Advertisement

Occurrence of Transformation Products in the Environment

  • Dana W. Kolpin
  • William A. Battaglin
  • Kathleen E. Conn
  • Edward T. Furlong
  • Susan T. Glassmeyer
  • Steven J. Kalkhoff
  • Michael T. Meyer
  • Douglas J. Schnoebelen
Chapter
Part of the The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry book series (HEC, volume 2P)

Abstract

Historically, most environmental occurrence research has focused on the parent compounds of organic contaminants. Research, however, has documented that the environmental transport of chemicals, such as pesticides and emerging contaminants, are substantially underestimated if transformation products are not considered. Although most examples described herein were drawn from research conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, such results are generally reflective of those found in other parts of the world. Results from a study of 51 streams in the Midwestern United States found that transformation products were seven of the ten most frequently detected pesticide compounds in late spring runoff (after application of pre-emergent herbicides), and nine of the ten most frequently detected compounds in fall season runoff (during and after harvest). In fact, 70% of the total herbicide concentration in water from the Mississippi River Basin was from transformation products. Results from a study of 86 municipal wells in Iowa found the frequency of detection increased from 17%, when pesticide parent compounds were considered, to 53%, when both parents and transformation products were considered. Transformation products were 12 of the 15 most frequently detected compounds for this groundwater study. Although studies on transformation products of synthetic organic compounds other than pesticides are not as common, wastewater treatment plant discharges have repeatedly been shown to contribute such transformation products to streams. In addition, select detergent transformation products have been commonly found in solid waste in the 1000's mg/kg. These findings and many others document that transformation products must be considered to fully assess the potential environmental occurrence of chemical contaminants and their transport and fate in various compartments of the hydrologic system.

Ground water Surface water Transformation products  

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Boxall ABA, Sinclair CJ, Fenner K, Kolpin DW, Maund SJ (2004) When synthetic chemicals degrade in the environment. Environ Sci Technol 38:369A–375A CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kolpin DW, Thurman EM, Gooslby DA (1996) Occurrence of selected pesticides and their metabolites in near-surface aquifers of the Midwestern United States. Environ Sci Technol 30:335–340 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gooddy DC, Chilton PJ, Harrison I (2002) A field study to assess the degradation and transport of diuron and its metabolites in a calcareous soil. Sci Total Environ 297:67–83 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Battaglin WA, Thurman EM, Kalkhoff SJ, Porter SD (2003) Herbicides and transformation products in surface waters of the Midwestern United States. J Am Water Res Assoc 39:743–756 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Baran N, Mouvet C, Dagnac T, Jeannot R (2004) Infiltration of acetochlor and two of its metabolites in two contrasting soils. J Environ Qual 33:241–249 Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hladik ML, Hsiao JJ, Roberts AL (2005) Are neutral chloroacetamide herbicide degradates of potential environmental concern? Analysis and occurrence in the upper Chesapeake Bay. Environ Sci Technol 39:6561–6574 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Miao X-S, Yang J-J, Metcalfe CD (2005) Carbamazepine and its metabolites in wastewater and in biosolids in a municipal wastewater treatment plant. Environ Sci Technol 39:7469–7475 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Søeberg T, Ingerslev F, Halling-Sørensen B (2004) Chemical stability of chlortetracycline and chlortetracycline degradation products and epimers in soil interstitial water. Chemos 57:1515–1524 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bester K (2005) Fate of triclosan and triclosan-methyl in sewage treatment plants and surface waters. