Advertisement

pp 1-38 | Cite as

Diatoms and Aquatic Palynomorphs in the White Sea Sediments as Indicators of Sedimentation Processes and Paleoceanography

  • Yelena I. Polyakova
  • Yekaterina A. Novichkova
Chapter
Part of the The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry book series

Abstract

Comprehensive studies of diatoms and palynomorphs from the White Sea sediments revealed the following features of the composition of their assemblages. The species composition of the marine plankton diatoms and dinoflagellate cysts in the sediments reflects the features of the high-latitude position of the sea and the impact of the Arctic and North Atlantic water masses on hydrological regime of the White Sea. The spatial distribution of plankton species in the surface sediments (both diatoms and dinoflagellate cysts) matches the distribution of the main types of water masses in the White Sea. The characteristic property of the diatom and dinoflagellate cyst assemblages is the presence, in high concentrations, of relatively warmwater species typical for the Atlantic water masses. Diatom algae, aquatic palynomorphs, and the grain size of surface sediments from bays of the White Sea were investigated in a program dedicated to the study of marginal filters (MF) in the Northern Dvina, the Onega, and the Kem’ Rivers.

Three microalgae assemblages are established in surface sediments, which replace each other successively with the distance from river mouths, and are characterized by a gradual decrease in a share of freshwater species of diatoms and Chlorophyceae algae, significantly varying concentrations of marine diatoms and dinocysts due to changes in water salinity, grain-size composition of sediments, quantitative distribution of suspended particulate matter (SPM), and water productivity at different marginal filter’s zones.

Keywords

Diatoms Dinoflagellate cyst Green algae Marginal filter sedimentation The White Sea 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We would like to thank the Russian Scientific Foundation (Project No 14-27-00114-P) for the financial support of this research over the period of preparation of this chapter. The micropaleontological investigations were made in the framework of the state assignment of FASO Russia (theme No. 0149-2018-0016), supported in part by basic research program of the RAS Presidium (project by Novichkova Ye.A.). The authors are grateful to Academician A.P. Lisitzin for general leadership; scientists from the Laboratory of Physical Geology Researches of the P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology RAS for different advices; the crew of the R/V “Ecolog,” R/V “Professor Stokman,” and R/V “Ivan Petrov”; and all participants of the voyages for cooperation.

References

  1. 1.
    Crosta X, Koç N (2010) Diatoms: from micropaleontology to isotope geochemistry. In: Hillaire-Marcel C, de Vernal A (eds) Proxies in late Cenozoic paleoceanography. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 327–370Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    de Vernal A, Marret F (2010) Organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts: tracers of sea-surface conditions. In: Hillaire-Marcel C, de Vernal A (eds) Proxies in late Cenozoic paleoceanography. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 371–408Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Polyakova YI (2010) Diatom analysis. In: Kaplin PA, Yanina TA (eds) Methods of paleogeographic reconstructions. Geographical Faculty of MSU, Moscow, pp 126–160 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Polyakova YI, Novichkova YA, Klyuvitkina TS (2010) Analysis of aquatic palynomorphs. In: Kaplin PA, Yanina TA (eds) Methods of paleogeographic reconstructions. Geographical Faculty of MSU, Moscow, pp 103–125 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Polyakova YI (1997) The Eurasian Arctic seas during the late Cenozoic. Scientific World, Moscow, 146 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Polyakova YI (2001) Late Cenozoic evolution of Northern Eurasian marginal seas based on diatom records. Polarforschung 69:211–220Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Polyakova YI (2003) Diatom assemblages in the surface sediments of the Kara Sea (Siberian Arctic) and their relationship to oceanological conditions. In: Stein R, Fahl K, Fütterer DK, Galimov EM, Stepanets OV (eds) Siberian river run-off in the Kara Sea: characterization, quantification, variability, and environmental significance. Proceedings in marine sciences. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 375–400Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    de Vernal A, Henry M, Matthiessen J, Mudie PJ, Rochon A, Boessenkool KP, Eynaud F, Grosfjeld K, Guiot J, Hamel D, Harland R, Head MJ, Kunz-Pirrung M, Levac E, Loucheur V, Peyron O, Pospelova V, Radi T, Turon JL, Voronina E (2001) Dinoflagellate cyst assemblages as tracers of sea-surface conditions in the northern North Atlantic, Arctic and sub-Arctic seas: the new n=677 data base and its application for quantitative palaeoceanographic reconstruction. J Quaternary Sci 16:681–698Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    de Vernal A, Rochon A, Fréchette B, Henry M, Radi T, Solignac S (2013) Reconstructing past sea ice cover of the northern hemisphere from dinocyst assemblages: status of the approach. Quat Sci Rev 79:122–134Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Matthiessen J, Kunz-Pirrung M, Mudie PJ (2000) Freshwater chlorophycean algae in recent marine sediments of the Beaufort, Laptev and Kara seas (Arctic Ocean) as indicators of river runoff. Int J Earth Sci 89:470–485Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Matthiessen J, de Vernal A, Head M, Okolodkov Yu, Zonneveld K, Harland R (2005) Modern organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts in Arctic marine environments and their paleoenvironmental significance. Palaeontol Zietsch 79(1):3–51Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Armand LK, Leventer A (2010) Palaeo sea ice distribution and reconstruction derived from the geological records. Chapter 13. In: Thomas DN, Dieckmann GS GS (eds) Sea ice. 2nd edn. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, pp 469–530Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Stein R, Fahl K, Müller J (2012) Proxy reconstruction of Cenozoic Arctic Ocean sea-ice history – from IRD to IP25. Polarforschung 82(1):37–71Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Zabelina MM (1939) Diatoms from the bottom of the White Sea in the region of the small Pir’yu-Guba. Proc State Hydrol Inst 8(17):183–200 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Dzhinoridze RN (1972) Diatoms in the surface sediments of the White Sea. Dokl Earth Sci 204(1):207–209 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Nevesskii EN, Medvedev VS, Kalinenko VV (1977) The White Sea. Sedimentogenesis and history of development in Holocene. Nauka, Moscow 236 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Polyakova YI, Dzhinoridze RN, Novichkova TS, Golovnina EA (2003) Diatoms and palynomorphs in the White Sea sediments as indicators of ice and hydrological conditions. Oceanology 43(Suppl):144–158Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Novichkova EA, Polyakova YI (2013) Associations of microalgae in bottom sediments of marginal filters areas (White Sea bays). Dokl Earth Sci 449(2):413–417Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Polyakova YI, Novichkova YA, Lisitzin AP, Shevchenko VP, Kravchishina MD (2016) Diatoms and aquatic palynomorphs in surface sediments of the White Sea bays as indicators of sedimentation in marginal filters of rivers. Oceanology 56(2):289–300Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Polyakova YI, Novichkova YA, Klyuvitkina TS (2017) Diatoms and palynomorphs in surface sediments of the Arctic seas and their significance for paleoceanological studies at high latitudes In: Lisitsyn AP, Shevchenko VP, Vorontsova VG (eds) The White Sea system. Vol IV the processes of sedimentation, geology and history. Scientific World, Moscow, pp 796–859 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Novichkova EA (2008) Postglacial history of the White Sea based on aquatic and terrestrial palynomorph investigations. PhD thesis. MSU, 262 ppGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Golovnina EA, Polyakova EI (2005) Dinoflagellate cysts in the bottom sediments of the White Sea (western Arctic). Dokl Eath Sci 400(1):136–139 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Novichkova EA, Polyakova YI (2007) Dinoflagellate cysts in the surface sediments of the White Sea. Oceanology 47(5):660–670Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Battarbee RW (1973) A new method for estimation of absolute microfossil numbers, with reference especially to diatoms. Limnol Oceanogr 18(4):647–653Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Stockmarr J (1971) Tablets with spores