Major Droughts in Slovakia in the Twenty-First Century

  • M. FendekováEmail author
Part of the The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry book series (HEC, volume 70)


It is supposed that because of the climate change, the extreme hydrological events are going to be more pronounced and more frequent in the future also on the territory of Slovakia. The occurrence, duration and severity of hydrological droughts in Slovakia were studied during 3 years of the twenty-first century – 2003, 2012 and 2015. Mainly the 2003 and 2015 belong to the warmest years of the twenty-first century with the occurrence of hydrological drought on the Pan-European scale. Data on average daily discharges at twelve discharge gauging stations across Slovakia were used. The data covered the period 1981–2016. Hydrological drought in discharges was evaluated using the sequent-peak algorithm (SPA) method; the fixed threshold value of the 80th percentile was applied. The threshold value was estimated for the reference period of 1981–2010. The theoretical Weibull and GEV frequency distributions were used for drought parameters calculation, their evaluation and comparison of the 2003, 2012 and 2015 droughts. Data calculated for the evaluated years were compared with the reference period of 1981–2010. Spatial distribution of hydrological drought occurrence was discussed in connection to meteorological drought occurrence analysis.


Average daily discharge Deficit volume Drought duration Drought intensity Hydrological drought Minimum value 



The research was supported by the APVV-089-12 Project “Prognosis of hydrological drought occurrence in Slovakia” (principal investigator M. Fendeková). The results also contribute to the UNESCO IHP VIII program within the low flow and drought group activities.


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© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Hydrogeology, Faculty of Natural SciencesComenius University in BratislavaBratislavaSlovakia

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