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 49:9–17 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Aranami K, Readman JW (2007) Photolytic degradation of triclosan in freshwater and seawater. Chemos 66:1052–1056 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kolpin DW, Furlong ET, Meyer MT, Thurman EM, Zaugg SD, Barber LB, Buxton HT (2002) Pharmaceuticals, hormones, and other organic wastewater contaminants in US streams, 1999–2000: A national reconnaissance. Environ Sci Technol 36:1202–1211 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Cespedes R, Lacorte S, Raldua D, Ginebreda A, Barcelo D, Pina B (2005) Distribution of endocrine disruptors in the Llobregat River Basin (Catalonia, NE Spain). Chemos 61:1710–1719 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Conn KE, Barber LB, Brown GK, Siegrist RL (2006) Occurrence and fate of organic contaminants during onsite wastewater treatment. Environ Sci Technol 40:7358–7366 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Chen C-Y, Wen T-Y, Wang G-S, Cheng H-W, Lin Y-H, Lien G-W (2007) Determining estrogenic steroids in Taipei waters and removal in drinking water treatment using high-flow solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Sci Total Environ 378:352–365 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Fernandez MP, Ikonomou MG, Buchanan I (2007) An assessment of estrogenic organic contaminants in Canadian wastewaters. Sci Total Environ 373:250–269 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    McConnell LL, Rice CP, Hapeman CJ, Drakeford L, Harmon-Fetcho JA, Bialek K, Fulton MH, Leight AK, Allen G (2007) Agricultural pesticides and selected degradation products in five tidal regions and the main stem of Chesapeake Bay USA. Environ Toxicol Chem 26:2567–2578 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Foreman WT, Majewski MS, Goolsby DA, Wiebe FW, Coupe RH (2000) Pesticides in the atmosphere of the Mississippi River Valley, part II – air. Sci Total Environ 248:213–216 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bucheli TD, Muller SR, Heberle S, Schwarzenbach RP (1998) Occurrence and behavior of pesticides in rainwater, roof runoff, and artificial stormwater infiltration. Environ Sci Technol 32:3457–3464 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Dorfler U, Scheunert I (1997) S-triazine herbicides in rainwater with special reference to the situation in Germany. Chemos 35:77–85 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Goolsby DA, Thurman EM, Pomes ML, Meyer MT, Battaglin WA (1997) Herbicides and their metabolites in rainfall–Origin, transport, and deposition patterns across the midwestern and northeastern United States, 1990–1991. Environ Sci Technol 31:1325–1333 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Brooks BW, Chambliss CK, Stanley JK, Ramirez A, Banks KE, Johnson RD, Lewis RJ (2005) Determination of select antidepressants in fish from an effluent-dominated stream. Environ Toxicol Chem 24:464–469 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Correa-Reyes G, Viana MT, Marquez-Rocha FJ, Licea AF, Ponce E, Vazquez-Duhalt R (2007) Nonylphenol algal bioaccumulation and its effect through the trophic chain. Chemos 68:662–670 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Rice CP, Schmitz-Afonso I, Loyo-Rosales JE, Link E, Thoma R, Fay L, Altfater D, Camp MJ (2003) Alkylphenol and alkylphenol-ethoxylates in carp, water, and sediment from the Cuyahoga River, Ohio. Environ Sci Technol 37:3747–3754 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kolpin DW, Thurman EM, Linhart SM (2000) Finding minimal herbicides concentrations in ground water? Try looking for their degradates. Sci Total Environ 248:115–122 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Gasser L, Fenner K, Scheringer M (2007) Indicators for the exposure assessment of transformation products of organic micropollutants. Environ Sci Technol 41:2445–2451 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hladik ML, Bouwer EJ, Roberts AL (2008) Neutral chloroacetamide herbicide degradates and related compounds in Midwestern United States drinking water sources. Sci Total Environ 390:155–165 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Galassi S, Provini A, Mangiapan S, Benfenati E (1996) Alachlor and its metabolites in surface water. Chemos 32:229–237 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kalkhoff SJ, Barnes KK, Becher KD, Savoca ME, Schnoebelen DJ, Sadorf EM, Porter SD, Sullivan DJ (2000) Water quality in the Eastern Iowa Basins, Iowa and Minnesota, 1996–98. US Geological Survey Circular 1210 Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Papastergiou A, Papadopoulou-Mourkidou P (2001) Occurrence and spatial and temporal distribution of pesticide residues in groundwater of major corn-growing areas of Greece (1996–1997). Environ Sci Technol 35:63–69 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Sarmah AK, Muller K, Ahmad R (2004) Fate and behavior of pesticides in the agroecosystem – a review with a New Zealand perspective. Austr J Soil Res 42:125–154 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Gilliom RJ, Barbash JE, Crawford CG, Hamilton PA, Martin JD, Nakagaki N, Nowell LH, Scott JC, Stackelberg PE, Thelin GP, Wolock DM (2006) Pesticides in the nation's streams and ground water, 1992–2001: The quality of our nation's water. U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1291. ( http://ca.water.usgs.gov/pnsp/pubs/circ1291/ )
  32. 32.