used in absolute pollen analysis. Pollen Spores 13(4):616–621Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Dale B (1976) Cyst formation, sedimentation, and preservation: factors affecting dinoflagellate assemblages in recent sediments from Trondheimsfjord, Norway. Rev Palaeobot Palynol 22:39–60Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Pospelova V, Esenkulova S, Johannessen SC, O’Brien MC, Macdonald RW (2010) Organic-walled dinoflagellate cyst production, composition and flux from 1996 to 1998 in the central strait of Georgia (BC, Canada): a sediment trap study. Mar Micropaleontol 75:17–37Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Zonneveld KAF (1997) Dinoflagellate cyst distribution in surface sediments from the Arabian Sea (northwestern Indian Ocean) in relation to temperature and salinity gradients in the upper water column. Deep Res Part II Top Stud Oceanogr 44:1411–1443Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Bauch HA, Polyakova YI (2003) Diatom-inferred salinity records from the Arctic Siberian margin: implications for fluvial runoff patterns during the Holocene. Paleoceanography 18:1–10Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Klyuvitkina TS, Bauch HA (2006) Hydrological changes in the Laptev Sea during the Holocene inferred from the studies of aquatic palynomorphs. Oceanology 46(6):859–868Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    World Ocean Atlas (2013) In: Boyer T (ed) Mishonov A, Technical Ed., Product documentation. 14 ppGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Petelin VP (1967) Grain-size analysis of sea bottom sediments. Nauka, Moscow 128 p. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Demina LL, Filip’eva KV, Shevchenko VP, Novigatskii AN, Filippov AS (2005) Geochemistry of the bottom sediments in the mixing zone of the Kem’ River with the White Sea. Oceanology 45(6):805–818Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Berger VY, Naumov AD (2000) General features of the White Sea. Morphology, sediments, hydrology, oxygen conditions, nutrients and organic matter. Berichte zur Polarfoschung 359:3–9Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Lisitzin AP, Shevchenko VP, Burenkov VI, Kopelevich OV, Vasil’ev LY (2003) Suspended matter and hydrooptics of the White Sea: new patterns of quantitative distribution and grain-size analysis. In: Laverov NP (ed) Actual problems of oceanology, pp 554–608 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Lisitsyn AP (2010) The proсesses in the White Sea catchment area: preparation, transfer and sedimentation of matter, flows of matter, and the concept of “living watershed”. In: Lisitsyn AP, Nemirovskaia IA (eds) The White Sea system. Vol I natural environment of the catchment area of the White Sea. Scientific World, Moscow, pp 353–445 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Lisitsyn AP (2012) Dispersed sedimentary substance in the earth geospheres and in the White Sea system. In: Lisitsyn AP, Nemirovskaya IA (eds) The White Sea system. Vol II water column and interacting with it atmosphere, cryosphere, river runoff and biosphere. Scientific World, Moscow, pp 19–48 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Gordeev VV (2004) Rivers of Russian Arctic: flows of sediments from continent to the ocean. New ideas in oceanology. Vol II. Nauka, Moscow, pp 113–166 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Pantyulin AN (2003) Hydrological system of the White Sea. Oceanology 43(Suppl):1–14Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Pantyulin AN (2012) Ice cover and ice of the White Sea after the observation data. In: Lisitsyn AP, Nemirovskaya IA (eds) The White Sea system. Vol II water column and interacting with it atmosphere, cryosphere, river runoff and biosphere. Scientific World, Moscow, pp 120–132 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Pantyulin AN (2012) The features of the White Sea physics – dynamics, structure and water masses. In: Lisitsyn AP, Nemirovskaya IA (eds) (2012) The White Sea system. Vol II water column and interacting with it atmosphere, cryosphere, river runoff and biosphere. Scientific World, Moscow, pp 309–378 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Lisitsyn AP, Nemirovskaya IA (eds) (2012) The White Sea system. Vol II water column and interacting with it atmosphere, cryosphere, river runoff and biosphere. Scientific World, Moscow, 783 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Lisitzin AP (2009) Biofilters