Advertisement

The Geochemical Features of the River Discharge to the White Sea

  • Viacheslav V. GordeevEmail author
  • Oleg S. Pokrovsky
  • Vladimir P. Shevchenko
Chapter
Part of the The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry book series (HEC, volume 81)

Abstract

In the present chapter, the results of detailed investigations of the river discharge into the White Sea are considered. The White Sea is an inland sea of Russian western Arctic territory that appears as the sub-Arctic sea. This sea may serve as a good example for case studies of the Arctic seas. Significant river discharge to this relatively small sea plays very important role in all the processes in it. It’s evident that the detailed knowledge is needed both on the volumes of water and suspended matter fluxes, and also about the chemical composition of water and grain-size, mineralogical, and chemical composition of suspended particulate matter (SPM), that are formed on the extensive area of the basin.

During 2000–2010 year, we carried out about 40 different expeditions, for the first time in the lower reaches of the biggest river in the White Sea basin, in the Severnaya Dvina River, and in the whole sea in the frameworks of the program “The White Sea System.” Results of these expeditions allowed to obtain absolutely new materials for investigations of biogeochemical processes in the rivers and in the sea.

These unique data, in particular about the concentrations of organic carbon and many major and trace elements in river and estuarine waters and SPM and the forms of their existence including the colloidal one, are presented here.

Keywords

Inter-annual and seasonal variations of element concentrations Major and trace elements Nutrients Organic carbon River discharge Suspended sediments Trace element forms of existence White Sea 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The work was carried out in the framework of the state assignment of FASO Russia (theme No. 0149-2018-0016) analytical data were processed within framework of the RSF grant (project No. 14-27-00114-p).