    Hildebrandt A, Lacorte S, Barcelo D (2007) Assessment of priority pesticides, degradation products, and pesticide adjuvants in groundwaters and top soils from agricultural areas of the Ebro river basin. Anal Bioanal Chem 387:1459–1468 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Battaglin WA, Kolpin DW, Scribner E, Kuivila KK, Sandstrom MA (2005) Glyphosate, other herbicides, and transformation products in Midwestern streams, 2002. J Am Water Res Assoc 41:323–332 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Scribner EA, Battaglin WA, Dietze JE, Thurman EM (2003) Reconnaissance data for glyphosate, other selected herbicides, their degradation products, and antibiotics in 51 streams in nine midwestern States, 2002. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 03–217 Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Zimmerman LR, Thurman EM (1998) Method of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey Organic Geochemistry Group – Determination of triazine and chloroacetanilide herbicides in water by solid-phase extraction and capillary column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with selected ion monitoring. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 98–634 Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Zimmerman LR, Schneider RJ, Thurman EM (2002) Analysis and detection of the herbicides dimethenamid and flufenacet and their sulfonic and oxanilic acid degradates in natural water. J Agri Food Chem 50:1045–1052 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Lee EA, Kish JL, Zimmerman LR, Thurman EM (2001) Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey Organic Geochemistry Research Group – Update and additions to the determination of chloroacetanilide herbicide degradation compounds in water using high performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 01–10 Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Lee EA, Strahan AP, Thurman EM (2001) Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey Organic Geochemistry Research Group – Determination of glyphosate, aminomethylphosphonic acid, and glufosinate in water using online solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 01–454 Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Rebich RA, Coupe RH, Thurman EM (2004) Herbicide concentrations in the Mississippi River Basin – the importance of chloroacetanilide herbicide degradates. Sci Total Environ 321:189–199 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Clark GM, Goolsby DA, Battaglin WA (1999) Seasonal and annual load of herbicides from the Mississippi River Basin to the Gulf of Mexico. Environ Sci Technol 33:981–986 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Schnoebelen DJ, Kalkhoff SJ, Becher KD, Thurman EM (2003) Water-quality assessment of the Eastern Iowa Basins: Selected pesticides and pesticide degradates in streams, 1996–98. U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 03–4075 Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Kalkhoff SJ, Lee KE, Porter SD, Terrio PJ, Thurman EM (2003) Herbicides and herbicide degradation products in upper Midwest agricultural streams during August base-flow conditions. J Environ Qual 32:1025–1035 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Squillace PJ (1996) Observed and simulated movement of bank-storage water. Ground Water 34:121–134 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Lin CH, Lerch RN, Thurman EM, Garrett HE, George MF (2002) Determination of isoxaflutole (Balance) and its metabolites in water using solid phase extraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet or mass spectrometry. J Ag Food Chem 50:5816–5824 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Scribner EA, Meyer MT, Kalkhoff SJ (2006) Occurrence of isoxaflutole, acetamide, and triazine herbicides and their degradation products in 10 Iowa rivers draining to the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers, 2004. U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2006–5169 Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Meyer MT, Scribner EA, Kalkhoff SJ (2007) Comparison of fate and transport of isoxaflutole to atrazine and metolachlor in 10 Iowa Rivers. Environ Sci Technol 41:6933–6939 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Meyer MT, Lee EA, Scribner EA (2007) Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey Organic Geochemistry Research Group–Determination of dissolved isoxaflutole and its sequential degradation products, diketonitrile and benzoic acid in water using solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods, book 5, chap. A9, p 13 Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Kolpin DW, Schnoebelen DJ, Thurman EM (2004) Degradates provide insight to spatial and temporal trends of herbicides in ground water. Ground Water 42:601–608 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Mills PC, Kolpin DW, Scribner EA, Thurman EM (2004) Herbicides and degradates in shallow