Advertisement

Securing Water Resources for Egypt: A Major Challenge for Policy Planners

  • Bayoumi B. Attia
Chapter
Part of the The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry book series (HEC, volume 75)

Abstract

The combined effect of rapid population growth and increasing living standards in Egypt has led to an increase in the demand for food. Food deficits in Egypt are increasing at an alarming rate. The total population of Egypt increased from around 71 million in the year 2006 to around 91 million in the year 2016. It is expected that Egypt’s populations will continue increasing to count about 120–150 million by the year 2050. The high population growth rate will exaggerate problems associated with water sector allocation.

On the other hand, the structure of the Egyptian economy is presented by three main sectors, agriculture, industry, and services sectors, where both public and private sectors are participating in them. The GDP (global domestic product) per capita was used as an indicator of economic status. GDP in Egypt has been fluctuating during the period 2006–2016 from a maximum of 7.2 in the year 2008 to a minimum of 1.8 in the year 2011.

The need for bringing new lands into production has become an urgent must. Reclamation of new lands is not only constrained by the land resources but also by the availability of water resources which is already scarce. Moreover, there is a substantial increase in the rate of domestic and industrial water requirements.

In the light of these facts, it has become imperative to make the most beneficial use of the country’s limited water resources. Ensuring the availability of water supplies for all uses is the sole responsibility of the Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation (MWRI). In meeting this responsibility, MWRI has identified various opportunities for increasing the usable supply of water and/or improving the deficiency of its utilization, as it will be discussed in the following sections of this chapter.

Keywords

Closed systems Population growth Water balance Water demand Water quality Water security opportunities Water supply 

References

  1. 1.
    Abu-Zeid M (1997) Egypt’s water policy for the twenty-first century. In: 9th world congress of IWRA, special session on water management under scarcity conditions: the Egyptian experience, Montreal, Sept 1977Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Tsakiris G, Todorovie B (1977) A methodological framework for linking strategic to operational management at a river-basin scale. In: Refsgaad JC, Karalis EA (eds) Proceedings of the IWRA conference on operational water management, edit, Copenhagen, Sept 1977Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Attia B (1977) Water resources policies in Egypt: options and evaluation. In: Proceedings of the IXth world water congress of IWRA, a special session on waterGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Attia B, El-Shamy M (1998) Triggers and application of water demand management: a case study from Egypt. In: Proceedings of the Arab water 1998, CairoGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Attia B (1997) Water resources policies in Egypt: options and evaluation. In: Proceedings of the 9th world water congress of IWRA, a special session on water management under scarcity conditions: the Egyptian experience, Montreal, Sept 1997Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    NWRP (2005) Water for future. National water resources plan 2017. MWRI, Cairo. http://extwprlegs1.fao.org/docs/pdf/egy147082.pdf
  7. 7.
    Saleth RM, Dinar A (1999) Water challenge and institutional response: a cross-country perspective. World Bank policy research working paper no: 2045, World Bank, Washington.  https://doi.org/10.1596/1813-9450-2045CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    GWP (2000) Integrated water resource management (IWRM): global water partnerships. TAC background paper No. 4Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Attia B (2004) Integrated approach to water resources management in Egypt: financial sustainability. Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation, CairoGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Attia B (2001) Management of water resources management in Egypt: an overview. Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation, Planning Sector, CairoGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Almaden C (2014) Protecting the water supply: the Philippine experience. J Social Political Econ Stud 39(4):467Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    MWRI (2009) Towards strategy for development and management of water resources in Egypt (2009–2017). Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation, CairoGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    MWRI (2010) Summary of strategy for development and management of water resources in Egypt (2000–2050). Final draft, Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation, CairoGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Delates and Nordic Consulting Group (2008) Facing water scarcity, prepared for advisory project APP. MWRI, CairoGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Abdel-Dayem MS (1977) Drainage water reuse: conservation: environmental and land reclamation challenges. In: Proceedings of the 9th world water congress of IWRA, a special session on water management under scarcity conditions: the Egyptian experience, MontrealGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    AbuZeid K, Elrawady M, CEDARE (2014) 2030 National vision for wastewater re use in Egypt. Water Resources Management Program, CEDAR. http://web.cedare.org/wp-content/uploads/2005/05/2030-National-Vision-for-Wastewater-Re-use-in-Egypt.pdf
  17. 17.
    Attia B, Tawfik M (1999) Harmonization of environmental standards in the water sector in Egypt. In: Country paper presented at the expert group meeting on harmonization of environmental standards in the water sector of ESCWA Member States, Beirut, Sept–Oct 1999Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Attia B, Ahmed S, Mohamed E, Nader E, Abdelsalam G, Ahmed N (1997) Report No. 24: developing a revised integrated land and water plan in Egypt. MALR, USAID, APRP, and RDIGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Planning SectorMinistry of Water Resources and IrrigationCairoEgypt

Personalised recommendations