evaluation of Benincasa hispida (Cucurbitaceae). Econ Bot. 1989;43:274–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Whitaker TW, Davis GN. Cucurbits – Botany, cultivation and utilization. New York: Interscience Publisher Inc.; 1962. p. 250.Google Scholar
  59. World Health Organization.. Global report on diabetes. 2016. http://www.who.int/diabetes/global-report/en/. Accessed 1 Mar 2016.
  60. Yetişir H, Uygur V. Responses of grafted watermelon onto different gourd species to salinity stress. J Plant Nutr. 2010;33:315–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Yetişir H, Şakar M, Serçe S. Collection and morphological characterization of Lagenaria siceraria germplasm from the Mediterranean region of Turkey. Genet Resour Crop Evol. 2008;55:1257–66.Google Scholar
  62. Yuan J, Luoa Y, Hou B, Wang W, Zhao J, Yanga L, Xue Q, Ding X. Development of polymorphic microsatellite loci in Momordica charantia (Cucurbitaceae) and their transferability to other cucurbit species. Sci Hortic. 2012;140:115–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Yuwai KE, Rao KS, Kaluwin C, Jones PG, Rivett DE. Chemical composition of Momordica charantia L. fruits. J Agric Food Chem. 1991;39:1762–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Narinder P. S. Dhillon
    • 1
    Email author
  • Supannika Sanguansil
    • 1
  • Sheo Pujan Singh
    • 2
  • Mohammed Abu Taher Masud
    • 3
  • Prashant Kumar
    • 4
  • Latchumi Kanthan Bharathi
    • 5
  • Halit Yetişir
    • 6
  • Rukui Huang
    • 7
  • Doan Xuan Canh
    • 8
  • James D. McCreight
    • 9
  1. 1.World Vegetable Center East and Southeast Asia/OceaniaKasetsart UniversityNakhon PathomThailand
  2. 2.Department of Vegetable ScienceNarendra Dev University of Agriculture and TechnologyFaizabadIndia
  3. 3.Vegetable Division, Horticulture Research Center, Bangladesh Agricultural Research InstituteGazipurBangladesh
  4. 4.Rasi Seeds (P) LtdBangaloreIndia
  5. 5.Central Horticultural Experiment Station, Regional Station of Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, I.C.A.R.BhubaneswarIndia
  6. 6.Department of HorticultureErciyes UniversityMelikgazi-KayseriTurkey
  7. 7.Vegetable Research Institute, Guangxi Academy of Agricultural SciencesNanningChina
  8. 8.Horticulture Division, Field Crops Research InstituteGiaLocVietnam
  9. 9.U.S. Department of AgricultureAgricultural Research Service, U.S. Agricultural Research StationSalinasUSA

Personalised recommendations