aquifers of Illinois – Spatial and temporal trends. J Am Water Res Assoc 41:537–547 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Tesoriero AJ, Saad DA, Burow KR, Frick EA, Puckett LJ, Barbash JE (2007) Linking ground-water age and chemistry along flow paths: Implications for trends and transformations of nitrate and pesticides. J Contam Hydrol 94:139–155 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Padgette SR, Kolacz KH, Delannay X (1995) Development, identification, and characterization of a glyphosate-tolerant soybean line. Crop Sci 35:1451–1461 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Morvan X, Mouvet C, Baran N, Gutierrez A (2006) Pesticides in the groundwater of a spring draining a sandy aquifer: Temporal variability of concentrations and fluxes. J Contam Hydrol 87:176–190 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Bruchet A, Hochereau C, Picard C, Decottignies V, Rodrigues JM, Janex-Habibi ML (2005) Analysis of drugs and personal care products in French source and drinking waters: the analytical challenge and examples of application. Water Sci Technol 52:53–61 Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Gulkowska A, He Y, So MK, Yeung LWY, Leung HW, Giesy JP, Lam PKS, Martin M, Richardson BJ (2007) The occurrence of selected antibiotics in Hong Kong coastal waters. Marine Poll Bull 54:287–1306 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Halling-Sørensen B, Nielson SN, Lanzky PF, Ingerslev F, Holten Lutzhoft J, Jorgensen SE (1998) Occurrence, fate and effects of pharmaceutical substances in the environment – A review. Chemos 35:357–393 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Heberer T (2002) Occurrence, fate, and removal of pharmaceutical residues in the aquatic environment: A review of the recent research data. Toxicol Letters 131:5–17 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Kim SD, Cho J, Kim IS, Vanderford BJ, Snyder SA (2007) Occurrence and removal of pharmaceutical and endocrine disruptors in South Korean surface, drinking, and waste waters. Water Research 41:1013–1021 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Moldovan Z (2006) Occurrences of pharmaceutical and personal care products as micropollutants in rivers from Romania. Chemos 64:1808–1817 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Ternes TA (1998) Occurrence of drugs in German sewage treatment plants and rivers. Water Res 32:3245–3260 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Wiegel S, Aulinger A, Brockmeyer R, Harms H, Loffler J, Reincke H, Schmidt R, Stachel B, von Tumpling W, Wanke A (2004) Pharmaceuticals in the river Elbe and its tributaries. Chemos 57:107–126 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Lindstrom A, Buerge IJ, Poiger T, Bergqvist PA, Muller MD, Buser HR (2002) Occurrence and environmental behavior of the bactericide triclosan and its methyl derivative in surface waters and in wastewater. Environ Sci Technol 36:2322–2329 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Ashton D, Hilton M, Thomas KV (2004) Investigating the environmental transport of human pharmaceuticals to streams in the United Kingdom. Sci Total Environ 333:167–184 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Chiron S, Minero C, Vione D (2006) Photodegradation processes of the antiepileptic drug carbamazepine, relevant to estuarine waters. Environ Sci Technol 40:5977–5983 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Matamoros V, Bayona JM (2006) Elimination of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in subsurface flow constructed wetlands. Environ Sci Technol 40:5811–5816 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Benotti MJ, Brownawell BJ (2007) Distributions of pharmaceuticals in an urban estuary during both dry- and wet-weather conditions. Environ Sci Technol 41:5795–5802 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Buth JM, Arnold WA, McNeill K (2007) Unexpected products and reaction mechanisms of the aqueous chlorination of cimetidine. Environ Sci Technol 41:6228–6233 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Horii Y, Reiner JL, Loganathan BG, Kumar KS, Sajwan K, Kannan K (2007) Occurrence and fate of polycylic musks in wastewater treatment plants in Kentucky and Georgia USA. Chemos 68:2011–2020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Managaki S, Murata A, Takada H, Tuyen BC, Chiem NH (2007) Distribution of macrolides, sulfonamides, and trimethoprim in tropical waters: Ubiquitous occurrence of veterinary antibiotics in the Mekong Delta. Environ Sci Technol 41:8004–8010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Martin C, Moeder M, Daniel X, Krauss G, Schlosser D (2007) Biotransformation of the polycyclic musks HHCB and AHTN and metabolite formation by fungi occurring in freshwater environments. Environ Sci Technol 41:5395–5402 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Stumpf M, Ternes TA, Wilken RD, Rodrigues SV, Baumann W (1999) Polar drug residues in sewage