Development, Occurrence and Regulationof Antifouling Paint Biocides: Historical Review and Future Trends

  • James W. ReadmanEmail author
Part of the The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry book series (HEC, volume 5O)


Antifouling agents have been used on ships since the ancient Roman and Greek civilizations. A brief history is provided through to the demise of tributyltin (TBT) and the introduction of organic “booster” biocides. It is upon these latter compounds that the chapter is focused. A broad description of published data and of work undertaken through the Assessment of Antifouling Agents in Coastal Environments (ACE) project is provided to afford an overview of levels, behaviours and potential threats posed by the compounds. Legislative measures that influence and control usage are described. Finally, options for antifouling measures projected into the future are described and discussed.

Antifouling Booster biocides Environmental behaviour History Regulations 


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Much of the reported research was supported by the European Commission under the ACE (Assessment of Antifouling Agents in Coastal Environments) contract (MAS 3-CT98-0178) (a component of the EC IMPACTS cluster). The author is most grateful to all the scientists who participated in the ACE project and who contributed to the data described herein.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Plymouth Marine LaboratoryPlymouthUK

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