References

  1. 1.
    Gordeev VV (1983) River input to the ocean and the peculiarities of its geochemistry. Nauka, Moscow. 160 pp. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Nevessky EN, Medvedev VS, Kalinenko VV (1977) White Sea: sedimentogenes and history of development in Holocene. Nauka, Moscow. 236 pp. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dobrovolsky AD, Zalogin BS (1982) Seas of the USSR. Moscow University Publisher, Moscow. 191 pp. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ivanov VV, Bryzgalo VA (2007) Hydrologo – hydrochemical regime of the White Sea watershed. In: Filatov NN, Terjhevic AY (eds) White Sea and its basin under influence of climatic and anthropogenic factors. Petrozavodsk, pp 119–145. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gordeev VV, Martin J-M, Sidorov IS, Sidorova MV (1996) A reassessment of the Eurasian river input of water, sediment, major elements, and nutrients to the Arctic Ocean. Am J Sci 296(6):664–691CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Mikhailov VN (1997) Mouths of the Russian rivers and adjacent countries: the past, present and future. GEOS, Moscow. 413 pp. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gordeev VV (2004) Rivers of Russian Arctic: the fluxes of sedimentary material from continent to ocean. New ideas in oceanology, vol 2. Nauka, Moscow, pp 113–166. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Korotaev VN (1991) Geomorphology of the river deltas. Moscow State University, Moscow. 224 pp. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gordeev VV, Filippov AS, Kravchishina MD, Novigatsky AN, Pokrovsky OS, Shevchenko VP, Dara OM (2012) Dispersed sedimentary substance of the continental part of the White Sea geosphere. The geochemical peculiarities of the river discharge to the White Sea. White Sea system, vol 2. Water column and interacting with atmosphere, criosphere, river runoff and biosphere. pp 225–308. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Pokrovsky OS, Viers J, Shirokova LS, Shevchenko VP, Filippov AS, Dupre B (2010) Dissolved, suspended and colloidal fluxes of organic carbon, major and trace elements in the Severnaya Dvina River and its tributary. Chem Geol 273:136–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Pokrovsky OS, Schott J, Dupre B (2006) Trace element fractionation and transport in boreal rivers and soil porewaters of permafrost-dominated basaltic terrain in Central Siberia. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 70:3239–3260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gebhardt AC, Gaye-Haake B, Unger D, Lahajnar N, Ittekkot V (2004) Recent particulate organic carbon and total suspended matter fluxes from the Ob’ and Yenisey rivers into the Kara Sea (Siberia). Mar Geol 207:225–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Drumeva LB (1991) Hydrometeorology and hydrochemistry of the USSR Seas. vol 2(2): The White Sea. Hydrochemistry. Hydrometeoizdat, Leningrad. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Tsirkunov VV, Polkanov MP (1998) Natural composition of surface water and groundwaters. In: Kimstach V, Meybeck M, Baroudy E (eds) A water quality assessment of the former Soviet Union. E & FN Spon, London, pp 25–68Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Zatuchnaya BM, Gershanovich DE (eds) (1991) White Sea. Hydrochemical conditions and oceanological bases of bioproductivity formation. Hydrometeorology and hydrochemistry of the USSR Seas, vol 2(N2), Hydrometeoizdat, Leningrad, 195 ppGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Meybeck M (1979) Concentratios des aux fluviales en elements majeurs et apports en solution aux ocean. Rev Geol Dynam Et Geogr Phys 21(3):215–246Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Artemiev VE (1993) Geochemistry of organic matter in the river – sea system. Nauka, Moscow. 204 pp. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Skopintsev BA, Krylova LP (1955) Organic matter input by the biggest rivers of the USSR. Doklady USSR Acad Sci 105(4):770–773. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Artemiev VE, Romankevich EA (1988) Seasonal variations in the transport of organic matter in the Northern Svina estuary. In: Degens E et al (eds) Transport of carbon and minerals in major rivers, Pt 5. Hamburg, pp 177–184Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lobbes JM, Fitznar HP, Kattner G (2000) Biogeochemical characteristics of dissolved and particular organic matter in Russian rivers entering the Arctic ocean. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 64:2973–2983CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Maksimova MP (2007) Quality of small river waters. Hydrochemistry. In: Filatov NN, Terjhevic AY (eds) White Sea and its basin under influence of climatic and anthropogenic factors. Petrozavodsk, pp 146–177. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Meybeck M (1982) Carbon, mitrogen and phosphorus transport by world rivers. Am J Sci 282:201–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Pokrovsky OS, Shirokova LS, Viers J, Gordeev VV, Shevchenko VP, Chupakov AV (2017) Dissolved organic carbon and organo-mineral colloids in the mixing zone of the largest European Arctic river. Dissolved organic matter (DOM). Properties, applications and behavior, Nova, pp 273–291Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Pokrovsky OS, Shirokova LS, Viers J, Gordeev VV, Shevchenko VP, Chupakov AV, Vorobieva TY, Candaudap F, Causserand C, Lanzanova A, Couiten C (2014) Fate of colloids during estuarine mixing in the Arctic. Ocean Sci 10:107–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Nikanorov AM, Sokolova LP, Reshetnyak OS, Kondakova MY, Damilenko AO (2010) Anthropogenic loading on the mouth area of the Severnaya Dvina river. Meteorol Hydrol 4:75–84. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Efimova LE, Thytsarin AG (2002) Spatial-temporal distribution of nutrients in the river-sea mixing zone in the Dvinsky Bay of the White Sea (the mouth area of the Severnaya Dvina and upper part of the bay). In: Vasiliev AC (ed) The Researches of Oceans and Seas. Hydrometeoizdat, St Petersburg, pp 199–216. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Konovalov GS, Ivanova AA, Kolesnikova TK (1968) Rare and dispersed elements dissolved in water and contained in suspended matters of the main USSR rivers. In: Strakhov NM (ed) Geochemistry of sedimentary rocks and ores. Nauka, Moscow, pp 72–87. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Guay CKH, Zhulodov AV, Robarts RD, Zhulidov DA, Gurtovaya TY, Holmes RM, Headly JV (2010) Measurements of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in the lower riches of major Eurasian arctic rivers using trace metal clean techniques. Environ Poll 158:624–630CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Gaillardet J, Viers J, Dupre B (2004) Trace elements in river water. In: Holland HD, Turekian KK, Drever JL (eds) Treatise of geochemistry, vol 5. Elsevier Pergamon, Amsterdam, pp 225–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Gordeev VV, Beeskow B, Rachold V (2007) Geochemistry of the Ob’ and Yenisey estuaries: a comparative study. Ber Polar Meeresforsch Bremerhaven FRG 565. 235 ppGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Viers J, Dupre B, Gaillardet J (2009) Chemical composition of suspended sediments in world rivers: new insight from a new database. Sci Total Environ 407:853–868CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kravchishina MD (2009) Suspended matter of the White Sea and its grain size composition. Scientific World, Moscow, 264 pp. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kravchishina MD, Shevchenko VP, Filippov AS, Novigatskii AN, Dara OM, Alekseeva TN, Bobrov VA (2010) Composition of the suspended particulate matter at the Severnaya Dvina river mouth (White Sea) during the spring flood period. Oceanology 50(3):365–385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Petelin VP (1967) Grain size analyses of marine bottom sediments. Nauka, Moscow, 128 pp. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Morozov NP, Baturin GN, Gordeev VV, Gurvich EG (1974) On the composition of suspended and bottom sediments in the mouth areas of the Severnaya Dvina, Mezen, Pechora and Ob’. Hydrochem Mater 60:60–73. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Koukina SE, Calafat-Frau A, Hummel H, Palerud R (2001) Trace metals in suspended particulate matter and sediments from the Severnaya Dvina estuary, Russian Arctic. Polar Record 37(2002):249–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Savenko VS, Pokrovskii OS, Dupré B, Baturin GN (2004) Chemical composition of suspended material in large rivers of Russia and adjacent countries. Dokl Earth Sci 398(7):938–942Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Savenko VS (2006) Chemical composition of suspended sediments in the world rivers. GEOS, Moscow, 175 pp. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Shevchenko VP, Pokrovsky OS, Filippov AS, Lisitsyn AP, Bobrov VA, Bogunov AY, Zavernina NN, Zolotykh EO, Isaeva AB, Kokryatskaya NM, Korobov VB, Kravchishina MD, Novigatsky AN, Politova NV (2010) On the elemental composition of suspended matter of the Severnaya Dvina River (White Sea region). Dokl Earth Sci 430(2):228–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Taylor SR, McLennan SM (1985) The continental crust: its composition and evolution. Blockwells, Oxford. 312 ppGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Demina LL, Gordeev VV, Fomina LS (1078) Forms of Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu in river water and suspended matter and their changes in the river-sea mixing zone (on the example of rivers of the black, Azov and Caspian Seas). Geochemistry 8:1211–1229Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Demina LL, Gordeev VV, Galkin SV, Kravchishina MD, Aleksankina SP (2010) Biogeochemistry of some heavy metals and metalloids on the cross-section Ob’ river estuary – Kara Sea. Oceanology 50(5):771–784CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Gordeev VV, Shevchenko VP (2012) Forms of some metals in the suspended sediment of the Northern Dvina and their seasonal variations. Oceanology 52(2):261–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Gordeev VV (1981) New assessment of the surface flux of dissolved and suspended substances to the ocean. Doklady USSR Acad Sci 261(5):1227–1230. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Gordeev VV, Lisitzin AP (1978) Average chemical composition of the world rivers and supply of the oceans by river sedimentary material. Doklady USSR Acad Sci 238(1):225–228Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Volkov II (1975) Chemical elements in river discharge and the forms of its supply to the sea (on the example of the Black Sea rivers). The problems of lithology and geochemistry of sedimentary rocks and ores. Nauka, Moscow, pp 85–113Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Shirokova LS, Chupakova AA, Chupakov AV, Pokrovsky OS (2017) Transformation of dissolved organic matter and related trace element in the mouth zone of the largest European Arctic river: experimental modeling. Inland Waters 7(3):272–282.  https://doi.org/10.1080/20442041.2017.1329907 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Chupakova AA, Chupakov AV, Neverova NV, Shirokova LS, Pokrovsky OS (2018) Photodegradation of river dissolved organic matter and trace metals in the largest European Arctic estuary. Sci Total Environ 622–623:1343–1352CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Viacheslav V. Gordeev
    • 1
    Email author
  • Oleg S. Pokrovsky
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • Vladimir P. Shevchenko
    • 1
  1. 1.Shirshov Institute of OceanologyRussian Academy of Sciences (IO RAS)MoscowRussia
  2. 2.Geosciences and Environment Toulouse (GET), CNRSUniversity Paul SabatierToulouseFrance
  3. 3.BIO-GEO-CLIM LaboratoryTomsk State UniversityTomskRussia
  4. 4.N. Laverov Federal Center for Integrated Arctic ResearchRussian Academy of SciencesArkhangelskRussia

Personalised recommendations