Advertisement

Phylogeny and Evolution of the Cucurbitaceae

  • Susanne S. RennerEmail author
  • Hanno SchaeferEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Plant Genetics and Genomics: Crops and Models book series (PGG, volume 20)

Abstract

The Cucurbitaceae family contains about 1000 species in 96 genera. Representatives of all genera (except the extinct Khmeriosicyos) and a large percentage of the species have been sequenced for the ribosomal RNA transcribed spacer regions and variable regions of the plastid and mitochondrial genome. These data have allowed to infer evolutionary relationships in the family. The major phylogenetic structure of the family is now clear, and this chapter includes an up-to-date phylogenetic scheme with the placement of all genera. The Cucurbitaceae clade originated in mainland Southeast Asia sometime in the Late Cretaceous, and the five deepest evolutionary divergences in the family all date to the Late Cretaceous, 70–80 Ma. Two of these ancient clades, the Gomphogyneae and Actinostemma, are now almost restricted to Asia. A third ancient group, the Triceratieae, is mainly Neotropical, except one African genus; other clades and tribes are more widespread. The economically most important genera are concentrated in the Cucurbiteae and Benincaseae, and species of Cucumis and Citrullus, with well-annotated genomes, therefore have largely comparable (homologous) linkage groups. In contrast to the relatively good data on the family’s phylogeny, data on its ecology, physiology and morphological evolution are scarce and collection and study of wild species, many of them in threatened habitats is much needed.

Keywords

Collections Molecular phylogenetics Molecular clock Publicly available herbarium specimens Sister groups Crop wild relatives 