of the Arctic Ocean and processes of sedimentation. In: Kassens H, Lisitzin AP, Thiede J, Polyakova YeI, Timokhov LA, Frolov IE (eds) System of the Laptev Sea and the adjacent Arctic seas: modern and past environments. Moscow University Press, Moscow, pp 71–121 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Hydrometeorology and Hydrochemistry of the USSR Seas (1991) The White Sea: hydro-meteorological conditions. Gidrometeoizdat, Leningrad, 240 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Rat’kova TN (2000) The White Sea basin phytoplankton – a review. Berichte zur Polarforschung 359:3–29Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Rat’kova TN (2000) Phytoplankton composition in the White Sea basin in summer-autumn 1998 and 1999. Berichte zur Polarforschung 359:97–100Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Sapojhnikov VV, Arjhanova NO, Mordasova NV (2012) Hydrochemical features of bioproductivity and production-destructive processes in the White Sea. In: Lisitsyn AP, Nemirovskaya IA (eds) The White Sea system. Vol II water column and interacting with it atmosphere, cryosphere, the river runoff and the biosphere. Scientific World, Moscow, pp 433–472 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Aagaard K, Carmack EC (1994) The Arctic Ocean and climate: a perspective. The polar oceans and the role in shaping the global environmental: the Nansen centennial volume. Geophys Monogr Am Geophys Union 85:5–20Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Maksimova MP (2004) Comparative hydrochemistry of seas. New ideas in oceanology, vol I. Nauka, Moscow, pp 168–189 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Il’yash LV, Zhitina LS, Fedorov VD (2003) Phytoplankton of the White Sea. Yanus-K, Moscow 168 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Dolotov YS, Filatov NN, Shevchenko VP, Petrov MP, Tolstikov AV, Zdorovennov RE, Platonov AV, Filippov AS, Bushuev KL, Kutcheva IP, Denisenko NV, Stein R, Saukel C (2008) Multidisciplinary studies in Onega Bay of the White Sea and the estuary of the Onega River during the summer period. Oceanology 48:255–267Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Il’yash LV, Rat’kova TN, Radchenko IG, Zhitina LS (2012) Phytoplankton of the White Sea. In: Lisitsyn AP, Nemirovskaia IA (eds) The White Sea system. Vol II water column and interacting with the atmosphere, cryosphere, the river runoff and the biosphere. Scientific World, Moscow, pp 605–640 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Kravchishina MD, Shevchenko VP, Filippov AS, Novigatskii AN, Dara OM, Alekseeva TN, Bobrov VA (2010) Composition of the suspended particulate matter at the Severnaya Dvina River mouth (White Sea) during the spring flood period. Oceanology 50(3):396–416Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Kravchishina MD, Lisitzin AP (2011) Grain-size composition of the suspended particulate matter in the marginal filter of the Severnaya Dvina River. Oceanology 51(1):89–104Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Kiselev IA (1925) The phytoplankton of the White Sea. Proc RGI 105(2):1–38 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Kiselev IA (1950) Dinoflagellates of the USSR seas and freshwater basins. Nauka, Moscow 280 p (in Russian)Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Merezhkovsky KS (1878) Diatoms of the White Sea. Proc St Petersburg Soc Nat 425–446 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Reingard L (1882) Zur Kenntnis der Bacillariaceen des Weissen meres. Bulletin de la Societe Imperial des Naturalists 5(57):297–304Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Levander KM (1916) Zur Kenntnis des Kustenplanktons im Weissen Meere Meddelanden af Societans pro Fauna Fennica 42:150–158Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Semina GI, Sergeeva OM (1983) Planktonic flora and biogeographical characteristics of the White Sea phytoplankton. Plankton 1:3–17 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Matishov GG (1997) Plankton of the sea of the western Arctic. Kola Science Centre RAS, Apatity, 352 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Kuznetsov LL, Shoshina EV (2003) Phytocenoses of the Barents Sea (physiological and structural characteristics). Kola Scientific Center RAS, Apatity, 308 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Zhitina LS, Mikhailovsky GE (1990) Ice and planktonic flora of the White Sea as an object of monitoring. Biological monitoring of the coastal