The Mixing Zone Between Waters of the Severnaya Dvina River and the White Sea
The geochemical processes in the river-sea mixing zone (the Marginal Filter of the Severnaya Dvina Rivers) are considered in this chapter. The general trend in transformation of the elements and components as a result of physical, chemical, and biogeochemical processes in this zone is the transition from dissolved forms of element existence into particulate suspended forms with the following sedimentation on the bottom. So, the Marginal Filter is a very effective barrier on the way of dissolved and suspended sedimentary materials from the continent to the sea.
The results of the behavior of major elements, organic carbon, nutrients, and trace elements in the Severnaya Dvina estuary are presented and discussed. All the chemical elements are divided into three groups with different types of geochemical behavior in the MF zone – conservative, biogenic, and lithogenic ones with significant difference in their losses in the marginal filter.
The results of element determination along the profiles from the land to the sea in the Dvina Bay show that only Fe, rarely Mn, and several insoluble metals are non-conservative, while other trace elements are conservative in this area that is not typical in many other rivers in the world. The explanation consists in some peculiarities of the Severnaya Dvina river – first of all, in quite low concentrations of suspended matter (in 50 times less than in the global river discharge) and, on the contrary, in high concentration of DOC (at least 3–4 times more than global average in rivers). The extremely important role of the colloidal forms of elements was demonstrated in the nearest works. The non-conservative behavior of Fediss. and divalent insoluble elements is the consequence of the process of flocculation of colloidal fractions of the elements. The very important result of this transformation of river material is significant increase in the concentration of the “truly” dissolved elements. This last fraction does not have any losses in the mixing zone. The consequences of these processes will be more intensive in conditions of the climate warming, especially in the arctic conditions.
KeywordsConservative and non-conservative behavior of elements Flocculation of colloidal forms of elements Processes in the mixing zone (marginal filter) Severnaya Dvina estuary Total and net fluxes of elements
This research was performed in the framework of the state assignment of FASO Russia (Theme No. 0149-2018-0016), and analytical data were processed within the RSF grant (Project No. 14-27-00114-p).
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