Literature Cited

  1. Bo K, Ma Z, Chen J, Weng Y. Molecular mapping reveals structural rearrangements and quantitative trait loci underlying traits with local adaptation in semi-wild Xishuangbanna cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. var. xishuangbannanesis Qi et Yuan). Theor Appl Genet. 2015;128:25–39. doi: 10.1007/s00122-014-2410-z.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Burnett GT. Outlines of Botany, including a general history of the vegetable kingdom in which plants are arranged according to the system of natural affinities. London: J. Churchill; 1835.Google Scholar
  3. Chomicki G, Renner SS. Watermelon origin solved with molecular phylogenetics including Linnaean material: Another example of museomics. New Phytol. 2015;205(2):526–32. doi: 10.1111/nph.13163.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Clarke AC, Burtenshaw MK, McLenachan PA, Erickson DL, Penny D. Reconstructing the origins and dispersal of the Polynesian bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria). Mol Biol Evol. 2006;23:893–900.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Collinson ME, Boulter MC, Holmes PR. Magnoliophyta (Angiospermae). In: Benton MJ, editor. The fossil record 2. London: Chapman and Hall; 1993. p. 809–41, 864.Google Scholar
  6. Collinson ME, Andrews P, Bamford MK. Taphonomy of the early Miocene flora, Hiwegi Formation, Rusinga Island, Kenya. J Hum Evol. 2009;57:149–62.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. De Boer HJ, Schaefer H, Thulin M, Renner SS. Evolution and loss of long-fringed petals: a case study using a dated phylogeny of the snake gourds, Trichosanthes (Cucurbitaceae). BMC Evol Biol. 2012;12:108. doi: 10.1186/1471-2148-12-108.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Dillehay TD, Rossen J, Andres TC, Williams DE. Preceramic adoption of peanut, squash, and cotton in Northern Peru. Science. 2007;316:1890–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Dorofeev PI. The Tertiary floras of western Siberia. vol 271. Izdvo Akademii Nauk SSSR, Moscow-Leningrad, Russian Academy of Sciences, USSR; 1963.Google Scholar
  10. Dorofeev PI. Mioz ä ne Floren des Bezirks Tambov. Akademija Nauka SSSR, Leningrad, Russian Academy of Sciences, USSR; 1988.Google Scholar
  11. Duchen P, Renner SS. The evolution of Cayaponia (Cucurbitaceae): repeated shifts from bat to bee pollination and long-distance dispersal to Africa 2–5 million years ago. Am J Bot. 2010;97(7):1129–41.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Filipowicz N, Schaefer H, Renner SS. Revisiting Luffa (Cucurbitaceae) 25 years after C. Heiser: species boundaries and application of names tested with plastid and nuclear data. Syst Bot. 2014;39(1):205–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Guo S, Zhang J, Sun H, Salse J, Lucas WJ, Zhang H, et al. The draft genome of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and resequencing of 20 diverse accessions. Nat Genet. 2013;45:51–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Holstein N, Renner SS. A dated phylogeny and collection records reveal repeated biome shifts in the African genus Coccinia (Cucurbitaceae). BMC Evol Biol. 2011;11:28.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. Jeffrey C. A review of the Cucurbitaceae. Bot J Linn Soc. 1980;81:233–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Jeffrey C. Appendix: an outline classification of the Cucurbitaceae. In: Bates DM, Robinson RW, Jeffrey C, editors. Biology and utilization of the Cucurbitaceae. Ithaca: Comstock Publication Associates, Cornell University Press; 1990. p. 449–63.Google Scholar
  17. Jeffrey C. A new system of Cucurbitaceae. Bot Zhurn. 2005;90:332–5.Google Scholar
  18. Kater MM, Franken J, Carney KJ, Colombo L, Angenent GC. Sex determination in the monoecious species cucumber is confined to specific floral whorls. Plant Cell. 2001;13:481–93.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. Kistler L, Montenegro A, Smith BD, Gifford JA, Green RE, Newsom LE, et al. Transoceanic drift and the domestication of African bottle gourds in the Americas. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:2937–41.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. Kocyan A, Zhang LB, Schaefer H, Renner SS. A multi-locus chloroplast phylogeny for the Cucurbitaceae and its implications for character evolution and classification. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2007;44:553–77.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Kosteletzky VF. Allgemeine medizinisch-pharmazeutische Flora, vol. 6. Prag: Borrosch & Andre; 1833.Google Scholar
  22. Lindner K, Hu Y, Pandey AK, Schaefer H. The Namib-Thar desert disjunction in Dactyliandra (Cucurbitaceae) is the result of a recent introduction to India. Systematic Botany; 2017 (in press).Google Scholar
  23. Matthews ML, Endress PK. Comparative floral structure and systematics in Cucurbitales (Corynocarpaceae, Coriariaceae, Tetramelaceae, Datiscaceae, Begoniaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Anisophylleaceae). Bot J Linn Soc. 2004;145:129–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Mitchell TC, Dötterl S, Schaefer H. Hawk-moth pollination and elaborate petals in Cucurbitaceae: the case of the Caribbean endemic Linnaeosicyos amara. Flora. 2015;216:50–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Renner SS. A return to Linnaeus’s focus on diagnosis, not description: the use of DNA characters in the formal naming of species. Syst Biol. 2016. doi: 10.1093/sysbio/syw032, online 4 May 2016.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Renner SS, Chomicki G, Greuter W. Proposal to conserve the name Momordica lanata (Citrullus lanatus) (watermelon, Cucurbitaceae), with a conserved type, against Citrullus battich. Taxon. 2014;63(4):941–2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Renner SS, Schaefer H, Kocyan A. Phylogenetics of Cucumis (Cucurbitaceae): cucumber (C. sativus) belongs in an Asian/Australian clade far from melon (C. melo). BMC Evol Biol. 2007;7:58. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/7/58/.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. Salard-Cheboldaeff M. Sur la palynoflore Maestrichtienne et Tertiaire du bassin sédimentaire littoral du Cameroun. Pollen Spores. 1978;20:215–60.Google Scholar
  29. Schaefer H, Renner SS. A gift from the New World? The West African crop Cucumeropsis mannii and the American Posadaea sphaerocarpa (Cucurbitaceae) are the same species. Syst Bot. 2010a;35(3):534–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Schaefer H, Renner SS. A three-genome phylogeny of Momordica (Cucurbitaceae) suggests seven returns from dioecy to monoecy and recent long-distance dispersal to Asia. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2010b;54(2):553–60.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Schaefer H, Renner SS. Cucurbitaceae. In: Kubitzki K, editor. Families and genera of flowering plants, vol. 10. Berlin: Springer; 2011a. p. 112–74.Google Scholar
  32. Schaefer H, Renner SS. Phylogenetic relationships in the order Cucurbitales and a new classification of the gourd family (Cucurbitaceae). Taxon. 2011b;60(1):122–38.Google Scholar
  33. Schaefer H, Heibl C, Renner SS. Gourds afloat: a dated phylogeny reveals an Asian origin of the gourd family (Cucurbitaceae) and numerous oversea dispersal events. Proc Royal Soc B. 2009;276:843–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Schaefer H, Kocyan A, Renner SS. Linnaeosicyos (Cucurbitaceae): a new genus for Trichosanthes amara, the Caribbean sister species of all Sicyoeae. Syst Bot. 2008a;33(2):349–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Schaefer H, Telford IRH, Renner SS. Austrobryonia (Cucurbitaceae), a new Australian endemic genus, is the closest living relative to the Eurasian and Mediterranean Bryonia and Ecballium. Syst Bot. 2008b;33(1):125–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Sebastian PM, Schaefer H, Telford IRH, Renner SS. Cucumber and melon have their wild progenitors in India, and the sister species of Cucumis melo is from Australia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107(32):14269–73.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. Sebastian P, Schaefer H, Lira R, Telford IRH, Renner SS. Radiation following long-distance dispersal: the contributions of time, opportunity, and diaspore morphology in Sicyos (Cucurbitaceae). J Biogeogr. 2012;39:1427–38. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2699.2012.02695.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Smith BD. The initial domestication of Cucurbita pepo in the Americas 10,000 years ago. Science. 1997;276:932–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Telford IRH, Schaefer H, Greuter W, Renner SS. A new Australian species of Luffa (Cucurbitaceae) and typification of two Australian Cucumis names, all based on specimens collected by Ferdinand Mueller in 1856. PhytoKeys. 2011a;5:21–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Telford IRH, Sebastian PM, Bruhl JJ, Renner SS. Cucumis (Cucurbitaceae) in Australia and eastern Malesia, including newly recognized species and the sister species to C. melo. Syst Bot. 2011b;36(2):376–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Telford IRH, Sebastian P, de Lange PJ, Bruhl JJ, Renner SS. Morphological and molecular data reveal three rather than one species of Sicyos (Cucurbitaceae) in Australia, New Zealand and the islands of the South West Pacific. Aust Syst Bot. 2012;25(3):188–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Volz SM, Renner SS. Phylogeography of the ancient Eurasian medicinal plant genus Bryonia (Cucurbitaceae) inferred from nuclear and chloroplast sequences. Taxon. 2009;58(2):550–60.Google Scholar
  43. Zhang LB, Simmons MP, Kocyan A, Renner SS. Phylogeny of the Cucurbitales based on DNA sequences of nine loci from three genomes: Implications for morphological and sexual system evolution. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2006;39:305–22.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Systematic Botany and Mycology, Department of BiologyUniversity of Munich (LMU)MunichGermany
  2. 2.Biodiversity of PlantsTechnical University Munich (TUM)FreisingGermany

Personalised recommendations