waters of the White Sea. Nauka, Moscow, pp 37–41 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Mikhailovsky GE, Zhitina LS (1989) Cryoplankton flora of the White Sea and its seasonal dynamics, revealed by the methods of correlation analysis. Oceanology 29(5):796–803 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Kravchishina MD, Burenkov VI, Kopelevich OV, Sheberstov SV, Vazyulya SV, Politova NV, Novigatsky AN, Filippov AS, Shevchenko OV (2011) Spatial and temporal variability of chlorophyll “a” in the White Sea in 2003-2010 from satellite and ship data. Proceedings of the VI international conference “Current problems in optics of natural waters”. Nauka, St Petersburg, pp 82–85Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Kravchishina MD, Lisitzin AP (2013) Pigments of phytoplankton as an indicator of the biogenic part of the dispersed sedimentary matter. In: Lisitsyn AP, Nemirovskaya IA (eds) The White Sea system. Vol III dispersed sedimentary matter in hydrosphere, microbial processes and water pollution. Scientific World, Moscow, pp 169–170Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Poulin M, Daugbjerg N, Gradinger R, Ilyash L, Ratkova T, von Quillfeldt C (2011) The pan-Arctic biodiversity of marine pelagic and sea-ice unicellular eukaryotes: a first-attempt assessment. Mar Biodivers 41(1):13–28.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12526-010-0058-8Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Sajin AF, Rat’kova TN (2012) Inhabitants of the White Sea seasonal ice In: Lisitsyn AP, Nemirovskaya IA (eds) The White Sea system. Vol II water column and interacting with it the atmosphere, cryosphere, the river runoff and the biosphere. Scientific World, Moscow, pp 201–224 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Zhitina LS, Il’yash LV (2010) Species composition of ice diatoms of the seas of the Russian Arctic. Arctic Antarctic 7(41):115–149 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Rat’kova TN, Wassmann P (2005) Sea-ice algae in the White Sea and the Barents Sea: composition and origin. Polar Res 24:95–110Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Usachev PI (1949) Microflora of polar ice. Proc Inst Oceanol USSR Acad Sci 3:216–259 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Melnikov IA (1997) The Arctic Sea ice ecosystem. Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, Amsterdam, 204 ppGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Horner R (1989) Arctic Sea-ice biota. In: Herman Y (ed) The Arctic seas. Climatology, oceanography. geology, and biology. Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, New York, pp 123–146Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Horner R (1990) Ice-associated ecosystems. In: Medlin LK, Priddle J (eds) Polar marine diatoms. British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, pp 19–23Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Syvertsen EE (1991) Ice algae in the Barents Sea: types of assemblages, origin, fate and role in the ice-edge phytoplankton bloom. Polar Res 10(1):277–287Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Von Quillfeldt CH (1997) Distribution of diatoms in the northeast water polynya, Greenland. J Mar Syst 10:211–240Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Okolodkov YB (1992) Cryopelagic flora of the Chukchi, East Siberian and Laptev Seas. Polar Biol 5:28–43Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Gogorev RM (1998) Diatom algae from the late spring sea ice of the White Sea. Bull Systemat Inferior Plants 32:8–13Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Melnikov IA, Zhitina LS, Kolosova EG, Shanin CS (2003) Dynamics of ecological-biochemical characteristics of sea ice in the coastal zone of the White Sea. Izv Akad Nauk Ser Biol 3:235–242 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Melnikov IA, Dikarev SN, Egorov VG, Kolosova EG, Zhitina LS (2005) Structure of the coastal ice ecosystem in the zone of sea-river interactions. Oceanology 45(4):511–519Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Shevchenko VP, Filippov AS, Novigatsky AN, Gordeev VV, Gorynova NV, Demina LL (2012) In: Dispersed sedimentary substance of freshwater and sea ices In, Lisitsyn AP, Nemirovskaya IA (eds) The White Sea system. Vol II. Water column and interacting with it the atmosphere, cryosphere, the river runoff and the biosphere. Scientific World, Moscow, pp 169–200 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Legendre L, Ackley