and natural waters in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Sci Total Environ 225:135–141 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Franke S, Hildebrandt S, Schwarzbauer J, Link M, Francke W (1995) Organic compounds as contaminants of the Elbe river and its tributaries Part II: GC/MS screening for contaminants of the Elbe water. Fresenius J Anal Chem 353:39–49 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Heberer T, Butz S, Stan HJ (1995) Analysis of phenoxycarboxylic acids and other acidic compounds in tap, ground, surface and sewage water at the low ng/l level. Int J Environ Anal Chem 58:43–53 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Buser HR, Muller MD, Theobald N (1998) Occurrence of the pharmaceutical drug clofibric acid and the herbicide mecoprop in various Swiss lakes and the North Sea. Environ Sci Technol 32:188–192 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Clara M, Strenn B, Gans O, Martinez E, Kreuzinger N, Kroiss H (2005) Removal of selected pharmaceuticals, fragrances and endocrine disrupting compounds in a membrane bioreactor and conventional wastewater treatment plants. Water Res 39:4797–4807 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Glassmeyer ST, Furlong ET, Kolpin DW, Cahill JD, Zaugg SD, Werner SL, Meyer MT, Kryak DD (2005) Transport of chemical and microbial compounds from known wastewater discharges: Potential for use as indicators of human fecal contamination. Environ Sci Technol 39:5157–5169 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Gobel A, McArdell CS, Joss A, Siegrist H, Giger W (2007) Fate of sulfonamides, macrolides, and trimethoprim in different wastewater treatment technologies. Sci Total Environ 372:361–371 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Li D, Yang M, Hu J, Ren L, Zhang Y, Li K (2008) Determination and fate of oxytetracycline and related compounds in oxytetracycline production wastewater and the receiving river. Environ Toxicol Chem 27:80–86 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Ying G-G, Kookana RS, Kumar A (2008) Fate of estrogens and xenoestrogens in four sewage treatment plants with different technologies. Environ Toxicol Chem 27:87–94 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Godfrey E, Woessner WW, Benotti MJ (2007) Pharmaceuticals in on-site sewage effluent and ground water, western Montana. Ground Water 45:263–271 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Barnes KK, Christenson SC, Kolpin DW, Focazio MJ, Furlong ET, Zaugg SD, Meyer MT, Barber LB (2004) Pharmaceuticals and other organic waste water contaminants within a leachate plume downgradient of a municipal landfill. Ground Water Monit Remed 24:119–126 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Hanselman TA, Graetz DA, Wilkie AC (2003) Manure-borne estrogens as potential environmental contaminants: A review. Environ Sci Technol 37:5471–5478 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Hutchins SR, White MR, Hudson FM, Fine DD (2007) Analysis of lagoon samples from different concentrated animal feeding operations for estrogens and estrogen conjugates. Environ Sci Technol 41:738–744 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Kinney CA, Furlong ET, Zaugg SD, Burkhardt MR, Werner SL, Cahill JD, Jorgensen GR (2006) Survey of organic wastewater contaminants in biosolids destined for land application. Environ Sci Technol 40:7207–7215 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Gobel A, Thomsen A, Mcardell CS, Joss A, Giger W (2005) Occurrence and sorption behavior of sulfonamides, macrolides, and trimethoprim in activated sludge treatment. Environ Sci Technol 39:3981–3989 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Kolpin DW, Skopec M, Meyer MT, Furlong ET, Zaugg SD (2004) Urban contribution of pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater contaminants to streams during differing flow conditions. Sci Total Environ 328:119–130 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Lishman L, Smyth SA, Sarafin K, Kleywegt S, Toito J, Peart T, Lee B, Servos M, Beland M, Seto P (2006) Occurrence and reductions of pharmaceuticals and personal care products and estrogens by municipal wastewater treatment plants in Ontario, Canada. Sci Total Environ 367:544–558 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dana W. Kolpin
    • 1
  • William A. Battaglin
    • 2
  • Kathleen E. Conn
    • 3
  • Edward T. Furlong
    • 4
  • Susan T. Glassmeyer
    • 5
  • Steven J. Kalkhoff
    • 1
  • Michael T. Meyer
    • 6
  • Douglas J. Schnoebelen
    • 1
  1. 1.U.S. Geological SurveyIowa CityUSA
  2. 2.U.S. Geological SurveyDenver Federal CenterLakewoodUSA
  3. 3.Environmental Science and Engineering DivisionColorado School of MinesGoldenUSA
  4. 4.U.S. Geological SurveyDenver Federal CenterLakewoodUSA
  5. 5.U.S. Environmental Protection AgencyNational Exposure Research LaboratoryCincinnatiUSA
  6. 6.U.S. Geological SurveyLawrenceUSA

Personalised recommendations