SF, Dieckmann GS, Gulliksen B, Horner R, Hoshiai T, Melnikov IA, Reeburgh WS, Spindler M, Sullivan CW (1992) Ecology of sea ice biota. Global significance. Polar Biol 12:429–444Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Lalande C, Nöthig E-M, Somavilla R, Bauerfeind E, Shevchenko V, Okolodkov Y (2014) Variability in under-ice export fluxes of biogenic matter in the Arctic Ocean. Global Biogeochem Cycles 28:1–13Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Beklemishev KB, Semina GI (1986) Geography of plankton diatoms of high and moderate latitudes of the world ocean. Proc All-Union Hydrobiol Soc 27:7–23 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Semina HI (1997) An outline of the geographical distribution of oceanic phytoplankton. Adv Mar Biol 32:527–563Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Bondarchuk LL, Zernova VV, Koltsova TI (1985) Diatoms of some Arctic shelf regions: ecology of fauna and flora of coastal ocean zones. Nauka, Moscow, pp 74–93 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Sergeeva OM (1991) Distribution of phytoplankton in the basin of the White Sea in July 1972 and in August 1973. Phytoplankton research in the monitoring system of the Baltic Sea and other seas of the USSR. Gidrometeoizdat, Moscow, pp 82–94 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Okolodkov YB, Dodge JD (1996) Biodiversity and biogeography of planktonic dinoflagellates in the Arctic Ocean. J Exp Mar Biol 202:19–27Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Okolodkov YB (2000) Dinoflagellate (Dinophyceae) of the seas of the Eurasian Arctic. Abstract of Disser. Dr. Biol. Scie. Komarov Botanical Institute RAS. St Petersburg, 50 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Tuschling K, Juterzenka von K, Okolodkov Y, Anoshkin A (2000) Composition and distribution of the pelagic and sympagic algal assemblages in the Laptev Sea during autumnal freeze-up. J Plankton Res 22(5):843–864Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Okolodkov YB (1999) An ice-bound planktonic dinoflagellate Peridiniella catenata (Levander) Balech: morphology, ecology and distribution. Bot Mar 42:333–341Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Bérard-Therriault L, Poulin M, Bossé L (1999) Guide d’identification du phytoplankton marin de l’estuaire et du golfe du Saint-Laurent incluant également certains protozoaires. Can Spec Publ Fish Aquat Sci 128:387Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Montresor M, Lovejoy C, Orsini L, Procaccini G, Roy S (2003) Bipolar distribution of the cyst-forming dinoflagellate Polarella glacialis. Polar Biol 26:186–194Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Montresor M, Procaccini G, Stoecker DK (1999) Polarella glacialis, Gen. Nov., Sp. Nov. (Dinophyceae): Suessiaceae are still alive! J Phycol 35:186–197Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Fensome RA, Taylor FJR, Norris G, Sarjeant WAS, Wharton DI, Williams GL (1993) A classification of living and fossil dinoflagellates. Micropaleon Spec Publ 7:1–315Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Simonsen R (1962) Untersuchungen zur Systematik und Ökologie der Bodendiatomeen der westlichen Ostsee. International der Gesamten Hydrobiologie. Systematische Beihefte 1:9–148Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Pankow H (1990) Ostsee-Algenflora. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Jena 648 ppGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Konovalova GV (1998) The Dinoflagellates (Dinophyta) of the eastern seas of Russia and adjacent seas of the Pacific Ocean. Dalnauka, Vladivostok, 300 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Zonneveld KAF, Marret F, Versteegh GJM, Bogus K, Bonnet S, Bouimetarhan I, Crouch E, de Vernal A, Elshanawany R, Edwards L, Esper O, Forke S, Grøsfjeld K, Henry M, Holzwarth U, Kielt JF, Kim SY, Ladouceur S, Ledu D, Chen L, Limoges A, Londeix L, Lu SH, Mahmoud MS, Marino G, Matsouka K, Matthiessen J, Mildenhal DC, Mudie P, Neil HL, Pospelova V, Qi Y, Radi T, Richerol T, Rochon A, Sangiorgi F, Solignac S, Turon JL, Verleye T, Wang Y, Wang Z, Young M (2013) Atlas of modern dinoflagellate cyst distribution based on 2405 data points. Rev Palaeobot Palynol 191:1–197Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Rochon A, de Vernal A, Turon J-L, Matthiessen J, Head MJ (1999) Distribution of dinoflagellate cysts in surface sediments from the North Atlantic Ocean and adjacent basins and quantitative reconstruction of sea-surface parameters. Am Assoc Stratigraphic Palynologists Contrib Series 35, 146 pGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Marret F, Zonneveld KAF (2003) Atlas of modern organic-walled dinoflagellate cyst distribution. Rev Palaeobot Palynol 125:1–200Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Lisitzin AP (1995) Marginal filter in the oceans. Oceanology 34(5):671–682Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Lisitzin AP (2014) Modern concept about sedimentation in the oceans and seas. An ocean as the natural chronicle of geosphere interaction in the earth. In: Lobkovskii LI, Lisitzin AP (eds) The World Ocean physics, chemistry, and biology of an ocean. Sedimentation in the ocean and interaction of geospheres of the earth. Scientific World, Moscow, pp 331–548 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Lisitsyn AP, Nemirivskaya IA (eds) (2010) The White Sea system. Vol I natural environment of the catchment area of the White Sea. Scientific World, Moscow, 480 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Lisitsyn AP, Nemirovskaya IA (eds) (2013) The White Sea System. Vol III dispersed sedimentary hydrosphere material, microbial processes and pollution. Scientific World, Moscow, 668 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Lisitsyn AP, Shevchenko VP, Vorontsova VG (eds) (2017) The White Sea system. Vol IV the processes of sedimentation, geology and history, Scientific World, Moscow, 1030 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Kravchishina MD, Shevchenko VP (2005) First determinations of the grain-size composition of suspended particulate matter in the White Sea. Dokl Earth Sci 400(1):140–144Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Shevchenko VP, Lisitzin AP, Belyaev NA, Filippov AS, Golovnina EA, Ivanov AA, Klyuvitkin AA, Malinkovich SM, Novigatsky AN, Politova NV, Rudakova VN, Sherbak SS (2004) Seasonality of suspended particulate matter distribution in the White Sea. Berichte zur Polar-und Meeresforschung 482:142Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Shevchenko VP, Dolotov YuS, Filatov NN, Alexseeva TN, Nöthig E-M, Filippov AS, Novigatsky AN, Pautova LA, Platonov AV, Politova NV, Rat’kova TN, Stein R (2005) Biogeochemistry of Kem’ estuarine zone, White Sea (Russia). Hydrol Earth Syst Sci 9:57–66Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Shevchenko VP, Filippov AS, Lisitsyn AP, Zolotykh EO, Isaeva AB, Kravchishina MD, Novigatsky AN, Politova NV, Pokrovsky OS, Bobrov VA, Bogunov AY, Kokryatskaya NM, Zavernina NN, Korobov VB (2010) On the elemental composition of suspended matter of the Severnaia Dvina River (White Sea region). Dokl Earth Sci 430(2):228–234Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Polyakova YeI, Kassens H, Stein R, Bauch H (2009) Diatoms in the Siberian Arctic seas as indicators of postglacial changes of the riverine discharge, ice-hydrological regime, and sedimentary environments on the shelf. In: Kassens H, Lisitzin AP, Thiede J, Polyakova YeI, Timokhov LA, Frolov EI (eds) System of the Laptev Sea and the adjacent Arctic seas. Modern and past environments. Moscow University Press, Moscow, pp 427–447 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Stein R, Dittmers K, Fahl K, Kraus M, Matthiessen J, Niessen F, Pirrung M, Polyakova YeI, Schoster F, Steinke T, Fütterer DK (2004) Arctic (palaeo) river discharge and environmental change: evidence from the Holocene Kara Sea sedimentary record. Quat Sci Rev 23:1485–1511Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Stein R (2008) Arctic ocean sediments processes, proxies and paleoenvironment. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 592 ppGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Romankevich EA, Vetrov AA (2001) The carbon cycle in the Arctic seas of Russia. Nauka, Moscow, 301 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Dolotov YS, Rimskii-Korsakov NA, Telikovskii AA, Pronin AA, Novigatskii AN, Filippov AS, Petrov MP, Tolstikov AV, Dunchevskii AS (2005) Bottom topography, bottom sediments, and structure of the sedimentary sequence in different zones of the Kem’ River Estuary (White Sea). Oceanology 45(6):877–884Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yelena I. Polyakova
    • 1
  • Yekaterina A. Novichkova
    • 2
  1. 1.Geographical FacultyLomonosov Moscow State University (MSU)MoscowRussia
  2. 2.Shirshov Institute of Oceanology Russian Academy of Sciences (IO RAS)MoscowRussia

Personalised recommendations